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Pre-Columbian

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Title: Pre-Columbian Civilizations in the Americas Author: Susan M. Pojer Last modified by: Robert Wade Created Date: 1/28/2002 6:30:51 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pre-Columbian


1
Pre-Columbian Civilizations In the Americas
Robert Wade AP World History Bryan Adams High
School
2
Early Human Migrations
3
Sculpture from the Americas
Origins of the Peoples of the Americas?
4
Major Pre-Columbian Civilizations
5
The Mayans
6
Lands of the Mayans
The Yucatan Peninsula
7
Classical Mayan Cutlure
  • 50 city states
  • written language, calendar, mathematics,
    astronomy
  • Dec. 22, 2016
  • monumental architecture
  • neolithic technology

8
Cities as Religious Centers
  • Tikal, Copan, Palenque, Chichen Itza
  • 30,-80,000 people
  • intensive agriculture
  • dense population

9
Mayan collapse
  • 700-900 A.D.
  • invasion from the north?
  • Warfare between cities
  • environmental collapse?

10
Mayan Collapse
  • most cities vanished
  • Mexicanizedgroups took over some cities
  • rise of the Toltecs
  • area of Teotihuacan

11
Chichen-Itza - Pyramid
12
Chichen-Itza - Observatory
13
Chichen-Itza - Ball Court
14
Mayan Cultivation of Maize
Chac, God of Rain ?
15
Mayan Underground Granaries Chultunes
16
Overview of Tikal (Guatemala)
Temple of the Masks
17
Tikal Jungle View at Sunset
18
Tikal - Main Court
19
Tikal Temple of the Masks
20
Tikal - Wall Mask of the Rain God
21
Mayan Glyphs
sky king house child city
Mayan Mathematics
22
Mayan Glyphs
23
Mayan Drinking Cup for Chocolate
24
Pakal The Maya Astronaut
25
Quetzalcoatl The God of Wisdom Learning
26
The Aztecs
27
New Cultures
  • appearance of new peoples in central America
  • Toltecs
  • Aztecs

28
The Toltecs
  • adopted sedentary agricultural practices
  • added a strong military and imperial culture
  • conquest of neighboring peoples
  • ritual wars
  • war....capture...sacrifice
  • givers of civilization

29
Toltec empire
  • central Mexico
  • expansion into former Mayan territories
  • northern Mexico
  • trade with the American Southwest
  • Chaco Canyon ???

30
Quetzalcoatl
  • The Feathered Serpent
  • Topiltzin a priest
  • religious reformer
  • opposed to human and animal sacrifice
  • exiled to the east, with a promise to return on a
    specific date
  • same year as Cortez and the Conquistadors

31
The Aztecs
  • collapse of the Toltecs 1150 A.D.
  • influx of nomadic invaders form the north
  • shift of power to central Mexico
  • large lakes
  • fertile agricultural areas
  • contests for control

32
The Aztecs Origins
  • obscure background
  • claimed to have live in the area originally
  • exiled to the north to Aztlan
  • actually, nomads from the North
  • took advantage of the Toltec collapse
  • wrote history to suit their purposes

33
Origins
  • group who settled near Lake Texcoco
  • 1325 A.D.
  • competed with other Chichimec immigrants
  • small states
  • claiming connections to the Toltecs
  • speaking Nahuatl

34
Lake Texcoco
  • several tribes
  • small city-state
  • Azcapotzalco, Culhuacan
  • Culhuacan control by diplomatic marriage
  • complex alliances, constantly shifting

35
Aztecs
  • new group
  • used as mercenaries and occasional allies
  • constant movement around the lake shore
  • driven by stronger powers
  • reputation good warriors and religious fanatics

36
Aztec Settlement
  • the legend an eagle on a cactus, holding a
    rattlesnake
  • an island in Lake Texcoco
  • Tenochtitlan
  • 1325 A.D.
  • Tlateloco a second settlement

37
Aztec expansion
  • more active role in regional politics
  • rebelled against Azcapotzalco
  • emerged as an independent power
  • political merge 1434
  • Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, Tlacopan
  • Aztecs dominated the alliance

38
Social and Political Change
  • imperial expansion
  • subject peoples paid tribute, surrender land, and
    do military service
  • stratified society
  • under the authority of a supreme ruler
  • Tlacaelel advised rulers and rewrote histories
  • the Aztecs had been chosen to serve the gods
  • human sacrifice greatly expanded

39
Human sacrifice
  • role of the military
  • role of expansion
  • flower wars
  • means of political terrorism
  • cult of sacrifice united with the political state

40
Religion and Conquest
  • little distinction between the natural and
    supernatural
  • traditional gods and goddesses
  • 128 major deities

41
Gods
  • male/female dualism
  • different manifestations
  • five aspects
  • four directions
  • the center
  • gods as patrons
  • complex ceremonial year

42
Gods, cont
  • gods of fertility and agriculture
  • gods of creation
  • cosmology and philosophical thought
  • gods of warfare
  • Huitzilopochtli their tribal deity
  • identified with the Sun God

43
The Sun God and Sacrifice
  • a warrior in the daytime sky
  • fighting to give life to the world
  • enemy of the forces of night
  • the sun needs strength
  • 52 year cycle of the world
  • required blood to avert destruction

44
The Sun God, cont
  • sacrifice for sacrifice
  • the gods need nourishment
  • human blood and hearts
  • adoption of longstanding human sacrifice
  • expansion to industrial proportions
  • 10,000 people on one occasion

45
The Empire the Economy
  • high population density
  • combination of tradition and innovation
  • chinampas
  • 20,000 acres
  • four crops a year
  • food as tribute

46
The Empire the Economy
  • high population density
  • combination of tradition and innovation
  • chinampas
  • 20,000 acres
  • four crops a year
  • food as tribute

47
Lands of the Aztecs
48
Aztec View of Tenochtitlan
49
Ruins of the City Center, Tenochtitlan
50
The Codex Mendoza The Founding of Tenochtitlan
51
Tenochtitlan The Venice of the Americas
52
Aztec Chinampa or Floating Garden 15ft. to 30ft.
wide
53
Tenochtitlan - Chinampas
54
Aztec Writing
Aztec Math
55
Aztec Sun Stone -- Calendar
56
Aztec Sun Motifs
57
Aztec Codex (15c Manuscript)
58
The Aztecs Were Fierce Warriors
59
Aztecs Sacrifice Neighboring Tribes to the Sun God
60
Heart Sacrifice on an Aztec Temple Pyramid
61
Wall of Skulls, Tenochtitlan
62
Sacrificial Statue, Tenochtitlan
63
Aztec Gold
64
The Incas
65
South America the Incas
  • Cuzco original home
  • 1350 A.D.
  • expansion by 1438
  • Incan empire
  • ruled 10-13 million people

66
Religion and expansion
  • cult of ancestors
  • split inheritance
  • position to successor
  • land and wealth to descendants to care for the
    dead
  • new land necessary for each ruler

67
Religion
  • animism
  • sun worship

68
The Empire
  • four provinces
  • decimal organizations
  • Ouechua the official language
  • colonists

69
The Empire cont
  • infrastructure roads and bridges
  • communications by runners
  • 10,000
  • purpose land and labor
  • little actual tribute

70
Inca socialism
  • empire claimed all resources
  • redistributed them evenly to all peoples
  • local independence
  • access to new goods and services

71
Weakness
  • top-heavy with royal and noble families
  • low level of technology
  • easy prey for the Spanish

72
Lands of the Incas
73
Cuzco Ancient Capital of the Inca (11,000 ft.
above sea level)
74
Machu Picchu
75
Machu Picchu
76
Incan Suspension Bridges
77
Incan Terrace Farming
78
Incan Digging Sticks
79
Maize in Incan Pottery Gold Work
80
Over 100 Different Types of Potatoes Cultivated
by the Incans
81
Produce from a Typical Incan Market
82
Incan Ceramic Jars
Peanut
Squash
Potato
Cacao God
Cacao Pod
83
The Quipu An Incan Database
84
Incan Mummies
85
Inca Gold Silver
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