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Web Server Administration

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Title: Web Server Administration Author: ssilva Last modified by: New User Created Date: 8/4/2003 2:25:45 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Web Server Administration


1
Web Server Administration
  • Chapter 9
  • Extending the Web Environment

2
Overview
  • Understand File Transfer Protocol (FTP) services
  • Install and configure an FTP server in Windows
  • Install and configure an FTP server in Linux
  • Understand News servers
  • Configure remote access to a server
  • Understand streaming media servers
  • Understand e-commerce software

3
Understanding FTP Services
  • FTP is used to transfer files from a server to a
    client (download) and transfer files from a
    client to a server (upload)
  • FTP client is the browser
  • Also command-line and GUI clients
  • FTP servers can operate as anonymous servers or
    they can require a valid logon
  • Typically, they are anonymous
  • FTP servers are not secure user names and
    passwords are not sent encrypted

4
Understanding FTP Services
  • The client connects to port 21 (control port)
  • Port 20 (data port) is used to tell the client
    which unprivileged port to use for data transfer
  • The above describes passive mode FTP, the most
    common type

5
Communicating with FTP
Command Description Example
ftp host Initiates a connection to FTP server ftp 192.168.0.100
open host Once the FTP client has been started, opens a connection open 192.168.0.100
close Closes the connection but does not exit the FTP client close
quit or bye Closes the connection and exits the FTP client bye
ls filenames Displays filenames and can use wildcards ls .rpm
dir filenames Displays the long listing of files and their properties, such as the size and date the file was created dir .rpm
6
Communicating with FTP
Command Description Example
binary Transfer files in binary mode binary
ascii Transfer files in text mode ascii
get filename Downloads a single file get test.rpm
put filename Uploads a single file put testapp.zip
Mget filenames Downloads multiple files used with wildcards mget sendmail.rpm
mput filenames Uploads multiple files used with wildcards mput .tif
prompt no Stops prompting for each file when used before you use mget or mput prompt no
prompt Starts prompting prompt
7
Communicating with FTP
Command Description Example
hash Displays a hash symbol as files are being downloaded hash
cd directory Moves to another directory on the FTP server cd /software
lcd directory Moves to another directory on the client lcd /docs
pwd Displays the current directory on the server pwd
help command Finds very brief help on FTP commands if used without a reference to a command, it will give you a list of commands available help mget
8
Install and Configure Windows FTP Server
  • Windows component
  • Part of IIS
  • Configured through Internet Information Services
    (IIS) Manager

9
Configure FTP Messages
  • Banner appears when client connects
  • Welcome appears when logged on
  • Exit appears when client exits from server
  • Maximum connections appears when limit is reached
    and client cannot connect

10
Install FTP in Linux
  • The wu-ftpd FTP server was developed by
    Washington University
  • Once the rpm is installed, enable FTP
  • chkconfig wu-ftpd on
  • Restart xinetd service to recognize change
  • service xinetd restart

11
Configure /etc/ftpaccess
  • The /etc/ftpaccess file is the main configuration
    file
  • By default, users with IDs less than or equal to
    99 are not allowed
  • They are for system users and daemons
  • Because the ftp user is a system user, you have
    to allow it with
  • allow-uid ftp
  • allow-gid ftp

12
Configure /etc/ftpaccess
  • Limit user to a maximum of five failed logons
    before a disconnect
  • loginfails 5
  • Check for password that conforms to e-mail
    address
  • passwd-check rfc822 warn

13
Control Access
  • Set up user classes
  • class all real,guest,anonymous
  • class local real 192.168.0.0/24
  • Set limits for class
  • file-limit out 25 anonymous
  • file-limit in 10 local
  • byte-limit out 2000000 anonymous

14
Configure Messages
  • To receive notice that a readme file exists at
    login or any current working directory (cwd)
  • readme README login
  • readme README cwd
  • To display a message when a user logs on or moves
    to a directory
  • message /welcome.msg login
  • message .message cwd
  • To create a banner message when client connects
  • banner /etc/banner.txt

15
Understanding News Servers
  • News servers allow threaded discussions
  • You post messages in a newsgroup
  • A newsgroup focuses on a single topic
  • There are more than 40,000 public newsgroups
  • There are hundreds of gigabytes of information
    generated per day
  • News servers can be set up for use within an
    organization

16
Configuring Telnet in Linux
  • By default, telnet is installed but not enabled
  • chkconfig telnet on
  • service xinetd restart
  • Telnet should not be used in a non-secure
    environment such as over the Internet because
    user names and passwords are not encrypted
  • ssh is a secure replacement (described in Chapter
    10)
  • You cannot log on as root
  • However, you can log on as another user and "su
    root"

17
Telnet and Windows
  • Telnet is not popular in Windows because telnet
    is text-based and Windows relies on a GUI
  • However, there are many command-line utilities
    that can be used, especially in Windows Server
    2003
  • Before Windows, Microsoft networking depended on
    a single command net with many options
  • cacls can be used to alter permissions
  • netsh starts a networking shell which allows you
    to configure and display many network-related
    items

18
Common net Commands
Command Description Example
net user Lists all users net user
net user username Displays user information net user mnoia
net start service Starts a service net start "FTP Publishing Service"
net share namelocation Shares a folder net share docsc\docs
net use drive \\computer\share Maps a drive net use g \\web1\docs
19
cacls options
  • The format is cacls file or folder name options

Option Description
/e Changes instead of replaces permission
/t Changes all subfolders
/g userperm Grants a user specific permissions Permissions are f (full control) r (read) w (write) c (change) n (none)
/p userperm As above, except permissions are replaced
/r user /e Revokes permission
20
netsh Examples
  • Create a text file with commands to re-create the
    IP configuration
  • netsh interface ip dump
  • Ping the gateway IP address of each NIC
  • netsh diag ping gateway
  • In Windows Server 2003
  • Display errors in system log
  • Manage network monitor and performance
  • Defragment a drive
  • Shut down a server

21
Terminal Services in Windows
  • GUI-based access to a server
  • Can be used for remote administration or running
    applications remotely
  • In Windows 2000, you select remote administration
    on installation
  • In Windows Server 2003, it is installed already
    and you have to enable it
  • Client software is included in Windows Server
    2003 and Windows XP
  • You have to install client software for Windows
    2000

22
Understanding Streaming Media Services
  • Used to transfer video and audio
  • By default, UDP is used
  • Although TCP and HTTP can be used because of
    firewall issues in an organization
  • No single standard exists as is true with SMTP,
    HTTP, POP3, and others
  • Broadcast methods
  • unicast each packet is sent individually to
    each client
  • multicast each packet is sent to many clients

23
Understanding Streaming Media Services
  • Helix Universal Server from Real Networks is
    popular
  • Recognizes both Real Networks protocols (RTSP,
    PNA) and the Microsoft protocol (MMS)
  • Windows Media Services is a Windows component
  • Creates a folder called \ASFRoot to store
    Advanced Streaming Format (ASF) files

24
Understanding E-Commerce Servers
  • Can be as simple as a product list and a shopping
    cart
  • Can be as complex as amazon.com or dell.com
  • Microsoft Commerce Server is an add-on to IIS
  • Incorporates a number of features required for a
    typical e-commerce site
  • Highly customizable

25
Summary
  • Use FTP to transfer files
  • You use News servers to set up threaded
    discussions on a variety of topics
  • Telnet and Windows Terminal Services allow you to
    remotely administer a server
  • Streaming media servers are used for video and
    audio
  • E-commerce servers focus on selling and in
    general, communicating with customers
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