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The Universe, the Big Bang, Stars, and Galaxies

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The Universe, the Big Bang, Stars, and Galaxies The universe is a pretty big place, it s bigger than anything anyone has ever dreamed of before. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Universe, the Big Bang, Stars, and Galaxies


1
The Universe, the Big Bang, Stars, and Galaxies
The universe is a pretty big place, its bigger
than anything anyone has ever dreamed of before.
So if it just us, seems like an awful waste of
space, right?
Contact opening scene (257)
2
Universe
Last scene Men in Black (110)
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, or HUDF, is an image
of a small region of space in the constellation
Fornax, composited from Hubble Space Telescope
data accumulated over a period from September 3,
2003 through January 16, 2004. It is the deepest
image of the universe ever taken in visible
light, looking back in time more than 13 billion
years. The HUDF contains an estimated 10,000
galaxies. The total field of view represents only
1 ten millionth of the total sky.
3
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4
  • consists of all matter, empty space, and energy
    that exists
  • objects are so far away, we are seeing what they
    looked like millions of years ago
  • the visible universe is a region some 28 billion
    light years in diameter.
  • it takes one year for light to travel 5 trillion
    miles (a light year)
  • around 14-20 billion years old

5
  • is expanding faster and faster

6
The Big Bang Theory
7
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8
  • Origins
  • began with a large explosion called the big bang
    theory
  • only energy before this, no matter
  • first hydrogen and helium were formed
  • larger elements were formed later by stars

9
  • Evidence
  • is expanding, therefore must have been smaller at
    one point
  • evident by galaxies red shift
  • most look red because they are moving away from
    us
  • if they were moving towards us, they would look
    bluer (blue shift)

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11
  • cosmic background radiation
  • scientists found noise in our galaxy that was
    the cosmic microwave background radiation
    predicted by the Big Bang theory
  • most elements in universe are H and He
  • when stars reach the end of their life cycle,
    they distribute C, O, and Fe into the universe
  • if the universe was older, there would be more C,
    O, and Fe

12
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13
Stars
Show Planet and Stars Scale video
14
  • Closest star to Sun is Proxima Centauri
  • 4.2 light years away
  • life cycle varies depending on the size
  • all begin life inside a huge cloud of gas (mostly
    hydrogen) and dust called a nebula

15
  • then turns into a protostar
  • H is converted to He

16
  • gravity squeezes the atoms of a star so tight
    that the electrons are stripped away and the bare
    nuclei of atoms almost touch each other

17
  • The Hertsprun-Russell (H-R) Diagram
  • graphs the brightness and temperature of stars
  • helps astronomers understand how stars change
    over time

18
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19
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20
  • for average, Sun-sized stars
  • eventually runs out of H
  • core contracts, gets hotter making elements up to
    Fe
  • expands outwards making a red giant

21
  • hydrogen fusion stops
  • no more energy exploding outward
  • gravity pulls matter inwards
  • VERY high density, bright, and is called a white
    dwarf
  • outer layers often expand and drift away creating
    a planetary nebula

22
  • for larger stars
  • elements up to iron are fused together
  • eventually may turn into a supernova
  • quickly collapses because run out of energy and
    gravity is now the strongest force
  • core collapses and then rebounds outward with a
    shock wave that makes a bright explosion
    (supernova)
  • at this point, the heavier elements are finally
    created
  • if the leftover core is very, very dense, it may
    form a very small neutron star or a black hole
    with VERY powerful gravity

23
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24
Galaxies
  • a collection of millions or billions of stars
  • we are in a spiral galaxy called the Milky Way
    (Monte Python Galaxy song - 243)
  • nearest to us is the Andromeda galaxy
  • 2.2 million light years from earth

25
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26
  • galaxies can also be elliptical and irregular
    shaped.

27
The End
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