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MET 112 Global Climate Change: Lecture 13

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Title: MET 112 Global Climate Change: Lecture 13


1
MET 112 Global Climate Change Lecture 13
  • Energy
  • Climate Change Mitigation
  • Dr. Craig Clements

2
Energy and Climate Change
  • Obviously, one of the main issues related to
    climate change is the burning of fossil fuels
  • Thus, energy use, and the continuing demand for
    energy are central to the challenges of climate
    change.

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4
Tons of CO2 emitted per person
5
US CO2 Emissions
  • Total emissions 5,788.5 million metric tons
  • 22 metric tons per person
  • Industry 35
  • Transportation 33
  • Residences 18
  • Commercial 14
  • 1,600 million metric tons due to personal use
    (33)

6
Average US Personal Energy Use (Per Person)
  • Automobile fuel 38 gallons per month Natural
    Gas 15 therms per month
  • Electricity 190 Kilowatt-hours per month
  • Airline Miles flown  147 miles per month Total
  • Latest estimate 17,600 lbs of CO2
  • Kyoto allowance (for US)
  • 11,000 pounds
  • To stabilize climate (550ppm)
  • 4,700 pounds

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9
If you buy an electric car, what is the most
likely energy source
  1. Natural gas
  2. Coal
  3. Petroleum

10
Mitigation of climate change
  • Mitigation
  • Steps taken to avoid or minimize negative
    environmental impacts.
  • Mitigation can include
  • avoiding the impact by not taking a certain
    action
  • minimizing impacts by limiting the degree or
    magnitude of the action
  • rectifying the impact by repairing or restoring
    the affected environment

11
The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
  • stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations
    in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent
    dangerous anthropogenic human induced
    interference with the climate system. Such a
    level should be achieved within a time-frame
    sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally
    to climate change, to ensure that food production
    is not threatened and to enable economic
    development to proceed in a sustainable manner

12
Figure Courtesy of IPCC
13
Climate Change 2001 The Scientific Basis WGI
contribution to IPCC Third Assessment Report
  • Summary for Policymakers (SPM)
  • Drafted by a team of 59
  • Approved sentence by sentence
  • by WGI plenary (99 Governments and 45 scientists)

14 chapters 881 pages 120 Lead Authors 515
Contributing Authors 4621 References quoted
14
IPCC Assessment Report
  • IPCC-Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • Greenhouse gas concentrations continue to rise
    (warming).
  • Anthropogenic aerosols tend to produce negative
    radiative forcing (cooling)
  • The balance of evidence suggests a discernible
    human influence on global climate (
    IPCC) 1997
  • "There is new and stronger evidence that most of
    the warming observed over the last 50 years is
    attributable to human activities .
  • (IPCC), 2001
  • (IPCC) 2007

15
IPCC Assessment Report
  • IPCC-Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • Greenhouse gas concentrations continue to rise
    (warming).
  • Anthropogenic aerosols tend to produce negative
    radiative forcing (cooling)
  • The balance of evidence suggests a discernible
    human influence on global climate
  • (IPCC) 1997
  • "There is new and stronger evidence that most of
    the warming observed over the last 50 years is
    attributable to human activities .
  • (IPCC), 2001
  • The IPCC finds that it is very likely that
    emissions of heat-trapping gases from human
    activities have caused most of the observed
    increase in globally averaged temperatures since
    the mid-20th century.
  • (IPCC) 2007

16
The Kyoto Protocol 1997 (in effect 2005)
  • A United Nations sponsored effort
  • Calls for reductions of greenhouse gas emissions
    by industrialized countries of 5.2 per cent below
    1990 levels.
  • The Protocol will go into force after
  • The protocol has been ratified by a minimum of 55
    countries.
  • The ratifying nations comprise 55 of global
    greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Current status
  • 156 countries have signed accounting for 61 of
    global CO2.
  • US not planning on signing protocol (US accounts
    for 36 of CO2 emitted)
  • Kyoto protocol went into force in Feb 2005

17
Articles of the Kyoto Protocol
  • Aim
  • Ways to reduce increasing GHG
  • Goals
  • Enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant
    sectors of the national economy

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Articles of the Kyoto Protocol
  • Aim
  • Ways to reduce increasing GHG
  • Goals
  • Enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant
    sectors of the national economy
  • Protection and enhancement of sinks

20
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Articles of the Kyoto Protocol
  • Aim
  • Ways to reduce increasing GHG
  • Goals
  • Enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant
    sectors of the national economy
  • Protection and enhancement of sinks
  • Promote sustainable agriculture

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Articles of the Kyoto Protocol
  • Aim
  • Ways to reduce increasing GHG
  • Goals
  • Enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant
    sectors of the national economy
  • Protection and enhancement of sinks
  • Promote sustainable agriculture
  • Research and promote new and renewable energy

24
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25
Altamont Pass, California
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29
Articles of the Kyoto Protocol
  • Aim
  • Ways to reduce increasing GHG
  • Goals
  • Enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant
    sectors of the national economy
  • Protection and enhancement of sinks
  • Promote sustainable agriculture
  • Research and promote new and renewable energy
  • Phase out any incentives for bad practice

30
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31
Articles of the Kyoto Protocol
  • Aim
  • Ways to reduce increasing GHG
  • Goals
  • Enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant
    sectors of the national economy
  • Protection and enhancement of sinks
  • Promote sustainable agriculture
  • Research and promote new and renewable energy
  • Phase out any incentives for bad practice
  • Encourage good practices

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34
Articles of the Kyoto Protocol
  • Aim
  • Ways to reduce increasing GHG
  • Goals
  • Enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant
    sectors of the national economy
  • Protection and enhancement of sinks
  • Promote sustainable agriculture
  • Research and promote new and renewable energy
  • Phase out any incentives for bad practice
  • Encourage good practices
  • Cut GHG from aviation

35
Articles of the Kyoto Protocol (II)
  • Keep to assigned amounts of GHG with overall
    worldwide reduction by at least 5 below 1990
    levels by 2008-2012
  • Countries can meet their commitments together
  • Joint implementation -Countries can work together
    to meet their emission reduction targets.
  • Richer (annex 1) countries can help developing
    countries to achieve sustainable development and
    limit GHG increases and then claim some emission
    reductions for their own targets
  • Emissions trading - countries can trade in
    emission units

36
Kyoto Targets
  • Industrialized countries will reduce their
    collective emissions by 5.2 compared to the year
    1990
  • Note that compared to the emissions levels by
    2010 without the Protocol, this target represents
    30 cut).
  • Calculated as an average
  • over the five-year period of 2008-12.
  • Target includes six greenhouse gases - carbon
    dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur
    hexafluoride, HFCs, and PFCs

37
Kyoto Targets(2)
  • National targets
  • European Union - 8 below 1990 levels
  • USA - 7 below 1990
  • Japan - 6 below 1990
  • Russia 0 (stay at 1990 levels)
  • Australia 8 (over 1990 levels)
  • Developing countries (no target)
  • China, India etc.

38
Kyoto Targets Developing countries
  • The UN Framework on Climate has agreed
  • The largest share of historical and current
    global emissions of greenhouse gases
  • has originated in developed countries
  • Per capita emissions in developing countries
  • are still relatively low
  • The share of global emissions originating in
    developing countries
  • will grow to meet their social and development
    needs.

39
Emissions Trading
  • Each country has an emission limit.
  • If this country cannot meet its target, it may
    purchase carbon credits from other countries (on
    the open market) who are under their limit.
  • This financially rewards countries that meet
    their targets.
  • Example of Russia
  • Countries also receive carbon credits through
  • clean energy programs (i.e. greentags)
  • carbon dioxide sinks (i.e. forests, oceans)

40
CO2 emissions for various scenarios
Kyotos eventual goal
41
Main reasons the US will not sign the Kyoto
Protocol? Economic burden No limits on
developing countries (i.e. China,
India) Protocol is not going to help much
"We will not do anything that harms our economy,
because first things first are the people who
live in America" - President Bush
42
Solutions - government
  • Kyoto Protocol
  • California potential leader

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46
Solutions - personal
  • Transportation
  • Home
  • Food
  • Consumption

www.earthday.net Top 10 Actions Ecological
Footprint
47
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48
Four Rs
  1. Rethink
  2. Reduce
  3. Reuse
  4. Recycle

49
Solutions - Consumption
  • Question your consumption urges
  • Material versus service based economy
  • Buy products that are in line with your values

50
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52
Your Carbon Footprint
  • A Carbon Footprint is a measure of the impact
    human activities have on the environment in terms
    of the amount of greenhouse gases produced,
    measured in units of carbon dioxide.
  • http//www.carbonfootprint.com/

53
Questions
  1. Is there scientific agreement that humans are
    causing global warming? Is this consensus
    reflected in the media and political arena? Why
    do you think there is a discrepancy??
  2. Does our society have the ability and capacity to
    solve the problem of global warming? Give some
    examples.
  3. How important is the issue of global warming to
    our civilization? Who should care?

54
The US should sign the Kyoto Protocol
  1. Strongly Agree
  2. Agree
  3. Neutral
  4. Disagree
  5. Strongly Disagree

55
Global warming is under way?
  1. Strongly Agree
  2. Agree
  3. Neutral
  4. Disagree
  5. Strongly Disagree

56
In terms of global issues, which do you think is
the most pressing?
  • Global Terrorism
  • Global Poverty
  • Global Warming

57
Government should act to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions even if it means raising energy prices
  1. Strongly Agree
  2. Agree
  3. Neutral
  4. Disagree
  5. Strongly Disagree

58
If you were going to help mitigate global
warming, which change would you feel most
comfortable making.
  1. Taking public transport more
  2. Paying more for gasoline (i.e.1 dollar per
    gallon)
  3. Altering your food choices

59
Global warming will affect your life?
  1. Strongly Agree
  2. Agree
  3. Neutral
  4. Disagree
  5. Strongly Disagree

60
Summary
  • Over the last 100 years and especially over the
    last thirty-five years, the Earth climate has
    experienced a significant warming trend.
  • Current levels of greenhouse gases are higher
    than anytime over the last 400,000 years and
    likely longer.
  • Science is confident that humans are responsible
    for a majority of the warming observed over the
    last 50 years.
  • The Earths climate will continue to warm and
    this warming will place significant stress on
    social systems throughout the world.
  • Climate change mitigation is necessary to reduce
    negative impacts.

61
Developing countries are the most vulnerable to
climate change
  • Impacts are worse
  • already more flood and drought prone as a large
    share of the economy is in climate sensitive
    sectors.
  • Harder to adapt
  • due to lack of financial, institutional and
    technological capacity and access to knowledge.
  • Climate change is likely to impact
    disproportionately upon the poorest countries and
    the poorest persons within countries,
  • exacerbating inequities in health status and
    access to adequate food, clean water and other
    resources.

62
Local Action Does It Make a Difference?
  • Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful,
    committed citizens can change the world indeed
    its the only thing that ever has.
  • -- Margaret Mead.

63
Tips to reduce
  • Transport
  • Drive less
  • Public transport
  • Carpool
  • Do errands on one trip
  • Dont idle car
  • Check tire pressure
  • Residential
  • Check home insulation
  • Turn off electrical appliances (lights, TV,
    computers) when not in use
  • Replace standard light bulbs with low energy
    bulbs
  • Monitor your home heating/cooling by using
    thermostats

64
Tips (continued)
  • Reduce your waste
  • Consider the packaging when purchasing goods.
  • Reuse bags
  • Recycle
  • Purchasing Power
  • Buy energy efficient light bulbs
  • Consider fuel economy when purchasing a vehicle

65
Purchasing
  • Consider the implication when you buy something.
  • Was the product produced in an environmentally
    friendly manner.
  • Were the people who made the product treated
    fairly.
  • Do the values of the company selling the product
    match your own.
  • Low price doesnt always mean the best deal for
    everybody
  • Its up to you to make the choice!

66
Summary
  • Climate change is potentially one of the Earths
    greatest challenges over the next few decades.
  • How we as a planet choose to react to the threat
    of climate change is largely a political and
    economic issue.
  • Solutions clearly require global action.

67
Goal of education
  • Critical Thinking
  • So dont be afraid to contemplate, examine and
    analyzeor in simple wordsthink.
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