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Fish and Wildlife in America

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Fish and Wildlife in America Renewable resources usually taken for granted we have developed an attitude that there will always be more Animals fall into this ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fish and Wildlife in America


1
Fish and Wildlife in America
2
Renewable resources
  • usually taken for granted
  • we have developed an attitude that there will
    always be more
  • Animals fall into this category

3
Renewable resources
  • ability to reproduce
  • many species have died out
  • management of wildlife resources is important

4
Wildlife
  • living things that are neither human or
    domesticated
  • especially birds, mammals, fishes
  • includes both plant and animal life

5
Wildlife
  • we will concentrate on higher life forms
  • vertebrates
  • lower forms of plant and animal life are also
    important in maintaining a balance

6
United States
  • estimated that the continental U.S. contains over
    2,300 different vertebrate species.
  • Game animals make up only a small portion of this
    number

7
Early Pioneers
  • depended on these birds, mammals and fish to
    survive
  • meat supplied food
  • skins used for shelter and clothing
  • oil kept firearms usable

8
Early Pioneers
  • oil used to light cabins
  • with out wildlife resources the wilderness would
    have never been conquered.

9
World Fur Trade
  • America was well established
  • at the cost of wildlife
  • trappers took the animals faster than they could
    multiply
  • treated the resources as a crop

10
Wildlife killed
  • many because they appeared hostile
  • bears, wildcats - danger to people
  • many species were killed because they threatened
    the safety of domestic animals

11
Wrongly accused
  • hawks were thought to kill chickens
  • mass destruction of hawks took place

12
hawks
  • stomach contents found to contain
  • 40 insects, 30 frogs
  • 23 rats and mice, 3.4 small birds
  • 2 aquatic wildlife

13
stomach contents
  • .5 game birds
  • .5 rabbits

14
Red Tail hawks
  • poultry parts were discovered but those parts
    were only a small percentage of the diet
  • original premise was unfounded.

15
Rare or Endangered
  • few in number
  • 1966 Endangered Species Preservation Act
  • 1969 - Endangered Species Conservation Act

16
Congressional Acts
  • protect fish and wildlife on a worldwide basis
  • protection and conservation of species of native
    fish known to be threatened with extinction

17
1969 amendment
  • dealt with importation of endangered species into
    the US from anywhere in the world
  • called for formation of an endangered species list

18
1969 amendment
  • list is updated every 5 years
  • 1970 the list contained 133 species of mammals
  • 124 birds, 24 reptiles
  • 25 fish, 1 mollusk

19
Extinct species
  • no longer exist
  • outside of museums or photographs

20
Rare species
  • one that is no longer common
  • in in danger of becoming extinct
  • zoos may hold the last examples of the species

21
Extinct Species
  • Passenger Pigeon
  • at one time the population was thought to be in
    the billions
  • flew in enormous flocks
  • John Audubon estimated on flock he saw at over
    one billion

22
Passenger Pigeon
  • large flocks would strip all the foliage
  • leaving the area bare
  • people declared war on the birds
  • killing all they could find

23
Passenger Pigeon
  • captured the young and killed them, shipped them
    to cities as food
  • flocks soon disappeared
  • NY, PA and MA passed laws to protect them

24
Passenger Pigeon
  • laws were too late
  • birds held in captivity would not breed
  • last known passenger pigeon died in the
    Cincinnati Zoo in 1914

25
Passenger Pigeon
  • body of last passenger pigeon is on display at
    the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, DC

26
Extinct Species
  • Carolina Parakeet
  • Heath Hen
  • Labrador Duck

27
Carolina Parakeet
  • sought for their colorful feathers which were
    used in womens hats
  • final extinction came in 1914

28
Heath Hen
  • relative of the prairie chicken
  • used for food by early settlers
  • bird sanctuary set up in the early 1900s

29
Heath Hen
  • Fire swept through the sanctuary
  • a few males survived
  • last bird died in 1932

30
Labrador Duck
  • became extinct before anyone realized it was gone
  • most birds were killed for their feathers which
    were used to stuff pillows

31
Endangered Mammals
  • 133 on the endangered list distributed by the US
    Dept. of the Interior

32
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33
Common endangered
  • big horn sheep, polar bears,
  • key deer, wolves
  • mountain lions
  • most hunted extensively without considering
    extinction

34
Big Horn Sheep
  • threatened by extinction from two sides
  • humans and disease
  • large sheep, relatives of domestic sheep

35
Big Horn Sheep
36
Big Horn Sheep
  • live high in the mountains
  • above the tree line
  • 6-7 feet in length
  • have long curved horns

37
Big Horn Sheep
  • are hunted for trophies
  • many carcasses are found with head removed
  • very alert
  • are under protection of game laws
  • some are being kept in wildlife reserves

38
Polar Bear
39
Polar Bears
  • important source of food for Eskimos
  • fur is used for clothing
  • meat is used for food
  • airplane hunting is being used to kill vast
    amounts each year

40
Polar Bears
  • Females produce only 2 young each year
  • stay with mother for 10 months
  • Canada and Russia have laws to protect these
    animals

41
Key Deer
42
Key Deer
  • smallest white tail deer
  • killed for trophies
  • strict laws prohibiting hunting
  • population increased from 30 to 300 because of
    wildlife refuges

43
Wolves
44
Wolves
  • wolves resemble dogs
  • hunt in packs at night
  • pack consists of young and old
  • female bears 5-14 pups in a den guarded by the
    male
  • male and female mate for life

45
Wolves
  • feed on domestic livestock
  • there have been bounties on wolves
  • now bounties can only exist if the population
    endanger the deer population

46
Mountain Lion
47
Mountain Lions
  • has been eliminated in eastern US
  • hunt at night
  • feed mainly on deer
  • humans hunt frequently
  • are hunted for skins and heads.
  • Hunting is not allowed in national parks, but are
    hunted in forest areas

48
Endangered Birds
  • there are 124 birds on the endangered species
    list.
  • The most common are the whooping crane, bald
    eagle, ivory-billed woodpecker, and prairie
    chicken.

49
Whooping Crane
  • migrate from Texas to Canada each year
  • many are hunted during migration
  • nest up to two young per year
  • the young fly south with adults

50
Whooping Crane
51
Whooping Crane
  • when birds return to Arkansas Wildlife Refuge
    each year they are counted.
  • The count has steadily increased
  • at the present time there are only 51 whooping
    cranes

52
Bald Eagle
53
Bald Eagles
  • Has a white head and tail
  • bald eagles feed on dead salmon
  • bounties have been places for their talons
  • are now protected by law

54
Bald Eagles
  • 500 fine for tampering with an eagle or its nest
  • the number to bald eagles continues to drop
  • take young 4 years to mature
  • can live up to 100 years

55
Ivory Billed Woodpaceker
56
Ivory-billed Woodpecker
  • largest woodpecker in North America
  • lives in southern states
  • nests in tops of old forests
  • eat insects and grubs found in old and dying trees

57
Ivory-billed Woodpecker
  • are being held in secret reserves and one day
    they will be reintroduced to the public

58
Prairie Chicken
59
Prairie Chickens
  • is a type of grouse
  • Indian dances imitated their mating dances
  • oil drilling and drought dwindled the population
  • in 1959 the Prairie Chicken Foundation was formed
    to protect them

60
Endanger Fish
  • there are 25 fish on endangered species list
  • 2 species are located in Mammoth Caves and Death
    Valley (pupfish and blind fish)
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