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Academic Writing Workshop (2)


Academic Writing Workshop (2) Editing Institute of English, University of Silesia April 28th, 2009 Plans for AWW meetings In-text citation, list of references Main ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Academic Writing Workshop (2)

Academic Writing Workshop (2)
  • Editing

Institute of English, University of Silesia
April 28th, 2009
Plans for AWW meetings
  • In-text citation, list of references
  • Main text editing, quotations
  • Organisation and planning
  • Peer reviewers comments

Helpful sources
  • Turabian, Kate L. 1996. A Manual for Writers of
    Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations. 6th ed.
    Chicago University of Chicago Press.
  • Wolanski, Adam. 2008. Edycja tekstów. Praktyczny
    poradnik. Warszawa PWN.
  • http//

  • The same type of font should be used throughout
    the text, the default being Times New Roman
  • The standard font size for normal text is 12
  • Smaller font (TNR 10) is used for footnotes and
    block quotations, often also for itemised lists,
    references and captions to tables and figures
  • Suggestions for titles and subheadings (there is
    no period at the end of a title or subheading)
  • This is the title of the text (TNR 14, bold,
  • This is a first-level section of the text (TNR
    12, bold, left-aligned)
  • 1.1 This is a second-level section of the text
    (TNR 12, bold, left-aligned, italicised)
  • 1.1.1 This is a third-level section of the text
    (TNR 12, left-aligned)

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  • Double-spaced or 1.5-spaced All the basic
  • Single-spaced Block quotations
  • Footnotes (leaving a blank line between
  • Itemized lists
  • Examples if set off from the text
  • Lists of references (leaving a blank line
    between entries)
  • Runover lines in tables of contents, lists
    of tables and figures, etc.

  • No blank lines between paragraphs should be left
  • The first line of each paragraph should be
    indented from the left margin by approximately
    1.25 cm
  • Paragraphs should be justified
  • At least one blank line should be left before a
    new subheading
  • At least one blank line should be left after the
  • Unindented should remain
  • Block quotations
  • Titles and subheadings
  • Captions to figures
  • The paragraph immediately following a
    title, a subheading, a figure, a block
    quotation, a blocked example etc.

(No Transcript)
Tables, figures and graphs
  • They should be numbered consecutively throughout
    the text
  • Each should have a caption
  • In tables, columns and lines should have
  • A legend should be attached if necessary to
    clarify the structure of a diagram
  • If they are taken from another text, a clear
    reference must be given as appropriate.

Fig. 1. EMs in students outputs by token.

  • They should be given in italics, without
    quotation marks
  • The source of the example should be clearly
  • They may be set off from the rest of the text if
    the analysis is based on them
  • If they are set off from the rest of the text,
    they should be numbered consecutively and
    referred to by these numbers in the text
  • If they are set off from the rest of the text,
    they are single-spaced
  • For the sake of space, they may be given in a
    smaller font (TNR 10).

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Other functions of italics
  • In the text
  • For examples
  • For titles of books and periodicals
  • For words or phrases imported from another
  • For special emphasis.
  • In references
  • For titles of books and periodicals.

Freudian concept of das Unheimliche, the
uncanny, which is nothing new or alien, but
something which is familiar and old-established
in the mind and which has become alienated from
it only through the process of repression
(Freud, 1990 3634), is in fact central to
Kaysers understanding of the grotesque.
The publication and immediate success of Horace
Walpoles The Castle of Otranto in 1764 opened a
new era in the literary tastes of the English.
A note on titles
  • If given in the text (not in references, where a
    different rule may apply depending on the format
    used), they follow the spelling rules (in
    particular capitalisation) of their language.

Words and phrases from other languages
  • In principle, a translation should be supplied in
    single quotation marks or square brackets
    immediately following the item.

First, a large number of nonce-formations are
coined under the pressure of changing
socio-cultural reality, e.g. Pl. eurofob a
person who views the prospective accession of
Poland to the European Union with fear or hatred
or lepperyzm practices, behaviour or philosophy
of or similar to that of (coined from a proper
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A note on hyphenation
  • note-taking
  • first-level division
  • Almost half of the recorded examples of
    epistemic SHOULD were identified as evidentials
    either inferred (35 of epistemic records, Ex.
    15) or quotative (attributed, in 14 of epistemic
    cases, Fig. 5).

Quotation marks
  • Are used to signal a direct quotation if it is
    incorporated in the text (in contrast to block
  • Later in the century, this view of the
    grotesque changed and once more emphasis was
    placed on fantasy with a practical aspect
    parody, burlesque, mockery, caricature
    (Clayborough, 1965 49).
  • Are used around titles of shorter texts, like
    articles or poems
  • Are used to supply a translation of a foreign
  • Single quotation marks are normally used for
    quotes within quotes and for marking elements as
    instances of mention rather than use.
  • Language has eight characters.

  • Indirect quotations
  • They paraphrase the source
  • Page reference, although often recommended, is
    not obligatory
  • Permit a selective approach to the information in
    the source
  • Are unproblematic if the source is in another
    language the paraphrase is always in English
    and no exact translation is required.
  • Direct quotations
  • Follow exactly the quoted source
  • Must fit in syntactically in the text
  • Are quoted with exact page reference
  • No intervention permitted apart from elipsis and
    (minor!) additions introduced in square brackets
  • If they are in another language, a translation
    should be supplied, e.g. in a footnote.

Direct quotations
  • Incorporated in the text
  • Short, not longer than 100 words or 7 lines
  • Enclosed in double quotation marks
  • Closely following the source in punctuation
    except at the end of the quote, where commas and
    periods are always placed INSIDE the quote (all
    other marks must be placed outside unless they
    are truly part of the quote).
  • Block quotations
  • Longer
  • Set off from the rest of the text as a separate
  • The paragraph is indented throughout from both
  • The font is smaller (TNR 10)
  • No quotation marks are used.

Incorporated quotations
  • Freeman (1970 4) observes that there are three
    basic approaches to the problem of style in the
    field of linguistic stylistics style as
    deviation from the norm, style as recurrence or
    convergence of textural pattern, and style as a
    particular exploitation of a grammar of
    possibilities. The difficulty connected with the
    first style-as-deviation or style-as-difference
    approach is the status of the norm.
  • With elipsis
  • In their discussion of foregrounding, both
    Mukarovský and Leech draw attention not only to
    the presence of elements which violate the norm,
    but also to their interdependencies. The devices
    by which poetic language achieves its maximum of
    foregrounding must . . . be sought elsewhere than
    in the quantity of foregrounded components. They
    consist in the consistency and systematic
    character of foregrounding (Mukarovský, 1970
  • Footnoting
  • Riffaterre understands the norm in terms of
    stylistic context. The stylistic context is a
    linguistic pattern suddenly broken by an element
    which was unpredictable, and the contrast
    resulting from this interference is the stylistic

Block quotations
However, the English were more tolerant towards
the grotesque than the author of Lart poètique.
English taste for the grotesque revealed itself
in opera, burlesque, farce, and essays produced
during the neo-classical years. Their love of the
Gothic was more submerged, but it was also there.
In theory, classical taste prevailed, but in
practice, the staunchest neo-classicists admired
certain Gothic writers even though they
considered these Elizabethans grotesque and
irregular. (Barasch, 1971 129)
Kirk views the image of a human-animal hybrid in
terms of the nature-culture polarisation, the
Centaur being a fine example
First of all the Centaurs themselves, in that
they were half horse, symbolized both the wild
aspect of nature (for horses are shaggy, swift,
sometimes difficult to control, and obviously
potent in a sexual sense) and its more benign
side (for they are also friendly to men,
impressive and dignified in appearance,
contemplative in their glance and a mark of
social standing). That is their horse-aspect but
they are half men as well, and so the coexistence
of nature and culture becomes all the more
Indirect quotations
  • The authors identity is, on the one hand, that
    of a member of the academic discourse community
    who shows respect for fellow scholars and the
    conventions accepted by the community (see, e.g.,
    Myers, 1989 Swales, 1990 Hyland, 1994) and on
    the other, that of an individual researcher
    making a bid for recognition and acceptance of
    his/her claims (Koutsantoni, 2004 Martín-Martín
    and Burgess 2004).

Additions inside direct quotations
  • In an attempt to define verbal humour, Raskin
    (1985 46) proposes that it encompasses any
    text which is capable of creating a humorous
    effect, to the exclusion of a humorous
    situation which is not created, described and
    expressed by a text. To clarify this point, the
    author continues even if a non-verbal
    humorous situation is accompanied by a text but
    the text is just a component of the joke rather
    than its creator, it is still non-verbal humour
    (Raskin, 1985 46).

References (Bibliography) and hanging entries
  • Abdel-Fattah, Mahmoud M. 2005. On the
    translation of modals from English into Arabic
    and vice versa The case of deontic modality.
    Babel 51 31-48.
  • Bülow-Møller, Anne Marie. 1999. Existential
    problems On the processing of irrealis in
    simultaneous interpreting. Interpreting 4(2)
  • Candlin, Christopher N., and Ken Hyland, eds.
    1999. Writing Texts, processes and practices.
    London Longman.
  • Chafe, Wallace, and Johanna Nichols, eds. 1986.
    Evidentiality The linguistic coding of
    epistemology. Norwood, New Jersey Ablex.  
  • Coates, Jennifer. 1983. The semantics of modal
    auxiliaries. London Croom Helm.
  • Dendale, Patrick, and Liliane Tasmowski. 2001.
    Introduction Evidentiality and related notions.
    Journal of Pragmatics 33 339-348.
  • Englebretson, Robert, ed. 2007. Stancetaking in
    discourse Subjectivity, evaluation,
    interaction. Amsterdam John Benjamins.

  • Thank you!