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Outcomes Assessment 1 Classroom Assessment

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Outcomes Assessment 1 Classroom Assessment Joseph A. Shaeiwitz West Virginia University joseph.shaeiwitz_at_mail.wvu.edu Daina M. Briedis Michigan State University – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Outcomes Assessment 1 Classroom Assessment


1
Outcomes Assessment 1 Classroom Assessment
  • Joseph A. Shaeiwitz
  • West Virginia University
  • joseph.shaeiwitz_at_mail.wvu.edu

Daina M. Briedis Michigan State
University briedis_at_egr.msu.edu
2
Outline
  • Rationale intro to assessment
  • Types of assessment
  • Classroom goals objectives
  • Classroom assessment methods
  • Using technology
  • Linking classroom assessment to program
    assessment
  • Review and Recommendations

3
Outline
  • Rationale intro to assessment
  • Types of assessment
  • Classroom goals objectives
  • Classroom assessment methods
  • Using technology
  • Linking classroom assessment to program
    assessment
  • Review and Recommendations

4
Assessment
  • Assessment feedback on what, how much, and how
    well students are learning.
  • Goal of assessment

Highest possible quality of student learning
5
Assessment
  • One of the Two Guiding Principles of Effective
    Teaching (Felder Brent)
  • Practice and FEEDBACK (assessment) encompassing
    cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains
  • learning
  • competencies
  • reasoning
  • attitudes
  • work habits

6
Feedback Model
education process
one class
one course
graduate
alumnus
one class
entering college
one course
7
Assessment
Learner-Centered
Instructor-Directed
Instructor
Learner
Instructor
Learner
Mutually Beneficial
8
Assessment
Instructor
Learner
Instructor
Learner
9
Assumptions
  • Student learning 8 Teaching Effectiveness
  • Course objectives and goals need to be made clear
  • Learning
  • Policies
  • To improve learning, students need feedback
  • To improve teaching, instructors need feedback

10
Assessment
  • Instructor teaches based on learning objectives
    (or goals)
  • Students are supposed to learn
  • Assessment helps minimize gap
  • Make it manageable
  • May be part of program assessment
  • not sufficient for program assessment
  • program assessment in 2nd session

11
Assessment what it is NOT
  • NOT active learning
  • although some overlap is possible (and desirable)
  • NOT for the purpose of grading students
  • Almost never graded
  • Almost always anonymous
  • NO special training needed

12
Example
  • Be thinking of a focus course for the next time
    you will be teaching
  • Throughout this session, think of Classroom
    Assessment Techniques (CATs) that you can apply
    in this course

13
Outline
  • Rationale intro to assessment
  • Types of assessment
  • Classroom goals objectives
  • Classroom assessment methods
  • Using technology
  • Linking classroom assessment to program
    assessment
  • Review and Recommendations

14
Types of Assessment
  • Formal and Informal
  • Formative
  • Summative
  • Diagnostic

15
Types of Assessment
  • Formal and Informal
  • Formal quizzes, term papers, lab reports,
    homework, examinations
  • Informal questions in class, body language,
    facial expressions, CATs (classroom assessment
    techniques)
  • Repertoire of successful methods

16
Formative vs. Summative
A Z
A M Z
A D L M R Z
Ongoing
17
Types of Assessment
  • Formative
  • for improving a process (learning here)
  • occurs during process
  • often informal
  • in detail in this session
  • Summative
  • final, summative judgment about effectiveness of
    process
  • achievement of objectives and outcomes
  • in detail in 2nd session

18
Types of Assessment
  • Diagnostic
  • Assessment of metacognitive skills
  • Identification of misconceptions
  • Generally more difficult to analyze (and
    administer)

19
Outline
  • Introduction to assessment
  • Types of assessment
  • Classroom goals
  • Classroom assessment methods
  • Using technology
  • Linking classroom assessment to program
    assessment
  • Review and Recommendations

20
Classroom goals
  • To assess and improve instruction, first clarify
    what students are to learn!
  • Course objectives goals need to be made clear
  • Learning-oriented
  • Teaching Goals Inventory
  • Teaching-oriented
  • Use these to direct classroom assessment

21
Teaching Goals
  • Self-assessment of instructional goals
  • Develop, Improve, Learn
  • e.g.,
  • Develop ability to synthesize and integrate
    information and ideas
  • Develop problem-solving skills
  • Improve writing skills
  • Learn computing skills relevant to problem solving

22
Course Learning Objectives (Goals)
  • Student-based
  • What students will know and/or be able to do at
    the conclusion of the course
  • Set expectations for both students and instructor
  • Ties to pre-requisites and post-requisites in
    curriculum

23
Learning Objectives At the conclusion of this
workshop, the participants will be able to
  • define learning objectives, write and classify
    them in terms of Blooms Taxonomy levels, and
    list pedagogical and curricular benefits of
    writing them for courses.
  • generate a set of handouts for the first day of a
    course (course syllabus, learning objectives,
    statement of policies and procedures) that
    provide the students with a full understanding of
    the course structure and ground rules.
  • devise preliminary course activities that capture
    interest and motivate learning.
  • identify characteristics of effective learners
    and techniques for obtaining active participation
    from most or all students in attendance.
  • define inductive teaching and learning and give
    examples of inductive teaching methods and
    identify benefits of this instructional approach.
  • define and give examples of the higher-level
    (analytical, creative, critical) thinking skills
    of Blooms Taxonomy, identify instructional
    conditions that induce students to develop and
    exercise these skills, and formulate exercises
    and problems that provide practice in these
    skills.
  • design tests that are both challenging and fair
    and a grading system that provides positive
    motivation for learning without lowering
    standards.
  • deal effectively with a variety of common
    classroom management and other student-related
    problems.
  • identify problems associated with the teaching
    profession having to do with time management,
    starting an maintaining research programs, and
    assessing and improving teaching, and formulate
    plans to overcome these problems.

24
Example
  • Identify three teaching goals for your focus
    course
  • Write three learning objectives for this course

25
Outline
  • Introduction to assessment
  • Types of assessment
  • Classroom goals
  • Classroom assessment methods
  • Using technology
  • Linking classroom assessment to program
    assessment
  • Review and Recommendations

26
Preparing for a Successful Start
Plan
Implement
Respond
27
Preparing for a Successful Start
  • Start small one course to begin in which you
    are confident
  • Reserve 5-10 minutes of class time
  • Let students know ahead of time (why, historical
    successes, anonymity)
  • Easy method
  • Review/analyze asap
  • 1-2 min per response
  • Speed of analysis increases (divide o.k., sort
    of o.k., not o.k.
  • Respond!!!

28
Preparing for a Successful Start
  • Dont make it a burden
  • Dont use methods inappropriate at your
    institution
  • Research projects
  • Teaching as research

29
Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs)
  • Select the right technique
  • Suits context of course
  • Suits class and instructor personality
  • Effective
  • Efficient
  • Integrates into course flow

30
Exhaustive CAT Catalog
  • Angelo, T.A., and K. P. Cross, Classroom
    Assessment Techniques A Handbook for College
    Teachers, 2nd edition, Jossey-Bass Publishers,
    1993.

31
Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs)
  • Minute paper and related exercises
  • Pre- and post-tests
  • Surveys
  • Application cards
  • Learning logs/journals
  • Portfolios
  • Coaching students working on examples
  • Test is to make up test
  • Open outlines
  • Students defend test to instructor

32
Time Energy Requirements
Prep L, M, H Response L, M, H Analysis L, M, H
33
Minute Paper and Related Exercises
  • Minute paper or Half-Sheet Response
  • USED MOST OFTEN!
  • At end of lecture, ask one or two questions
    related to what students should have learned
  • not graded/no names
  • instructor learns about success or failure of
    lecture/lab/video
  • only useful if provide necessary review/feedback
    next lecture

Prep L Response L Analysis L
34
Minute Paper and Related Exercises
  • Questions
  • What was the most important thing you learned
    today?
  • What important question was unanswered for you
    today?
  • Determines if focus of session was understood
  • Evaluates ability to synthesize, integrate, pay
    attention, listen, learn concepts and theories
  • Respond summarize next time review learning,
    answer unanswered questions

35
/?
36
Minute Paper and Related Exercises
  • Clearest vs. Muddiest point
  • At end of lecture, ask what is clearest point
    learned/what is muddiest point
  • List key knowledge skills learned today
  • List a few words that define what xxx means to
    you (xxx based on lecture content)
  • Summarize what you have learned in a few
    sentences so that you can explain to a friend

Prep L Response L Analysis L
37
Example
  • What is the clearest point in this workshop thus
    far?
  • What is the muddiest point?

38
Pro Con Grid
  • /? done two slides ago
  • Provides overview of class analysis of
    advantages/disadvantages
  • Examples
  • two proposed designs
  • ethical issues
  • others?

Prep L Response L Analysis L-M
39
Pro Con Grid
  • Evaluates ability to apply analytical skills,
    capacity for ethical choices, use of judgment,
    capacity to think for oneself

Prep L Response L Analysis L-M
40
Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs)
  • Minute paper and related exercises
  • Pre- and post-tests
  • Surveys
  • Application cards
  • Learning logs/journals
  • Portfolios
  • Coaching students working on examples
  • Test is to make up test
  • Open outlines
  • Students defend test to instructor

41
Pre- and Post-tests
  • Diagnostic
  • Pre-test given first day of class
  • provides information on student skills/background
  • learn what students know about subject
  • adjust teaching/syllabus based on results
  • Post-test given last day of class
  • able to assess what students have learned
  • may be almost identical to pre-test

Prep M Response M Analysis M-H
42
Pre-test
  • Variation readiness test
  • Based on assigned reading or homework
  • E.g., Flashcard method
  • Done in groups with a recorder

43
Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs)
  • Minute paper and related exercises
  • Pre- and post-tests
  • Surveys
  • Application cards
  • Learning logs/journals
  • Portfolios
  • Coaching students working on examples
  • Test is to make up test
  • Open outlines
  • Students defend test to instructor

44
Surveys
  • Class management tools
  • Study habits
  • Class opinion surveys
  • Information seeking
  • Web-based surveys
  • CATME (Comprehensive Assessment of Team Member
    Effectiveness) www.catme.org
  • Available Institutional Research

Prep L Response L-M Analysis L-H
45
Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs)
  • Minute paper and related exercises
  • Pre- and post-tests
  • Surveys
  • Application cards
  • Learning logs/journals
  • Portfolios
  • Coaching students working on examples
  • Test is to make up test
  • Open outlines
  • Students defend test to instructor

46
Application Cards
  • Students write down one application of a theory
    or principle learned in class
  • Connect newly learned concepts with prior
    knowledge
  • May provide new material for instructor!
  • Assesses ability to apply principles, think
    creatively, learn concepts/ theories, think for
    oneself

Prep L Response L-M Analysis L-M
47
Application Cards
  • Develop one application card question for your
    focus course.
  • Example
  • Provide an example of how statistical
    significance testing could be applied to your
    unit operations lab data.

Prep L Response L-M Analysis L-M
48
Application Cards
  • This method may also be used in pairs and groups
    to expand generation and sharing of ideas

49
Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs)
  • Minute paper and related exercises
  • Pre- and post-tests
  • Surveys
  • Application cards
  • Learning logs/journals
  • Portfolios
  • Coaching students working on examples
  • Test is to make up test
  • Open outlines
  • Students defend test to instructor

50
Diagnostic Learning Logs
  • Journal of homework, assignments, exams
  • Student records two lists
  • Main points that were understood
  • Points that were unclear
  • Students reflect upon own learning
  • Diagnose strengths weaknesses

Prep M Response H Analysis H
51
Diagnostic Learning Logs
  • Opportunity for reflective learning and
    self-assessment
  • Works best in course with frequent assignments
  • Be sure to focus on positives as well
  • Develops analytical skills, problem-solving
    skills, study skills, responsibility for ones
    own behavior

52
Portfolios
  • Reflective journal
  • Often a collection of students best work
  • May be posted electronically
  • Portfolio for grad school and employers
  • Some institutions use for program assessment

Prep H Response H Analysis H
53
Classroom Assessment Methods
  • Minute paper and related exercises
  • Pre- and post-tests
  • Standard approaches
  • Surveys
  • Learning logs/journals
  • Portfolios
  • Coaching students working on examples
  • Test is to make up test
  • Open outlines
  • Students defend test to instructor

54
Coaching Students Working on Examples
  • Example problems are good
  • Better if students work them (or at least begin
    to work them) rather than just see them
  • best way to learn to solve problems is to solve
    problems, not to watch others solve problems
  • Pair-and-share method
  • Advantages walk around room, encourage group
    work, see how students work problems, identify
    misconceptions, answer questions
  • Disadvantages not all students work at same
    speed, some students do not like looking over
    shoulder, some students do not accept criticism
    well

Prep L Response L Analysis L
55
Classroom Assessment Methods
  • Minute paper and related exercises
  • Pre- and post-tests
  • Surveys
  • Application cards
  • Learning logs/journals
  • Portfolios
  • Coaching students working on examples
  • Test is to make up test
  • Open outlines
  • Students defend test to instructor

56
Test is to Make Up Test
  • Rich Felder calls this the generic quiz
  • CEE, Fall 1985
  • Student-Generated Test Questions
  • Allows assessment of
  • Memorable course content
  • Student concept of fair reasonable
  • How well they answer their own question
  • Demonstrates in-depth learning
  • Probably works best in elective or graduate class

Prep M Response M Analysis M- H
57
Test is to Make Up Test
  • What teaching goals would this tool assess?

58
Classroom Assessment Methods
  • Minute paper and related exercises
  • Pre- and post-tests
  • Surveys
  • Application cards
  • Learning logs/journals
  • Portfolios
  • Coaching students working on examples
  • Test is to make up test
  • Open outlines
  • Students defend test to instructor

59
Open Outlines
  • Instructor provides students with a partially
    completed lecture or presentation outline
  • Very few instructors collect the outlines for
    assessment
  • Good for courses with large amount of content
  • Evaluates listening skills, learning of terms and
    facts

Prep M Response L Analysis M
60
Classroom Assessment Methods
  • Minute paper and related exercises
  • Pre- and post-tests
  • Surveys
  • Application cards
  • Learning logs/journals
  • Portfolios
  • Coaching students working on examples
  • Test is to make up test
  • Open outlines
  • Students defend test to instructor

61
Students Defend Test to Instructor
  • One-on-one meeting
  • Student explains solutions
  • Test not graded until after meeting
  • Instructor really learns what student knows
  • Student gets individual feedback
  • Probably best in elective/graduate class with
    smaller enrollment

Prep L Response M Analysis M-H
62
Outline
  • Introduction to assessment
  • Types of assessment
  • Classroom goals
  • Classroom assessment methods
  • Using technology
  • Linking classroom assessment to program
    assessment
  • Review and Recommendations

63
Using Technology
  • Class management software utilities
  • Surveys available from institution
  • Personal Response System
  • Attendance
  • Quizzes
  • Diagnostics

64
Outline
  • Introduction to assessment
  • Types of assessment
  • Classroom goals
  • Classroom assessment methods
  • Using technology
  • Linking classroom assessment to program
    assessment
  • Review and Recommendations

65
Linking to Program Assessment
  • The Program Assessment session will address
    evaluation of student learning relative to eleven
    ABET outcomes.
  • Some classroom assessment methods may be adapted
    for outcomes assessment.
  • Use overlap where possible

66
Outline
  • Introduction to assessment
  • Types of assessment
  • Classroom goals
  • Classroom assessment methods
  • Using technology
  • Linking classroom assessment to program
    assessment
  • Review and Recommendations

67
Effect on Students
  • Increase their involvement in learning
  • they are telling you what you need to
    emphasize/review
  • Promotion of metacognition
  • Students understanding of their own learning
  • Increased cooperation satisfaction
  • Camaraderie between students and instructor
    win-win
  • Students learn more instructors get feedback
  • Students believe that instructor wanted their
    input/feedback

68
Example
  • Propose a CA process and description of CAT for
    your focus course.
  • Consider realistic constraints of class sizes,
    instructor resources, TA resources (?), technology

69
Review
  • Introduction to assessment
  • Types of assessment
  • Classroom goals
  • Classroom assessment methods
  • Using technology
  • Linking classroom assessment to program
    assessment
  • Effect on students

70
Recommendations
  • Try a few simple methods the first time
  • Add more as become comfortable with first few
  • Different methods for different size classes
  • After you develop experience, teach your
    colleagues

71
Questions
  • ?
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