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Chapter 18 Classification (p.508 - 535)

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Title: Chapter 3 Classification Author: Egg-Harbor-Township Schools Last modified by: eht Created Date: 1/8/2007 4:17:07 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 18 Classification (p.508 - 535)


1
Chapter 18 Classification (p.508 - 535)
  • 2013-2014

2
  • 18.1 Essential Questions
  • Why do scientists classify organisms?
  • Objectives
  • Describe the goals of binomial nomenclature
  • Explain the difference between a common name and
    a scientific name

3
DO NOW
1. Which frog below is the green frog?
  • 2. Which one is it Puma, Panther, Cougar,
    Mountain Lion?

4
I. 18.1 Finding Order in Diversity
  • A. Assigning Scientific Names
  • 1. The problem of common (vernacular) names
  • a. People in different places use different words
    to describe the same organism
  • b. Different organisms from different continents
    can have the same common name

5
  • c. Over 1.3 million organisms described on the
    planet with an estimated 5-10 million more not
    described
  • d. In order to study the diversity of life,
    scientists needed a universal system

6
Early Classification
  • Aristotle
  • animals classified based on whether they had
    blood or not
  • Plants classified based on how they grew

7
Early Renaissance
Guess the animal being described.
Today Apis mellifera
8
2. Binomial Nomenclature
  • a. 1730s Carolus Linnaeus developed the system
    called binomial nomenclature
  • Swedish botanist
  • Known as the father of taxonomy

9
  • b. Every species is given a two part name called
    a scientific name
  • Scientific names include genus and species
  • The genus name is always capitalized and goes in
    front
  • Species names are written in lowercase and are
    unique to each species

Heloderma horridum
Genus Species
10
  • Scientific names are written in italics
  • Ex Polar Bear Ursus maritimus , Brown Bears
    are Ursus arctos

11
Some Genus and species Names You May Already Know
Panthera leo
Boa constrictor
Tyrannosaurus rex
Homo sapiens
12
3. Classifying Species into Larger Groups
  • a. Systematics the science of naming and
    grouping organisms
  • b. Organisms that are more similar to one another
    are placed in similar groups
  • c. Groups are called taxa (singular taxon)

13
(No Transcript)
14
  • Analogy
  • Kingdom - Country
  • Phylum - state
  • Classes county
  • Orders towns
  • Families neighborhood
  • Genus - street
  • Species specific house

15
KingdomAnimalia Phylum Chordata ClassMammalia
OrderPrimates FamilyHominidae GenusHomo Sp
ecies sapiens
Where do we fit in?
16
  • KingdomAnimalia
  • PhylumChordata
  • ClassReptilia
  • OrderSquamata
  • FamilyBoidae
  • GenusCorallus
  • Species caninus
  • KingdomAnimalia
  • PhylumChordata
  • ClassReptilia
  • OrderSquamata
  • FamilyViperidae
  • GenusBothriechis
  • Species schlegelii

17
4. Problems with Traditional Classification
  • a. Linnaeus grouped taxa based on specific traits
  • b. Many of his groups are still used today
  • c. The difficulty is deciding which traits should
    be used to define a group

18
  • Ex Barnacles and Limpets
  • d. Today we look for evolutionary relationships
    to group organisms

19
Activity
  • Groups of 3-4 individuals
  • Develop a classification system similar to
    Linnaeuss system
  • Create a name for each level of classification in
    your system
  • Minimum of 4 levels
  • Group your items according to your system
  • Write down or draw a brief schematic of your
    system on a lined sheet of paper

20
  • 18.1 Essential Questions
  • Why do scientists classify organisms?
  • Objectives
  • Describe the goals of binomial nomenclature
  • Identify the 7 traditional taxonomic groups

21
Do Now Questions (Day 2)
  • 1. What is the goal of binomial nomenclature?
  • 2. Who was Carolus Linnaeus?
  • 3. What is a scientific name? Give an example.
  • 4. List from most general to most specific the 7
    major classification levels.

22
  • 18.2 Essential Question
  • How do evolutionary relationships effect how
    scientists classify organisms?
  • Objectives
  • Describe how to make and interpret a cladogram
  • Explain the use of DNA sequences in
    classification

23
II.   18.2 Modern Evolutionary Classification
  • A. Evolutionary Classification
  • 1. Common Ancestors
  • a. Phylogeny the study of how living and
    extinct organisms are related
  • b. Used to groups species into larger taxa

24
2. Clades
  • a. Clades- are a group of species that includes a
    single common ancestor and all of its descendents
  • b. Includes both living and extinct organisms

25
  • c. All clades are monophyletic
  • Monophyletic group- a group that includes a
    single common ancestor and all of its descendents
  • Class Reptilia is not monophyletic, so in
    evolutionary classification reptiles are not a
    true group

26
B. Cladograms
  • 1. Traits are carefully selected for use in
    comparing in evolutionary classification
  • 2. These traits determine where different
    organisms branched off from a common ancestor
  • 3. Cladogram a diagram that shows relationships
    among species and larger taxa

27
4. Building Cladograms
  • a. Cladograms look like trees with branches
  • b. The point where each branch splits off is
    called a node speciation event

28
5. Derived Characters
  • a. Defined- a trait that arose in the most recent
    common ancestor of an evolutionary line and was
    passed on to its descendents

29
  • b. Ex having 4 limbs is a derived character in
    clade Tetrapoda
  • All tetrapods have 4 limbs

30
  • having hair is a derived character for clade
    Mammalia
  • all mammals have hair, but having 4 limbs is not
    a derived character for mammals
  • If it were only mammals would have this trait

31
6. Lost Traits
  • a. Sometimes descendents lose their derived
    character
  • b. Ex snakes are members of clade Tetrapoda, yet
    they have no limbs

32
7. Clades and Traditional Taxonomic Groups
  • a. Some traditional taxonomic groups are also
    true clades
  • Ex class Mammalia is the same as clade Mammalia

33
b. Some traditional groups are not true clades
  • Ex Birds and Reptiles are placed into separate
    classes in the traditional system
  • Reptilia is not a clade without birds since they
    share common ancestry
  • Birds belong to 3 clades Aves, Dinosauria, and
    Reptilia

34
C. DNA in Classification
  • 1. Genes as Derived Characters
  • a. The more similar the genes in two organisms
    are, the more recently they shared a common
    ancestor
  • b. When doing these comparisons, genes and
    mutations can be used as derived characters

35
2. New Techniques Redraw Old Trees
  • a. DNA analysis is making the evolutionary tree
    of life more accurate

The tree of life includes all three domains of
life. There are so many taxa that the tree has to
be drawn in a circle
36
  • b. Ex DNA evidence has helped to classify Giant
    Pandas
  • Red and Giant Pandas share many traits
  • DNA analysis shows that red pandas share more
    recent ancestry with raccoons
  • Giant Pandas share more recent ancestry with
    bears

Cladogram Construction Link
37
  • 18.2 Essential Question
  • How do evolutionary relationships effect how
    scientists classify organisms?
  • Objectives
  • Describe how to make and interpret a cladogram
  • Explain the use of DNA sequences in
    classification

38
  • Do Now Questions (Day 3)
  • 1. What is the goal of evolutionary
    classification?
  • 2. What is a cladogram?
  • 3. Give an example of a derived character.
  • 4. How are DNA sequences used in classification?

39
  • 18.3 Essential Question
  • What are the six kingdoms of life and how are
    they arranged into the tree of life?

40
III. 18.3 Building the Tree of Life
  • A. Changing Ideas about Kingdoms
  • 1. Classification systems will continue to change
    as long as new evidence is continued to be found.
  • a. Linnaeuss system had only 2 kingdoms- plants
    and animals
  • b. Technology and greater understanding of
    evolutionary relationships has lead to todays
    system

41
  • c. From the late 1800s until fairly recently,
    the number of kingdoms had expanded to five
  • d. Today we have 6 kingdoms

42
  • 2. Three Domains
  • a. Genetic studies have shown that there are two
    major and distinct groups of bacteria
  • b. Domain- is a larger, more general
    classification group, just above kingdom
  • c. The 3 Domains
  • Bacteria
  • Archaea
  • Eukarya

43
B. The Tree of Life
  • 1. Domain Bacteria
  • a. Kingdom Eubacteria
  • b. Basic traits
  • Single celled
  • Prokaryotes- no nucleus
  • Thick cell walls made up of peptidoglycan
  • Live in many environments
  • Some are parasites
  • Some are photosynthetic

44
2. Domain Archaea
  • a. Kingdom Archaebacteria
  • b. Basic traits
  • Single celled prokaryotes
  • Have unusual cell membranes
  • Have cell walls made of different material than
    bacteria
  • Live in extreme environments

45
3. Domain Eukarya
  • a. Contains all of the kingdoms of organisms that
    have nucleated cells
  • b. Kingdom Protista
  • Very diverse group, but not a true clade
  • Most are single celled organisms
  • Some are multicellular- Ex brown algae
  • Some are photosynthetic and others are
    heterotrophic

46
c. Kingdom Fungi
  • Heterotrophic
  • Most feed on dead organisms- release enzymes that
    digest food outside of their body, the digested
    food is then absorbed
  • Have cell walls made of chitin
  • Most are multicellular, some are single celled
  • Ex yeasts, mushrooms

47
d. Kingdom Plantae
  • Are autotrophs photosynthetic- can make their
    own food
  • Cell wall made up of cellulose
  • Most are multicellular
  • green algae have recently been included within
    this kingdom
  • Ex includes all flowers, ferns, and mosses

48
e. Kingdom Animalia
  • Multicellular
  • Do not have cell walls
  • Are heterotrophic
  • Most can move from place to place

49
Careers that use this stuff
  • Zoologist/Taxonomist
  • Nature Show hosts
  • Plant/Animal Breeders
  • Pet Store employees and owners
  • Wine/Beer makers
  • Doctors/Pathologists/Veterinarians
  • Zookeepers
  • Horticulturists
  • Landscapers

50
  • 18.3 Essential Question
  • What are the six kingdoms of life and how are
    they arranged into the tree of life?

51
  • Do Now Questions (Day 4)
  • 1. Name the 3 domains
  • 2. What are the 6 kingdoms?
  • 3. Which kingdoms include eukaryotes?
  • 4. Which organisms evolved first, fungi or
    animals?
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