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Chapter 2 Solar Energy, Seasons, and the Atmosphere

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Chapter 2 Solar Energy, Seasons, and the Atmosphere Supplemental notes are drawn from Lutgens and Tarbuck, The Atmosphere Seen from space, the Earth looks like no ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 2 Solar Energy, Seasons, and the Atmosphere


1
Chapter 2Solar Energy, Seasons,and the
Atmosphere
2
  • Supplemental notes are drawn from Lutgens and
    Tarbuck, The Atmosphere

3
  • Seen from space, the Earth looks like no other
  • planet that we know
  • Big Blue Marble

4
  • From pre-history Man has been directly and
    indirectly affected by environment
  • --- nothing as much as weather
  • --- Sun God Rain God omens reward/punishment
    etc
  • --- SAD

5
  • Weather the state of the Earths atmosphere with
    respect to heat or cold wetness or dryness
    clearness or cloudiness (Webster)
  • --- atmospheric extent is conceptual
  • --- manifest in wind temperature storms
    precipitation etc

6
  • Climate weather of a location over an extended
    period of time, including its extremes
  • I do not like terming climate as average
    weather

7
Atmospheric Composition
  • variant vs non-variant gases
  • nitrogen
  • oxygen
  • water vapor
  • trace elements (CO2 O3)
  • dust
  • industrial exhaust (NOx SOx)
  • insolation vs terrestrial radiation

8
Composition of the Homosphere
Figure 2.19
9
Ozone (O3)
  • Stratospheric
  • Tropospheric
  • --- VOCs and NOx
  • --- Corrosive
  • --- Biological irritant (a secondary
    pollutant)
  • --- compliance measured as
  • hourly average (0.085ppm)

10
Ozone (O3), cont
  • Factors affecting O3 and pollutants in general
  • --- human/economic
  • industrial mix
  • transportation
  • --- physical
  • wind
  • atmospheric stability and inversions
  • topography
  • severe air pollution potential

11
Photochemical Smog
Figure 2.26
12
(No Transcript)
13
Origin of Atmosphere
  • - First atmosphere of light gases disappear to
    space
  • - degassing and dissolving
  • - plants absorb CO2, release O2

14
Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere
  • Atmosphere structure is based on
  • (1) pressure
  • (2) temperature
  • (3) vertical variation in composition
  • --- Homosphere
  • --- Heterosphere

15
Atmospheric Pressure
Figure 2.18
16
Temperature Profile
Figure 2.20
17
Temperature Inversion
Figure 2.24
18
Profile of Atmosphere
Figure 2.17
19
Atmospheric Composition
  • Heterosphere Outer Atmosphere
  • 80 km (50 mi) outwards, to thermosphere
  • Layers of gases sorted by gravity
  • Homosphere Inner Atmosphere
  • Surface to 80 km (50 mi)
  • Gases evenly blended

20
Atmospheric Temperature Criterion
  • Thermosphere
  • 80 km (50 mi) outwards
  • Mesosphere
  • 50 to 80 km (30 to 50 mi)
  • Stratosphere
  • 18 to 50 km (11 to 31 mi)
  • Troposphere
  • Surface to 18 km (11 mi)

21
Heating of the Atmosphere
  • Radiation
  • Conduction
  • Convection / Advection
  • Latent Heat of Condensation

22
Average Breakdown of Insolation
  • Absorbed by atmosphere
  • 19-22
  • Reflected into space
  • 34
  • Absorbed Earth surface
  • 43-47

23
Heat Energy Budget
  • Insolation to the Ground
  • 47 of incoming solar radiation reaches the
    surface of the Earth
  • ultimately returned to the atmosphere
  • terrestrial radiation 14
  • conduction/convection 10
  • latent heat 23

24
Protective Atmosphere
Figure 2.21
25
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Figure 2.6
26
Solar and Terrestrial Energy
Figure 2.7
27
Earths Energy Budget
Figure 2.8
28
Controls on Weather and Climate
  1. Latitude
  2. Land-Water
  3. Ocean Currents
  4. Altitude
  5. Physical Barriers
  6. Human Activities
  7. Pressure systems and storms

29
Short Term Variations in Temperature
  • Daily affects of insolation
  • Cloud cover
  • Differential heating (land/water)
  • Reflection
  • Horizontal Air Movement

30
Variation in the Heat Energy Balance
  • Regions of Energy Surplus
  • --- tropical zones
  • --- seasonal
  • Regions of Energy Deficit
  • --- polar zones
  • --- seasonal

31
Figure 2.9
32
Daily Net Radiation
Figure 2.10
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