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Vapor and Combined Power Cycles

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Vapor and Combined Power Cycles Chapter 10 Introduction to Power and Refrigeration Cycles Two important areas of application for thermodynamics are Power Generation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Vapor and Combined Power Cycles


1
Vapor and Combined Power Cycles
  • Chapter 10

2
Introduction to Power and Refrigeration Cycles
  • Two important areas of application for
    thermodynamics are Power Generation and
    Refrigeration.
  • Both power generation and refrigeration are
    usually accomplished by a system that operates on
    a thermodynamics cycle.
  • Thermodynamics cycles can be divided into two
    generation categories
  • Power Cycles
  • Refrigeration Cycles

3
Introduction to Power and Refrigeration Cycles
  • The devices or systems used to produce a net
    power output are often called engines and the
    thermodynamics cycles they operate on are called
    power cycle.
  • The devices or systems use to produce
    refrigeration are called refrigerators , air
    conditioners or heat pumps and the cycles they
    operates on are called refrigeration cycles.

4
The Carnot Vapor Cycle
  • A steady-flow Canort cycle executed with the
    saturation dome of a pure substance is shown in
    figure.
  • The Carnot cycle is not a suitable model for
    vapor power cycle because it cannot be
    approximated in practice.

5
Rankine Cycle
  • The impracticalities associated with Carnot cycle
    can be eliminated by
  • superheating the steam in the boiler.
  • condensing it completely in the condenser.
  • Such cycle is called the Rankine cycle, which is
    the ideal cycle for vapor power plants.
  • The ideal Rankine cycle dose not involve any
    internal irreversibilities

6
The Rankine Cycle
  • Consists of the following four processes
  • 1 2 Isentropic compression in pump
    (compressors)
  • 2 3 Constant pressure heat addition in boiler
  • 3 4 Isentropic expansion in turbine
  • 4 1 Constant pressure heat rejection in a
    condenser

7
Energy Analysis of the Ideal Rankine Cycle
  • The steady flow equation per unit mass of
    steam reduces to

Pump
where
Boiler
Turbine
8
Condenser
  • The thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle is
    determined as

where
9
Deviation of actual vapor power cycle from
idealized ones
  • The actual vapor power cycle differs from the
    ideal Rankine cycle, as a result of
    irreversibilites in various components.
  • Fluid friction and heat loss to the surroundings
    are the two common sources of irreversibilites.

10
  • Fluid friction causes pressure drop in the
    boiler, the condenser and the piping between
    various components.
  • Also the pressure at the turbine inlet is
    somewhat lower than that at the boiler exit due
    to the pressure drop in the connecting pipes.
  • To compensate for these pressure drops, the water
    must be pumped to a sufficiently higher pressure
    than the ideal cycle. This requires a large pump
    and larger work input to the pump.

11
  • The other major source of irreversibility is the
    heat loss from the steam to the surrounding as
    the steam flows through various components.
  • Particular important are the irreversibilites
    occurring within the pump and the turbine.
  • A pump require a greater work input, and a
    turbine produces a smaller work output as a
    result of irreversibilties.
  • Under the ideal condition the flow through these
    devices is isentropic.

12
  • The deviation of actual pumps and turbine from
    the isentropic ones can be accurately accounted
    by isentropic efficiencies, defined as

Pump
Turbine
13
Increasing the efficiency of the Rankine cycle?
  • Three ways
  • Lowering the condenser pressure (Lowers Tlow,
    av).
  • Superheating the steam to high temperatures
    (Increases Thigh, av).
  • Increasing the boiler pressure (Increases Thigh,
    av)

14
Lowering the condenser pressure (Lowers Tlow, av)
  • Lowering the operating pressure of the condenser
    automatically lower the temperature of the steam,
    and thus the temperature at which heat is
    rejected.
  • The effect of lowering the condenser pressure on
    the Rankine cycle efficiency is illustrated in
    figure

15
Superheating the steam to high temperatures
(Increases Thigh, av)
  • The average temperature at which heat is added to
    the steam can be increased without increasing the
    boiler pressure by superheating the steam to high
    temperatures.

16
Superheating the steam to high temperatures
(Increases Thigh, av)
  • Superheating the steam to higher temperatures has
    very desirable effect It decreases the moisture
    content of the steam at the turbine exit as can
    be seen in T-s diagram.
  • The temperature to which steam can be superheated
    is limited by metallurgical consideration.

17
Increasing the boiler pressure (Increases Thigh,
av)
  • The average temperature during the heat addition
    process is to increase the operating pressure of
    the boiler, which automatically raises the
    temperature at which boiling take place.
  • This, in turn, raises the average temperature at
    which heat is added to the steam and thus raises
    the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

18
Increasing the boiler pressure (Increases Thigh,
av)
  • This, in turn, raises the average temperature at
    which heat is added to the steam and thus raises
    the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

19
The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle
  • The efficiency of the Rankine cycle can increase
    by expanding the steam in the turbine in two
    stages, and reheat it in between.
  • In other words, modify the simple ideal Rankine
    cycle with reheat process.
  • Reheating is a practical solution to the
    excessive moisture problem in turbines, and it is
    commonly used in modern steam power plants.

20
  • The T-s diagram and the schematic of the ideal
    reheat Rankine cycle are shown below.

21
  • The ideal reheat Rankine cycle differs from the
    simple ideal Rankine cycle in that the expansion
    process take place in two stages.
  • In first stage (the high-pressure turbine), steam
    is expanded isentropically to an intermediate
    pressure and sent back to the boiler where it is
    reheated at constant pressure, usually to the
    inlet temperature of the first turbine stage.
  • Steam then expands isentropically in the second
    stage (low-pressure turbine) to the condenser
    pressure.

22
  • Thus the total heat input and the total work
    output for a reheat cycle become
  • and

23
The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle
  • The T-s diagram for the Rankine cycle shows that
    heat transferred to the working fluid during
    process 2-2 at a relatively low temperature.
  • This lowers the average heat-addition temperature
    and thus the cycle efficiency.

24
  • Another way of increasing the thermal efficiency
    of the Rankine cycle is by regeneration. During a
    regeneration process, liquid water (feedwater)
    leaves the pump is heated by steam bled off the
    turbine at some intermediate pressure in devices
    called feedwater heaters.
  • There are two type of feedwater Heaters
  • Open Feedwater Heater
  • Closed Feedwater Heater

25
Open Feedwater Heater
  • An open (or direct-contact) feedwater heater is
    basically a mixing chamber, where the steam
    extracted from the turbine mixes with the
    feedwater exiting the pump.
  • Ideally, the mixture leaves the heater as a
    saturated liquid at the heater pressure.

26
  • The heat and work interaction of a regenerative
    Rankine cycle with one feedwater heater can be
    expressed per unit mass of steam flowing through
    the boiler as follows

where
27
Closed Feedwater Heaters
  • the closed feedwater heater in which heat is
    transferred from the extracted steam to the
    feedwater without any mixing taking place.
  • The two streams now can be at different pressure,
    since they do not mix.

28
  • Second Law Analysis of Vapor Power Cycle
  • The exergy destruction per unit mass for a steady
    flow system can be expressed, in the rate form,
    as
  • The exergy destruction associated with a cycle
    depends on the magnitude of the heat transfer
    with the high and low temperature reservoirs
    involved and their temperatures.
  • It can be expressed on a unit mass basis as

29
  • For a cycle that involves heat transfer only wit
    a source at TH and sink at TL, the exergy
    destruction becomes
  • The exergy of a fluid stream ? at any state can
    be determine from

30
Cogeneration
  • The production of more than one useful form of
    energy (such as process heat and electric power)
    from the same energy source is called
    cogeneration.
  • Cogeneration plants produce electric power while
    meeting the process heat requirements of certain
    industrial processes.

31
  • Ideal Cogeneration Cycle Plant
  • Utilization Factor
  • All the energy transferred to the steam in the
    boiler is utilized as either process heat or
    electric power.

32
  • A cogeneration plant with adjustable loads

33
  • Combined Gas Vapor Powr Cycle
  • The overall thermal efficiency of a power plant
    can be increased by using a combined cycle.
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