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What is an Ecosystem and Why is it Important: A Socio-Economic Perspective

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What is an Ecosystem and Why is it Important: A Socio-Economic Perspective Jeffrey M. Reutter, Ph.D. Director 1895 F.T. Stone Laboratory 1970 Center for Lake Erie ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What is an Ecosystem and Why is it Important: A Socio-Economic Perspective


1
What is an Ecosystem and Why is it Important A
Socio-Economic Perspective
2
Jeffrey M. Reutter, Ph.D. Director
  • 1895F.T. Stone Laboratory
  • 1970Center for Lake Erie Area Research (CLEAR)
  • 1977-78Ohio Sea Grant College Program
  • 1992Great Lakes Aquatic Ecosystem Research
    Consortium (GLAERC)
  • Reutter.1_at_osu.edu
  • 614-292-8949 fax 614-292-4364
  • www.sg.ohio-state.edu

3
Gibraltar Island
Village of Put-in-Bay On South Bass Island
4
Stone Laboratory Gibraltar Island
5
Commom Definitions1
  • Biology the science of life
  • Ecology science of interrelationships between
    living organizms and their environment
  • Populations groups of the same kind of
    organisms (species)
  • Community (or biotic community) all of the
    populations occupying a given area

6
Commom Definitions2
  • Major community of sufficient size and
    completeness to be relatively independent of
    adjoining communities
  • Ecosystem the community (biotic) and non-living
    (abiotic) physical environment function as an
    ecological system or ecosystem

7
Ecosystem Management
  • Manipulation of the populations and the abiotic
    environment to achieve a desired outcome
  • Sometimes difficult to determine appropriate
    boundaries for the ecosystem, i.e. the more
    independent it is of adjoining systems, the
    better. Otherwise, we have to be able to manage
    the inputs and outputs between adjoining system.

8
Challenges
  • Biology/life history of each species
  • Needs throughout life cycle
  • Range of travel/movement, i.e. how big is
    ecosystem
  • Interactions between species
  • Native and AIS
  • Impact of environmental alterations
  • Impact of our land-based activities on aquatic
    environment

9
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14
As a Result, Lake Erie Gets
  • More sediment
  • More nutrients (fertilizers and sewage)
  • More pesticides
  • And is still biologically the most productive of
    the Great Lakes

15
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16
Possible to get too much of a good thing, i.e.
too many nutrients
17
  • I heard Lake Erie is the place fish go to die.
  • --Johnny Carson, 1976

18
Blue-green Algae Bloom 1965-1970, Lake Erie
19
Lake Erie Cross Section
20
Managing the Lake Erie Ecosystem
  • Reduce phos loading from 29,000 to 11,000 tons
  • Walleye harvest 112,000 to 5 million
  • Econ value of walleye fishery 650 mil
  • Charter businesses 34 to over 1,200
  • Coastal related businesses 207 to gt425
  • Are stocks discrete between basins should each
    basin be managed alone

21
Boating Impact
  • 1.4 billion on Ohios economy
  • 400,000 registered boaters
  • 1 job for every 19 boats

22
Zebra Mussel vs Quagga Mussel
23
Byssal Threads
24
ANS/ZM History
  • 1985-86ZM arrives in Lake St. Clair
  • Not newover 180 species have invaded the Great
    Lakes, and 2/3 since St. Lawrence Seaway opened
    in 1959.
  • 15 Oct. 1988 First ZM found at Stone Laboratory
  • 15 Nov. 1988 First Sea Grant research project
    initiated
  • 15 Oct. 1989 ZM densities in western basin of
    Lake Erie reach 30,000/sq. meter

25
1974Before Zebra Mussels
26
1994After Zebra Mussels
27
Zebra Mussel Impacts
  • Walleye population about 1/3 of previous levels
    and economic value falls to 250 mil
  • Fishing effort reduced
  • Less licenses sold
  • Less boats sold
  • Water clarity improves
  • HABs return

28
Round Goby
29
Round Goby Impact
  • Eat zebra mussels
  • Bioaccumulate PCBs
  • Transfer contaminants to SMBass (levels up
    without greater loading, i.e. importance of
    changes to trophic structure or ecosystem)
  • Nuisance to anglers
  • Eat SMBass eggs and fry
  • Out compete native sculpins

30
Closing Thoughts
  • Dont understand current Phos changes
  • Can enhance economic value by increasing habitat
    diversityartificial reefs
  • 12-66 times more fish
  • Pay for themselves 2.75 times/yr
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