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3????????: Note-taking and Gap-filling(10)? Spot-dictation(10)? Listening and translation (30)

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Title: 3????????: Note-taking and Gap-filling(10)? Spot-dictation(10)? Listening and translation (30)


1
????(???) ???
  • ??
  • ????
  • 1???????(???)
  • 2?????????50 ????50
  • 3???????? Note-taking and Gap-filling(10)?
    Spot-dictation(10)? Listening and translation
    (30)
  • ??????? ??????????(50)
  • 4?????2??

2
  • (?)??????
  • ???????????????????,??????????????????????????????
    ,?????????????????
  • ???????????????????,??????????????,???????????,??
    ???????,??????????????????????,???????????????????
    ??????????????,???????????????????,??????????,????
    ??????????

3
  • ????????????
  • 1.   ????????
  • 2.  ???????????????????????
  • 3.  ????????????????????????
  • 4.  ???????????????

4
  • ??????
  • (1)       ????,????,????
  • (2)       ?????????
  • (3)       ???????
  • (4)       ?????

5
??????????
  • Part One Separate training
  • 1.Spot-dictation
  • 2.Note-taking and gap-filling
  • 3.Listening and translation
  • (politics,economy, social problems)
  • Part Two Mock test (test yourself)

6
Part One Separate training1. Spot-dictation
  • 1)I want to ____ off by taking you to a sports
    Stadium I visited about a year ago. There, at the
    Olympic Stadium in Kabul, I caught a ____ of the
    future. In this ____, where only a few years ago
    the Taliban ____ was _____ unspeakable acts of
    _____towards women , young Afghan girls were now
    competing in a race for the first time ever.

7
  • Some ____ had been ____ off, others were _____ in
    the wind. The girls were enjoying the event ,
    enjoying the competition, enjoying their ____
    freedom. They were happy and hopeful, full of
    expectations for a better future.

8
  • In this context the UN is right Sport is far
    more than a ___ or a form of entertainment. ____
    to and participation in sport is a human right.
    The ___ of sport as a tool for development and
    peace has yet to be fully realized .

9
  • We know that participating in sports can teach
    life skills and build _____. Becoming a team
    player, learning to respect your ____ , knowing
    you need to practice to perform better, learning
    how to cope with ___ and overcome ___----- these
    are lesson that will serve everyone well, in the
    developing as well as the developed world.

10
  • We know that participating in sport can offer
    happiness and hope, even when nothing else dose.
    We know that entire ___ can benefit from sports
    ____. Sports____ --- both ___ and _____

11
KEYS
  • I want to _kick_ off by taking you to a sports
    Stadium I visited about a year ago. There, at the
    Olympic Stadium in Kabul, I caught a __glimpse__
    of the future. In this __arena__, where only a
    few years ago the Taliban __regime_ was _
    committing_ unspeakable acts of
    _horror____towards women , young Afghan girls
    were now competing in a race for the fist time
    ever.

12
  • Some _veils_ had been _torn_ off, others were
    _fluttering __ in the wind. The girls were
    enjoying the event , enjoying the competition,
    enjoying their __new-found__ freedom. They were
    happy and hopeful, full of expectations for a
    better future.

13
  • In this context the UN is right Sport is far
    more than a _luxury__ or a form of entertainment.
    __Access__ to and participation in sport is a
    human right. The _potential__ of sport as a tool
    for development and peace has yet to be fully
    realized .

14
  • We know that participating in sports can teach
    life skills and build _confidence____. Becoming a
    team player, learning to respect your
    _opponent___ , knowing you need to practice to
    perform better, learning how to cope with
    _victory__ and overcome _defeat__----- these are
    lesson that will serve everyone well, in the
    developing as well as the developed world.

15
  • We know that participating in sport can offer
    happiness and hope, even when nothing else dose.
    We know that entire _communities__ can benefit
    from sports __initiatives__. Sports_energize___
    --- both _physically__ and _mentally____

16
  • 2) l933 was the year that ____ became the
    official _____ for the _____ Award. Ho1lywood
  • _____ has it that Betty Davis coined the term
    when she took a good look at the statuette and
    ______ how much the backside looked like her
    first husbands, Herman Oscar Nelson. There are
    other versions of how Oscar got named, but this
    one is the most popular. This was the golden era
    of Hol1ywood, when movies ______ their peak as
    the worlds _______ source of entertainment.

17
  • Sound was not a new thing anymore and the
    filmmakers had mastered their _____ turning
    strips of plastic into _____ picture, moving ____
    on a screen that looked bigger and better than
    real life. Into the l930s, Hollywood managed to
    give the American public just what they were
    1ooking for during the Great ______- an _____
    from it al1. When other industries in the country
    were suffering major losses, the motion picture
    business _____ the _____ by continuing to boom,
    proving that the common man really was willing to
    spend their last ______ to settle into a theatre
    seat and forget about his troubles for a couple
    of hours.

18
KEYS
  • 2)l933 was the year that Oscar became the
    official nickname for the Academy Award.
    Ho1lywood
  • legend has it that Betty Davis coined the term
    when she took a good look at the statuette and
    remarked how much the backside looked like her
    first husbands, Herman Oscar Nelson. There are
    other versions of how Oscar got named, but this
    one is the most popular. This was the golden era
    of Hol1ywood, when movies wrapped their peak as
    the worlds predominant source of entertainment.

19
  • Sound was not a new thing anymore and the
    filmmakers had mastered their craft turning
    strips of plastic into motion picture, moving
    shadows on a screen that looked bigger and better
    than real life. Into the l930s, Hollywood managed
    to give the American public just what they were
    1ooking for during the Great Depression- an
    escape from it al1. When other industries in the
    country were suffering major losses, the motion
    picture business defied the odds by continuing
    to boom, proving that the common man really was
    willing to spend their last dime to settle into a
    theatre seat and forget about his troubles for a
    couple of hours.

20
Part One Separate training2. Note-taking and
gap-filling
  • Tips
  • 1. The passages chosen are normally very logical,
    so please pay attention to listening
    comprehension and the logics (eg. Firstly ,
    secondly There are following areas, following
    reasons..). Just use note-taking as a supporting
    tool.
  • 2. What you take down should be some essential
    words relevant to the whole passage, rather than
    auxiliary words. Youd better focus on what ,
    when , where, who, why and how

21
  • 3. Pay attention to those nouns , verbs and adj.
    which are stressed in reading
  • 4. Use abbreviations
  • More practice in daily time. Listen to a passage
    and take notes and write an abstract with the
    help of the notes. This exercise does help a lot
    !!!

22
  • Passage One

23
  • A problem related to the competition for land use
    is whether crops should be used to produce food
    or fuel. 1 ____areas will be examined in
    this respect. Firstly, the problem should be
    viewed in its _____ perspective. When oil prices
    rose (2) ______
  • sharply in the 1970s, countries had to look for
    alternatives to so1ve the resulting crisis.

24
  • In developing countries, one of the possible
    answers to it is to produce alcohol from 3____
    material. This has led to a lot of research in
    this area particularly in the use of 4 ____
  • The use of this material resulted from two
    economic reasons a 5 _____ in its price and
    low 6____ costs.
  • There are other starchy plants that can be used
    to produce alcohol, like the sweet 7 ____ or
    the cassava plant in tropical regions, and 8
    and sugar beet in non-tropical regions. The
    problem with these plants is that they are also
    the peop1es staple food in many poor countries .

25
  • Therefore, farmers there are faced with a choice
    crops for food or for fuel. And farmers naturally
    go for what is more 9 _____ As a result, the
    problems involved are economic in nature rather
    than technological. This is my second area under
    consideration. Finally, there have already been
    practical applications of using alcohol for fuel.
    Basically, they come in two forms of use pure
    alcohol as is the case in 10 ___, and a
    combination of alcohol and gasoline known as
    gasohol in Germany.

26
KEYS
  • 1 .three /3 2. Historical
  • 3. Plant/agricultural 4. Sugar
  • 5. Fall/decrease/drop/reduction
  • 6. Production/distilling/distillation /conversion
  • 7. Potato
  • 8.corn
  • 9. Profitable
  • 10.Brazil

27
Tape scripts
  • Today Im going to consider very briefly a
    problem concerned with the competition for land
    use. That is, that is, whether crops should be
    used to produce food, or to, should be used to
    produce fuel. And um in considering this problem
    I wi1l look at three main areas. The historical
    background to the problem, the nature of the
    problems involved in, in the competition for land
    use, and some examples.

28
  • In considering the historical background, um, we
    should look at the oil crisis of the 1970s' Um
    due to the rapidly increase in, in, or the rapid,
    due to the rapid trend in increasing oil prices
    leading to an energy crisis, many countries have
    looked for alternative, energy sources to make
    them independent of other countries, fossil
    fuels. Examples of alternati, alternative energy
    sources include such things as solar power, the
    harnessing of wind, and wi, the wind and waves,
    tides, and also the production of biogas. Biogas
    is methane which is produced from human and
    animal waste.

29
  • A particularly interesting possibi1ity for many
    developing countries has been the conversion of
    plant material to alcohol. This, this is
    interesting because in many developing countries
    there is a large agricultural sector, and at the
    same time a small industrial sector, and thus
    the, the possibility of us1ng the agricultural
    sector to, to produce fuel , um, is of interest
    to those countries.

30
  • Scientific research is going on in the production
    of alcohol , for example, from sugar. And there
    are two, um, two economic reasons for this. First
    of all the world price of sugar has fallen
    dramatically, or the world price of sugar has
    fallen in very real terms in the last decade,
    which, this has caused a problem for those
    economies which are dependent on their sugar
    production as it gives them an alternative, er,
    possibility for using their sugar. And secondly,
    sugar is the most efficient source of alcohol.
    Therefore it is relatively economical to make
    fuel by distilling alcohol from it.

31
  • In addition to sugar there are other starchy
    plants that can be used to make alcohol. For
    example in tropical countries, such plants as the
    cassava p1ant and the sweet potato are good
    sources from which alcohol can be made, and in,
    in non-tropical countries you have such things as
    corn and sugar beet.

32
  • Now there is a problem arising from the fact that
    alcohol can be distilled from starchy plants, and
    that is, that many poor countries use precisely
    these starchy plants, or these starch-rich crops,
    er, for their food as a staple diet. So in, in
    many such countries there, there a conf1ict if
    you like, between the choice of whether to
    produce these crops for fuel, or to to produce
    these crops, er, for, for food and for their use
    as their staple diet.

33
  • It is in fact an economic problem rather than a
    technical problem as the poor farmers will tend
    to choose that which is most profitable. Indeed
    it is an economic problem, not, not necessarily a
    technological problem. The technology for the
    con-version of alcohol from starchy plants has
    been in existence for over 40 years. And there
    are two ways of um using a1cohoI as car fuel. One
    such way' um, is in the form of pure alcohol. An
    example of this is in Brazil in a project called
    the Pro-Alcohol Project, and in Brazil cars are
    being produced to run on pure alcohol. A second
    use of alcohol as a car fuel is in a mixture with
    petrol , or with gasoline. In a mixture with
    gasoline this produces a mixture

34
  • called ..gasohol,,. In Germany for example, they
    have an experiment in which there, theres such a
    mixture of 85 per cent petrol , or 85 per cent
    gas, 85 per cent gasoline and 15 per cent
    methanol.
  • So if technology and the conversion of engines
    are not a prob1em, then rea1ly it is a question
    of economics, and there are three main factors
    which would affect the production ...

35
Passage Two
  • At present companies and industries like to
    sponsor sports events. Two reasons are put
    forward to explain this phenomenon. The first
    reason is that they got (1)_____ throughout the
    world. The second reason is that companies and
    industries (2)_____money, as they get reductions
    in the tax they owe if they sponsor sports or
    arts activities.

36
  • As sponsorship is (3)_____, careful thinking is
    required in deciding which events to sponsor. It
    is important that the event to be sponsored
    (4)____the product(s) to be promoted. That is,
    the right (5)____ and maximum product coverage
    must be guaranteed in the event.
  • Points to be considered in sports sponsorship.

37
  • As sponsorship is (3)_____, careful thinking is
    required in deciding which events to sponsor. It
    is important that the event to be sponsored
    (4)____the product(s) to be promoted. That is,
    the right (5)____ and maximum product coverage
    must be guaranteed in the event.
  • Points to be considered in sports sponsorship.

38
  • International sports events are big (6) ____
    events, which get extensive coverage on TV and in
    the press. Smaller events attract fewer people.
  • Identification of the potential audience
  • Aiming at the right audience is most important
    for smaller events. The right audience would
    attract manufacturers of other related products
    like (7)_____, etc.

39
  • Advantages of sponsorship
  • Advantages are longer-term.
  • People are expected to respond (8)____to the
    products promoted and be more likely to buy them.
  • Advertising is (9)____the mind. Sponsorship is
    better than straight advertising a ) less
  • (10)____ b) tax-free .
  •  

40
KEYS
  • 1. Known 2. Save
  • 3. Costly/expensive
  • 4. Match 5.image
  • 6.media 7. Cosmetics/drinks
  • 8. Favourably 9. Conditioning
  • 10.costly/expensive

41
Tape script
  • It is common nowadays for companies and
    industries to sponsor big sports events. For
    example, many companies sponsored the 8th
    National Games held in Shanghai in 1997. Then,
    what exactly do companies and industries get out
    of spon-soring big sports events, such as
    international games? And why do they do so?
  • There is an obvious answer and a not so obvious
    one. The obvious answer 1s that they get known
    worldwide, particularly if they are the principal
    sponsor of an event.

42
  • This is especially important when you consider
    the number of countries around the world that
    might show the event on TV. The not so obvious
    answer is that sponsor-ship can help firms to
    save money.
  • Then how can they save money in this way?
    Companies can claim expenditures on sponsorship
    or ..support to sport and the arts,, against the
    amount of tax that they owe. So, if they are
    going to have to pay tax anyway, why not spend
    the money on promoting their name or product?

43
  • However, sponsorship is surely a very expensive
    business. So, how does one decide which events or
    activities to support? Companies spend a lot of
    time making sure that they have a perfect match
    between the products to be represented and the
    activity that needs sponsorship. Basically,
    companies have to make sure that the image is
    right and that the product gets maximum coverage
    through the event. I mean, you wouldnt expect a
    company whose product has a young international
    image to sponsor a sport that has a following
    among older people. There are al1 sorts of
    reasons behind sponsorship. Thats what the
    games about for those who are trying to se1l it.

44
  • There are some important points to consider
    before agree1ng to sponsor an event. First and
    foremost, I suppose, is the popularity of the
    event in global terms, I mean. Events like the
    World Cup and the Olympics have businesses
    queuing up to offer sponsorship. There are the
    big media events hours and hours of TV and
    satellite coverage guaranteed a1l over the world,
    as well as press coverage and the possibility of
    photographs that in some way advertise your
    product. Most events arent quite like that
    though. I suppose youve got the national games
    every four years in China. But most events appeal
    to only a limited proportion of the potential
    audience- tennis, for example. Most of the
    audience there is young, so products for the
    young are the ones that you would associate with
    the event.

45
  • Then how do you match up the product with the
    event? The most important thing with the smaller
    event is to identify the audience its going to
    appeal to in this instance, tennis and young
    people. That should attract drinks manufacturers,
    sports fashion designers, cosmetics producers,
    and so on. Then you look at the potential
    coverage in the media. Its the sort of event
    that might attract Coca-Cola or Pepsi maybe even
    McDonalds.
  • In sponsoring sports events, it is not just the
    media coverage that matters. The important
    question is whether the people whove either been
    to the event or read about it in the press will
    be more likely to

46
  • buy your product as a result. A lot of the
    advantages of investment in sponsorship are
    longer-term. People who have possibly read about
    or watched an event on TV may not even be able to
    tell you who was sponsoring the event, yet wi1l
    react favourab1y if asked to comment on products
    marketed by the sponsoring company. They have
    been conditioned in some way. Conditioning the
    mind is what advertising is about. Believe it or
    not, straight advertising is a far more expensive
    way of promoting your image than sponsorship, and
    whats more, sponsorship is mostly tax-free.
  • To sum up, today we have talked about sponsorship
    of sports events by companies the reasons behind
    and a few related points. I hope this will help
    you gain some insight into the issue.

47
Part One Separate training3. Listening and
translation
  • Passage One( politics)
  • Please be prepared and follow the instruction to
    finish this part.

48
  • The maintenance of strong bilateral relationships
    remains a cornerstone of this governments
    foreign policy approach.

49
  • Asia is , of course, of vital importance to us-
    it lies at the forefront of our policy focus. The
    region has huge potential and , despite recent
    difficulties, has taken some major strides down
    the path of political and economic reform.

50
  • The nations of Asia matter because they are
    important partners with whom we have worked for
    many years to build a more stable and secure
    region.

51
  • They matter because of where they are. Their
    proximity inextricably links their future
    prosperity and security with ours. And they
    matter because of what they are- our largest
    export markets and the source of much of our
    investment and imports.

52
  • Chinas growing influence and economic strength
    is giving it a greater say in the region and the
    world. We value the positive role China can play.
    The relationship between an increasingly
    confident China and a globally preponderant
    United States is the key to stability in the Asia
    Pacific region.

53
  • Australia is a close ally of the United States
    we have a fast-growing economic partnership with
    China. We have a major stake in Chinas
    successful integration into the world economy,
    and in seeing these two powers working together
    for the common good.

54
  • Australias own bilateral relationship with China
    is more productive, realistic and sustainable
    than at any time since the establishment of
    diplomatic relations in the seventies. We are
    direct with China about differences in values and
    seek to manage these differences sensibly.

55
  • We have said clearly to China that we will adhere
    to our One China policy and have resolved
    differences of interpretation with firmness and
    courtesy. Both we and China are keenly aware of
    the potential benefits of strategic economic
    cooperation, including in key sectors like energy.

56
  • Passage Two(economy)
  • Please be prepared and follow the instruction to
    finish this part.

57
  • 2004 was the best year for global GDP growth in
    decades . Most parts of the world recorded
    improved growth performance . The prospects for
    2005 remain favorable , although growth is likely
    to be at a slower, more sustainable, pace it is
    projected to fall from the estimated outturn for
    2004 of about 5 to under 4.5 this year.
  • Be familiar with those economy vocabulary

58
  • Global trade has also recovered strongly since
    the downturn in 2001, and continues to be an
    important engine of growth it is currently
    expanding at something close to twice the rate of
    growth of world GDP.

59
  • There has also , in recent years, been a sharp
    fall in inflation worldwide. For much of the
    latter part of the twentieth century, high
    inflation was a major source of global economic
    instability.

60
  • Durable reductions in inflation in many countries
    have greatly improved the prospects for sustained
    growth- and poverty reduction -in those
    countries. Lower inflation reduces the likelihood
    of sudden slowdowns resulting from efforts to
    halt rapidly accelerating inflation.

61
  • The improvements in performance and , in many
    cases, economic policies have been substantial
    and significant. The shift to floating exchange
    rates on the part of many emerging market
    countries have significantly reduced
    vulnerabilities. So, too, have major structural
    reforms in those and other economies.

62
  • But now it the time , while the global economy is
    performing well, to take measures that will
    further improve the flexibility and adaptability
    of economies going forward. Perhaps the most
    striking feature of global economic performance
    in 2004 was the widespread nature of the upturn.

63
  • The US economy continued to be a principal engine
    of growth. Japan recorded stronger performance in
    2004 than we have seen for some years. Among the
    industrial economies , the euro area was almost
    alone in continuing to grow at a lackluster pace.

64
  • In the emerging market and transition economies,
    improvement in growth performance have been
    widespread. We have seen rapid growth not just in
    emerging Asia-including China and India-but in
    the transition economies of Europe, including
    Russia, The Ukraine and the new members of the
    EU- where growth performance has , so far, been
    largely unaffected by sluggish euro area growth.

65
  • And we have seen a welcome, and heartening
    improvement in many parts of Africa and the
    Middle East, as improved macroeconomic management
    has started to bring rewards in the form of lower
    inflation, accelerating growth and improved
    economic stability.

66
  • Sharply improved growth performance permits
    policy-makers to confront longer-term structural
    problems from a much stronger base. In many parts
    of the world, we have seen governments taking
    action to reduce the risk of being thrown off
    course by future downturn. In some emerging
    markets, countries in particular, real progress
    has been made in increasing the resilience of
    economies to outside shocks

67
Part Two mock test
  • 1. Gap-filling
  • Multinational investment has a (1)____history.
    Establishment of a multinational corporation (
    MNC ) was a way to generate income from
    diversified sources, a way to (2) ____ return on
    investment and to benefit from cheaper labour
    abroad.
  • The formation of the European Economic Community
    (EEC) in l958 (3) ______ the growth of MNCs.
    Today the large MNCs control from 50 to 200
    subsidiaries.

68
  • A favourable aspect about MNCs is that they
    create (4)____ in foreign countries. They also
    contribute to innovation or (5)______ of new
    products and technology. But when
  • innovation levels off and local technology
    reaches a point of sufficiency, MNCs are
    sometimes considered to be no longer (8) _____.
    MNCs must learn to interrelate their subsidiaries
    with the parent Company, to decision making
    authority and to develop satisfactory methods of
    control and
  • supervision.

69
  • An MNC must deal with (9) _____ barriers,
    different le-gal and tax structures, foreign
    currency. Other problems include how to secure
    continued (10) _____to resources, how to in- (
    crease market share, and how to tackle 1ncreased
    criticism and interference by foreign government,
    etc.

70
  • KEYS
  • 1. Long 2.maximize
  • 3. Spurred 4. Jobs
  • 5. Creation 6. Useful
  • 7. Successful 8. Delegate
  • 9. Communication
  • 10 access

71
Tape scripts
  • A multinational corporation (MNC) has industrial
    and commercial organizations in foreign
    countries. Manufacturing plants are established
    abroad, in conjunction with supporting marketing
    systems.
  • Multinational investment has a long history. In
    the early years of this century, European
    companies realized that their own home markets
    were small. Just as the Americans went west in
    the 1800s' European companies like Nestle,
    Unilever, and Royal Dutch Shell went overseas for
    new markets and became MNCs well before World War
    II.

72
  • United States companies, which have a large home
    market of over 218 million people, had other
    incentives to multinationalize. Establishment of
    an MNC was a way to generate income from
    diversified sources, thereby spreading re-cession
    risks. It was a way to maximize return on
    investments, and it was a way to benefit from
    cheaper labour abroad.

73
  • The formation of the European Economic Community
    (EEC) in 1958 spurred the growth of MNCs'
    especially the American ones. The EEC established
    import duty-free associations of countries, thus
    creating vast markets. This meant that one
    Western European plant of a United States MNC
    could sell its products within the EEC to a
    market of 200 million people without running into
    customs duties between countries. United States
    multinational growth in European was soon
    followed by the establishment of United States
    bank branches.

74
  • How multinational can a corporation get? Some
    companies, like Nestle of Switzerland, make over
    90 percent of their sales on exports and
    manufactured goods abroad. Today the large MNCs
    control from 50 to 200 foreign subsidiaries with
    30 to 90 percent of their sales on exports and
    foreign-produced goods. In 1973 some experts
    estimated an annual turnover of 600 billion for
    al MNCs combined. These MNCs owned over 80,000
    subsidiaries worldwide. At that time the annual
    growth rate of MNC sales was estimated at around
    l0 percent -well above the average Gross National
    Product growth of many nations.

75
  • A favourable aspect about MNCs is that they
    create jobs in foreign countries.
  • They also contribute to innovation or creation of
    new products and technology. But tt,hen
    innovation levels off and local technology
    reaches a point of sufficiency, MNCs are
    sometimcs considered to be no longer useful. At
    this point MNCs run the risk of nationalization,
    which is the confiscation of a company,s property
    (plant, equipment, etc.) by a foreign government
    with or without adequate compensation.
  • Successful MNCs eventually must learn how to
    interrelate their subsidiaries with the parent
    Company, how to delegate decision-making
    authority, and how to develop satisfactory
    methods of control and supervision.

76
  • Having entered the international arena, an MNC
    faces an awesome task. It must worry mot only
    about how to overcome the communication barriers
    already mentioned -cultural differences,
    distance, and environment, but also how to deal
    with the different legal and tax structures in
    the various countries. An MNC also has to cope
    with foreign currency so that it can protect its
    foreign assets. Some other problems an MNC has to
    consider are how to secure continued access to
    resources how to deal with increased criticism
    and interference by foreign governments and how
    to deal with labour 1aws and anitrust legislation
    both at home and abroad.

77
  • In recent years MNCs have come under heavy
    criticism. Domestically they have been accused of
    exporting jobs, meaning that jobs are lost at
    home because the MNCs set up plants in other
    countries, sometimes exporting the products back
    home for consumption. Less developed countries,
    on the other hand, charge that for years they
    have been underpaid for their natural resources
    may be regarded as a challenge to national
    sovereignty. In other words' this viewpoint sees
    the MNC as capable of circumventing or subverting
    national objectives and policies. This obviously
    reflects the majority voting power of developing
    countries in the United Nations.

78
  • Widely publicized reports of payoffs to
    government officials by MNCs, and even
    interference in local politics, have brought
    heavy pressure on MNCs to exercise greater care,
    police their tactics, and redefine their
    strategy. For example, the case of Lockheed, and
    American aircraft corporation, which was found to
    have bribed officials in Japan and Europe to gain
    large government purchase contracts, became one
    of the worlds most notorious episodes in 1970s.
  •  

79
2. Spot-dictation
  • In North America , _____ are the ____ of an
    increasingly popular _____. However, few of the
    Westerners _____ East Asian restaurants have
    mastered the art of _____ rice or tweezing meat,
    veggies, and noodles with a pair of ______ rods.
    As a result, many people eat Chinese and other
    Asian entrees using _____. If theres any _____
    to those of us who have ______with chopsticks , a

80
  • new study questions the ergonomics of these
    dining _____. It appears that the regular,
    long-term use of chopsticks can _____ the
    development of _____ arthritis. Osteoarthritis is
    the ______ of joints, primarily in elderly
    people. Its destruction of cartilage and ensuing
    damage to bone and joints causes _______ and
    _______ , intense pain. Although ______ makes
    many people _____to osteoarthritis, _____ motions
    can _____ the disease in affected joints. Indeed,
    where this disease affects the fingers, those on
    the most-used hand tend to suffer most.

81
2. Spot-dictation
  • In North America , chopsticks are the emblem of
    an increasingly popular cuisine. However, few of
    the Westerners patronizing East Asian restaurants
    have mastered the art of scooping rice or
    tweezing meat, veggies, and noodles with a pair
    of bamboo rods. As a result, many people eat
    Chinese and other Asian entrees using cutlery. If
    theres any consolation to those of us who have
    fumbled with chopsticks , a

82
  • new study questions the ergonomics of these
    dining _implements____. It appears that the
    regular, long-term use of chopsticks can
    __foster___ the development of ___age-related__
    arthritis. Osteoarthritis is the
    __degeneration____ of joints, primarily in
    elderly people. Its destruction of cartilage and
    ensuing damage to bone and joints causes
    __stiffness__ and _chronic__ , intense pain.
    Although __genetics_ makes many people vulnerable
    to osteoarthritis, __repetitive___ motions can
    _aggravate___ the disease in affected joints.
    Indeed, where this disease affects the fingers,
    those on the most-used hand tend to suffer most.

83
3 .Listening and translation
  • Ladies and Gentlemen,
  • I dont wish in any way to spoil your enjoyment
    of this evenings festivities with a long and
    boring speech, but I would just like to say a few
    words.
  • Speaking on behalf of Philips, from the
    Sino-British Trade Council, and on behalf of my
    wife and myself, I would 1ike to say how
    delighted we have been to receive you here in
    England-oh, sorry, and Scotland, Mr. Campbell.

84
  • It appears from speaking to all of you, that
    everyone has concluded at least one deal, and
    certainly sown the seeds to reap many more in the
    future, and we wish you every success with those.
    It is certainly an impressive record of
    achievements that you take with you back to
    China. I hope that you have enjoyed your stay in
    England. We have a saying, ..All work and no play
    makes Jack a dull boy, and Jill a dull girl for
    that matter, and we have tried to give you some
    relief from the daily routine of meetings by our
    various outings, and also to show you more of
    Britain than just the inside of offices, hotels
    and taxis.

85
  • And now I ask you to raise your glasses. Id like
    to drink a toast to your health and to the
    success of all such ventures in the future, and
    of course to a safe journey tomorrow. ladies and
    Gentlemen, I wish you, health and success.

86
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87
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