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TOOLKIT FOR Hazardous Materials Transportation Education


Title: Slide 1 Author: Mark Abkowitz Last modified by: Theresa Cowen Crean Created Date: 4/3/2009 2:43:09 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TOOLKIT FOR Hazardous Materials Transportation Education

TOOLKIT FOR Hazardous Materials Transportation
Module 4 Hazmat Mode and Route Selection
This work is sponsored by the U. S. Department of
Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials
Safety Administration (PHMSA).  It was conducted
through the Hazardous Materials Cooperative
Research Program (HMCRP), which is administered
by the Transportation Research Board of the
National Academies.   Prepared by 3 Sigma
Consultants, LLC 909 Edenbridge Way, Nashville,
TN 37215
Learning Outcomes
  • At the end of this module students will be able
  • Describe the operational considerations
    associated with selecting preferred modes and
  • Summarize relevant hazmat routing regulations
  • 3. Recognize the tradeoffs that may exist in
    attempting to satisfy efficiency, safety,
    security and environmental criteria when making
    mode and route decisions

  • Factors affecting mode choice
  • Route selection factors
  • Highway hazmat routing regulations
  • Railroad hazmat routing practices
  • Differences in highway and rail routing of hazmat
  • Different approaches in applying routing criteria
  • Community activism

Factors Affecting Hazmat Mode Choice
  • Travel time and service reliability
  • Total logistics costs
  • Safety and security
  • Shipment size and weight
  • Hazardous materials properties and composition
  • Container characteristics
  • Availability of infrastructure access/egress
  • Equipment availability
  • Local restrictions (e.g., bridges, tunnels,
    highway weights)
  • Intermodal considerations

Route Selection Factors
  • Efficiency
  • Trip length
  • Travel time
  • Availability of diversion route
  • Access to en route storage and repair facilities
  • Safety Security
  • Condition of infrastructure
  • Height, width, weight and traffic conflict
  • Accident likelihood
  • Population exposure
  • Number of transfers
  • Proximity to critical infrastructure and iconic
  • Emergency response capability
  • Safe stopping places
  • Environmental
  • Wildlife and vegetation exposure
  • Soil composition
  • Proximity to surface and ground water

Sample Critical Infrastructure and Iconic Targets
  • Bridges
  • Tunnels
  • Dams
  • Grade crossings
  • Government offices
  • Military bases
  • Sports facilities
  • Major banks
  • Chemical plants
  • Utilities
  • Religious shrines
  • National landmarks
  • Science laboratories
  • Nuclear reactor sites

Highway Hazmat Routing Regulations (49 CFR Part
  • Radioactive Materials (RAM) and Highway Route
    Control Quantities (HRCQ)
  • Base rule Follow State-designated route or
    Interstate system highway to reduce time in
  • Route analysis/designation responsibility
    State/tribal/local governments
  • Coordination continuity, jurisdictional, public
  • Highway Non-RAM Hazmat (NRHM)
  • Base rule Follow State-designated route or
    simply operate over routes which do not go
    through heavily populated areas, places where
    crowds assembled, tunnels or alleys.
  • Route analysis/designation responsibility
    State/tribal/local governments
  • Coordination continuity, jurisdictional, public

Source Battelle Memorial Institute
Highway Routing Factors (49 CFR Part 397)
  • NRHM
  • Population density
  • Type of highway
  • Types and quantities of HM
  • Emergency response capabilities
  • Results of consultation with affected persons
  • Exposure and other risk factors
  • Terrain considerations
  • Continuity of routes
  • Alternative routes
  • Effects on commerce
  • Delays in transportation
  • Climate
  • Congestion and accident history
  • Radioactive Materials
  • Placarded Non-HRCQ RAM
  • Minimize radiological risk
  • Accident rates
  • Transit time
  • Population density and activities
  • Time of day, day of week
  • Preferred route
  • State-designated or Interstate system highway
  • Reduce time in transit
  • Route deviations
  • Pickup and deliveries
  • Emergencies
  • Circuity rule

Source Battelle Memorial Institute
Railroad Practices Related to Hazmat Routing
  • Utilize AARs Recommended Railroad Operating
    Practices for Transportation of Hazardous
  • Provisions include
  • Key Trains
  • Key Routes
  • Yard Operating Practices

Source Association of American Railroads,
Battelle Memorial Institute
Key Trains
  • Defined as
  • One tankcar load of ppoison or toxic inhalation
    hazard (PIH or TIH), anhydrous ammonia (AA) or
    ammonia solutions
  • 20 carloads or intermodal portable tanks of a
    combination of PIH, TIH, AA, ammonia solutions,
    flammable gas, Class 1.1 or 1.2 explosives, and
    environmentally sensitive chemicals
  • One or more carloads of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)
    or high level radioactive waste (HLRW)
  • Restrictions
  • Maximum speed of 50 MPH
  • Unless siding is rated as Class 2 or higher, key
    train holds main track
  • Car must be equipped with roller bearings
  • If visual inspection cannot confirm a defect
    bearing reported by a wayside detector, train
    will not exceed 30 MPH until passing next
    detector or inspection
  • If second wayside detector confirms defect, car
    must be pulled off of train

Source Association of American Railroads,
Battelle Memorial Institute
Key Routes
  • Any track carrying a combination of 10,000
    carloads or intermodal portable tank loads of
    hazmat, or a combination of 4,000 loads of
    PIH/TIH, AA, flammable gas, Class 1.1 or 1.2
    explosives, environmentally sensitive chemicals,
    SNF or HLRW in one year
  • Requirements
  • Wayside bearing detectors or equivalent
    technology no more than 40 miles apart
  • Main line track inspected by rail defect
    detection and track geometry cars or equivalent
    no less than 2 times/year sidings no less than
    once per year
  • Periodic inspections of main track and sidings
    for cracks or breaks in joint bars

Source Association of American Railroads,
Battelle Memorial Institute
Yard Operating Practices
  • Coupling speeds of loaded tank cars not to exceed
    4 MPH
  • Loaded PIH/TIH, AA or flammable gas cars cut off
    in motion in no more than 2-car cuts
  • Cars cut off in motion coupled to loaded PIH,
    TIH, AA or flammable gas cars in no more than
    2-car cuts

Source Association of American Railroads,
Battelle Memorial Institute
Rail Hazmat Routing Regulations (HM-232)
  • Applicability
  • Explosives 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 greater than 5,000 lbs
  • Bulk quantity of PIH/TIH materials
  • HRCQ radioactive materials
  • Route Analysis
  • a. Use specified routing factors to analyze
    safety and security risks for current routes
  • Alternative Route Analysis
  • a. Identify at least one commercially
    practicable alternative route and analyze safety
    and security risks
  • Route Selection
  • Select route posing the least overall safety and
    security risk annual review required
  • Institute measures to address vulnerabilities and
    risk identified
  • Restrict distribution and access to data and
    routing analyses as sensitive security
    information (SSI)

49 CFR Part 172 contains this requirement
Rail Hazmat Routing Regulations (HM-232)
  • Completion of Route Analysis
  • a. Comprehensive, system-wide review of
    operations that could impact safety and security
    analyses every five years
  • Limitations on Actions by States
  • a. States, political subdivisions and tribes may
    not designate, limit or prohibit use of any rail
    line unless obtain waiver of preemption
  • Storage and Delays in Transit
  • a. Minimize time in transit procedures for
    notifications restrict access etc.
  • Compliance and Enforcement
  • a. Not required to submit analyses or route
    decisions, but must have available for inspection

Rail Route Analysis Factors
  • Volume of hazmat
  • Rail traffic density
  • Trip length
  • Railroad facilities
  • Track type and class
  • Track grade and curvature
  • Signals and train control systems
  • Wayside detectors
  • Number and types of grade crossings
  • Single vs. double track
  • Frequency and locations of track turnouts
  • Proximity to iconic targets
  • Environmentally sensitive areas
  • Population density
  • Venues along route
  • Emergency response capability along route
  • Areas of high consequence
  • Passenger traffic
  • Speed of train operations
  • Proximity to en route storage or repair
  • Known threats (from TSA)
  • Measures in place to address safety and security
  • Availability of alternative routes
  • Past incidents
  • Overall time in transit
  • Training and skill level of crews
  • Impact on rail network traffic and operations

Source Battelle Memorial Institute
Differences in Highway and Rail Routing of Hazmat
  • Private vs. public right-of-way
  • Fewer routing alternatives between any given
    origin-destination pair for rail
  • Larger quantities per container by rail
  • Train consists vs. individual trucks
  • Carrier interchanges by rail
  • Population proximity to right-of-way along route
  • Avoiding urban areas/center cities more difficult
    by rail

Source Battelle Memorial Institute
Different Approaches In Applying Routing Criteria
  • Require a route to pass across a segment that
    presents a low risk.
  • Require a route to avoid a segment that presents
    a high risk (i.e., hot spot).
  • Allow a route to use a high-risk segment, but
    impose a penalty (i.e., added cost) to any
    candidate route that would include that segment.

Iconic target Critical infrastructure Hazmat
Colorado Truck Routes for Hazardous and Nuclear
Community Activism
  • Communities located along major hazardous
    materials transport routes have long feared the
    possibility of a hazardous materials release.
  • There have been historic occurrences of such
    events with severe consequences (e.g.,
    Graniteville, SC).
  • Organized opposition has often formed to dissuade
    carriers from moving particularly dangerous
    hazardous cargo through a community (NIMBY not
    in my backyard).
  • Hazmat shippers and carriers are actively working
    with these communities to improve hazmat
    transport safety and security, through such
    initiatives as
  • TRANSCAER (Transportation Community Awareness and
    Emergency Response)
  • Participation in State Emergency Response
    Commissions (SERCs) and Local Emergency Planning
    Committees (LEPCs)
  • Hosting Capability Assessment Programs (CAPs)

Key Takeaways
  • Hazardous materials shippers select preferred
    modes based on the characteristics of the cargo
    and the ability of the mode to satisfy the
    desired transport requirements.
  • Hazmat route selection is heavily regulated for
    the truck and rail industry, in terms of
    designated routes and requiring route risk
    assessments that consider a variety of economic,
    safety, security and environmental factors.
  • Tradeoffs exist among routing options in terms of
    their ability to satisfy various criteria,
    leading shippers, carriers and regulators to
    identify preferred routes based on criteria

Student Exercise
  • The table below presents the results of an
    analysis that was performed on six hazardous
    materials highway routing options.
  • Based on the information provided, which route
    would you select as the preferred option? Explain
    your method and show how it was applied in
    determining the preferred route.
  • Report back on your methodology during the next
    session for comparison with others to identify
    the most desirable method(s).

Route Option Trip Length (miles) Population Density (per sq. mile) Proximity to Iconic Targets Proximity to Enviro. Sensitive Areas Accident Likelihood Emergency Response Capability
1 10.7 16,200 High Low Low Excellent
2 33.2 6,600 High Medium Low Good
3 47.0 3,700 Low Low Medium Fair
4 19.5 15,900 Medium Medium High Excellent
5 24.4 6,600 Medium High Medium Good
6 38.2 3,600 Low Low Low Poor
Resources for Support and Additional Learning
Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49
Transportation, Part 397 - Transportation of
Hazardous Materials Driving and Parking Rules,
Subpart C - Routing of Non-Radioactive Hazardous
Materials and Subpart D - Routing of Class 7
(Radioactive) Materials Hazardous Materials
Enhancing Rail Transportation Safety and Security
for Hazardous Materials Shipments, Federal
Register, November 26, 2008 http//
tyAndSacurityForHazardousMaterialsShipments.pdf A
ssociation of American Railroads, Recommended
Railroad Operating Practices For Transportation
of Hazardous Materials http//
CPC-1220_OT-55-L.pdf American Waterway
Operators, Facts About the American Tugboat,
Towboat and Barge Industry, http//www.americanwat