Carbohydrates - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Carbohydrates PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 52a4c1-OTBkM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Carbohydrates

Description:

Carbohydrates * Carbohydrates Most easily metabolized nutrient for the body, converted into glucose glucose provides energy for the brain and of energy for muscles ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:508
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 33
Provided by: chattHds80
Learn more at: http://chatt.hdsb.ca
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Carbohydrates


1
Carbohydrates
2
Carbohydrates
  • Most easily metabolized nutrient for the body,
    converted into glucose
  • glucose provides energy for the brain and ½ of
    energy for muscles and tissues
  • glycogen is stored glucose
  • glucose is immediate energy
  • glycogen is reserve energy

3
Carbohydrates
  • Compounds composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen
    that are arranged to make different variations of
    sugar molecules
  • all plant food
  • milk
  • carbohydrates are not equal
  • simple carbohydrates
  • complex carbohydrates

4
Simple Carbohydrates
  • sugars
  • monosaccharides single sugars
  • disaccharides 2 monosaccharides

5
Complex Carbohydrates
  • starches and fibers
  • polysaccharides
  • chains of monosaccharides

6
Simple Carbs
  • Monosaccharides
  • Mono one
  • Saccharides sugar
  • glucose, fructose, galactose

7
Glucose
  • mild sweet flavor
  • known as blood sugar
  • essential energy source
  • found in every disaccharide and polysaccharide
  • in starchy foods

8
Fructose
  • sweetest sugar
  • found in fruits and honey
  • added to soft drinks, cereals, deserts

9
Galactose
  • hardly tastes sweet
  • rarely found naturally as a single sugar
  • one of the sugars in milk

10
Disaccharides
  • pairs of the monosaccharides (di two)
  • maltose, sucrose, lactose

11
Maltose
  • 2 glucose units
  • known as malt sugar
  • not abundant in foods

12
Sucrose
  • fructose and glucose
  • tastes sweet
  • fruit, vegetables, grains
  • table sugar is refined sugarcane and sugar beets
  • brown, white, powdered

13
Lactose
  • glucose and galactose
  • main carbohydrate in milk, depending on milk's
    fat content lactose contributes 30-50 of milk's
    energy
  • known as milk sugar

14
Complex Carbohydrates
  • polysaccharides
  • glycogen and starch
  • built entirely of glucose
  • fiber
  • variety of monosaccharides and other carbohydrate
    derivatives

15
Glycogen
  • limited in meat and not found in plants
  • not an important dietary source of carbohydrate
  • BUT
  • all glucose is stored as glycogen

16
Starches
  • stored in plant cells (grains, vegetables,
    potatoes and legumes)

17
Fiber
  • structural parts of plants
  • found in all plant derived food
  • bonds of fibers cannot be broken down during the
    digestive process
  • minimal or no energy available

18
Fiber Characteristics
  • soluble fibers (dissolves in water)
  • easily digested by bacteria in colon
  • associated with protection against heart disease
    and diabetes
  • lower cholesterol and glucose levels
  • found in legumes and fruits

19
Fiber
  • insoluble (does not dissolve in water)
  • promote bowel movements
  • alleviate constipation
  • found in grains and vegetables
  • associated with reduced cancer rates

20
Meeting Fibre Needs
  • Choose whole grain more than refined products
    such as white bread
  • Males aged 14 to 50 need 38g of fibre daily
  • Females aged 14 to 18 need 36g of fibre daily
    (decreased to 25g at age 19)

21
Carbohydrate Digestion
  • break down into glucose
  • body is able to absorb and use
  • large starch molecules
  • extensive breakdown
  • disaccharides
  • broken once
  • monosaccharides
  • dont need to be broken down

22
Carbohydrate Digestion
  • begins in mouth
  • chewing releases saliva
  • enzyme amylase hydrolyzes starch to
    polysaccharides and maltose
  • stomach
  • no enzymes available to break down starch
  • acid does some breakdown
  • fibers in starch provide feeling of fullness

23
  • small intestine
  • majority of carbohydrate digestion takes place
    here
  • pancreatic amylase reduces carbs to glucose
    chains or disaccharides
  • specific enzymes finish the job
  • maltase
  • maltose into 2 glucose
  • sucrase
  • sucrose into glucose and fructose
  • lactase
  • lactose into glucose and galactose

24
  • large intestine
  • 1-4 hours for sugars and starches to be digested
  • only fibers remain
  • attract water, which softens stool

25
Carbohydrate Absorption
  • glucose can be absorbed in the mouth
  • majority absorbed in small intestine

26
Lactose Intolerance
  • more lactose is consumed than can be digested
  • lactose molecules attract water
  • cause floating, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea
  • intestinal bacteria feed on undigested lactose
  • produce acid and gas

27
Lactose Intolerance
  • management requires dietary change
  • 6 grams (1/2 cup) usually tolerable
  • take in gradually
  • enzyme drops or tablets
  • lactose free diet is extremely difficult to
    accomplish

28
(No Transcript)
29
Imbalance
  • diabetes
  • after food intake, blood glucose rises and is not
    regulated because insulin is inadequate
  • hypoglycemia
  • blood glucose drops dramatically
  • too much insulin, activity, inadequate food
    intake, illness
  • diet adjustment includes fiber-rich carbs and
    protein

30
(No Transcript)
31
Sugar
  • ½ comes from natural sources, ½ from refined and
    added
  • sucrose, corn syrup, honey
  • excess can lead to nutrient deficiencies and
    tooth decay
  • empty calories
  • sugar and starch break down in the mouth

32
Sugar
  • recommended intake
  • added sugar no more than 10 of energy intake
About PowerShow.com