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Emotional Experience, Expression, and Communication : A Developmental-Interactionist Approach to Biological and Higher-Level Social, Cognitive and Moral Emotions

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Title: Emotional Experience, Expression, and Communication : A Developmental-Interactionist Approach to Biological and Higher-Level Social, Cognitive and Moral Emotions


1
Emotional Experience, Expression, and
Communication A Developmental-Interactionist
Approach to Biological and Higher-Level Social,
Cognitive and Moral Emotions
  • Ross Buck
  • University of Connecticut
  • Presented at Yale University Emotion Interest
    Group,
  • Spring semester, 2003

2
  • This PowerPoint presentation may be used for
    educational purposes only, with citation of the
    original source.

3
PART I DEFINITIONS
  • MOTIVATION
  • EMOTION
  • COGNITION

4
MOTIVATION is conceptualized as the potential
inherent in a system of behavior control.
5
EMOTION is conceptualized as a readout of
motivational potential when activated by a
challenging stimulus.
6
EMOTION is conceptualized as a readout of
motivational potential when activated by a
challenging stimulus.
  • ANALOGOUS TO THE RELATIONSHIP OF MATTER AND
    ENERGY IN PHYSICS

7
EMOTION is conceptualized as a readout of
motivational potential when activated by a
challenging stimulus.
  • ANALOGOUS TO THE RELATIONSHIP OF MATTER AND
    ENERGY IN PHYSICS
  • ONE NEVER SEES ENERGY DIRECTLY, ONLY ITS
    MANIFESTATION IN MATTER (HEAT, LIGHT, FORCE)

8
EMOTION is conceptualized as a readout of
motivational potential when activated by a
challenging stimulus.
  • ANALOGOUS TO THE RELATIONSHIP OF MATTER AND
    ENERGY IN PHYSICS
  • ONE NEVER SEES ENERGY DIRECTLY, ONLY ITS
    MANIFESTATION IN MATTER (HEAT, LIGHT, FORCE)
  • ANALOGOUSLY, ONE NEVER SEES MOTIVATION DIRECTLY,
    ONLY ITS MANIFESTATION IN EMOTION.

9
BIOLOGICAL MOTIVES AND EMOTIONS ARE BASED UPON
SPECIFIABLE NEUROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS THAT ARE
GENETICALLY STRUCTURED
10
BIOLOGICAL MOTIVES AND EMOTIONS ARE BASED UPON
SPECIFIABLE NEUROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS THAT ARE
GENETICALLY STRUCTURED
Genetic Systems
11
BIOLOGICAL MOTIVES AND EMOTIONS ARE BASED UPON
SPECIFIABLE NEUROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS THAT ARE
GENETICALLY STRUCTURED
Genetic Systems
Neurochemical Systems
Neurotransmitters with agonists and antagonists
Receptor beds
12
BIOLOGICAL MOTIVES AND EMOTIONS ARE BASED UPON
SPECIFIABLE NEUROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS THAT ARE
GENETICALLY STRUCTURED
Genetic Systems
Neurochemical Systems
Neurotransmitters with agonists and antagonists
Receptor beds
Primary Motivational/Emotional Systems
Motivation
Potential inherent in systems of behavior control
13
BIOLOGICAL MOTIVES AND EMOTIONS ARE BASED UPON
SPECIFIABLE NEUROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS THAT ARE
GENETICALLY STRUCTURED
14
Cognition The challenging stimulus.
15
Cognition The challenging stimulus.
  • Often, emotion and cognition are seen as
    incompatible at opposite ends of a continuum.

16
Cognition The challenging stimulus.
  • Often, emotion and cognition are seen as
    incompatible at opposite ends of a continuum.
  • But, emotion involves a kind of knowledge a kind
    of cognition.

17
Cognition The challenging stimulus.
  • Often, emotion and cognition are seen as
    incompatible at opposite ends of a continuum.
  • But, emotion involves a kind of knowledge a kind
    of cognition.
  • Analytic cognition (reason) Linear, sequential,
    mediated

18
Cognition The challenging stimulus.
  • Often, emotion and cognition are seen as
    incompatible at opposite ends of a continuum.
  • But, emotion involves a kind of knowledge a kind
    of cognition.
  • Analytic cognition (reason) Linear, sequential,
    mediated
  • Syncretic cognition-emotion holistic, synthetic,
    direct

19
Cognition The challenging stimulus.
  • Often, emotion and cognition are seen as
    incompatible at opposite ends of a continuum.
  • But, emotion involves a kind of knowledge a kind
    of cognition.
  • Analytic cognition (reason) Linear, sequential,
    mediated
  • Syncretic cognition-emotion holistic, synthetic,
    direct
  • Developmental-interactionist theory posits an
    interaction between emotional and rational
    cognition occurring over the course of
    development.

20
The Schachter and Singer study illustrates an
interactionist conception of emotion
21
The Schachter and Singer theory of emotion
22
However, Schachter and Singer did not recognize
the complexity of the physiological contribution
to the interaction
23
New Mammalian Brain
REASON
(6 layered Neocortex)
EMOTION
Old Mammalian Brain
(3-5 Layered Paleocortex)
Reptilian Brain
24
Moreover, Schachter and Singer did not recognize
that the interaction occurs in a developmental
context
25
The Developmental-Interactionist view of this
interaction is illustrated by the
Affect-Reason-Involvement (ARI) model
26
The ARI Model
ANALYTIC COGNITION (REASON)
Relative influence
SYNCRETIC COGNITION (EMOTION)
The Emotion/Reason Continuum
27
Social Learning/ Cultural Factors
Relative influence
Biological Factors
The Emotion/Reason Continuum
Situational Differences Phylogenetic Scale
Developmental Scale
Emotional situations Simple creatures Infant
Rational situations Complex creatures Adult
28
Relative influence
Reason
Emotion
The Emotion/Reason Continuum
FUNCTION STRUCTURE
REFLEXES SUBCORTICAL
AFFECTS NEOCORTEX
The ARI Model shows the essential relationship
between reason and emotion in the control of
behavior, and is essential to Developmental-Inter
actionist Theory
29
The Affect-Reason-Involvement Model (ARI Model)
includes a measurement model based upon this
conceptualization
  • Affect and Reason are measured by the CASC Scale
    (Communication via Analytic and Syncretic
    Cognition Scale) Buck, Chaudhuri, and others.
  • A/R ratio defines relative influence of affect
    and cognition in response to a given stimulus.
  • Involvement measured as (A R /2).

30
The Evolution of Cognition Ecological Realism
31
Cognition J. J. Gibsons ecological realism and
awareness
32
Cognition J. J. Gibsons ecological realism and
awareness
  • Gibsons theory of ecological realism provides a
    detailed and coherent account of the evolution of
    knowledge from the earliest organisms to human
    perception.

33
Cognition J. J. Gibsons ecological realism and
awareness
  • Gibsons theory of ecological realism provides a
    detailed and coherent account of the evolution of
    knowledge from the earliest organisms to human
    perception.
  • Species evolved to be sensitive to those aspects
    of the environment which afford possibilities or
    opportunities for behavior affordances.

34
Cognition J. J. Gibsons ecological realism and
awareness
  • Gibsons theory of ecological realism provides a
    detailed and coherent account of the evolution of
    knowledge from the earliest organisms to human
    perception.
  • Species evolved to be sensitive to those aspects
    of the environment which afford possibilities or
    opportunities for behavior affordances.
  • Affordances are informative that is, they
    constitute information.

35
Cognition J. J. Gibsons ecological realism and
awareness
  • Gibsons theory of ecological realism provides a
    detailed and coherent account of the evolution of
    knowledge from the earliest organisms to human
    perception.
  • Species evolved to be sensitive to those aspects
    of the environment which afford possibilities or
    opportunities for behavior affordances.
  • Affordances are informative that is, they
    constitute information.
  • Affordances are defined jointly by organism and
    environment.

36
Cognition J. J. Gibsons ecological realism and
awareness
  • Gibsons theory of ecological realism provides a
    detailed and coherent account of the evolution of
    knowledge from the earliest organisms to human
    perception.
  • Species evolved to be sensitive to those aspects
    of the environment which afford possibilities or
    opportunities for behavior affordances.
  • Affordances are informative that is, they
    constitute information.
  • Affordances are defined jointly by organism and
    environment.
  • Affordances come naturally to be "picked up" by
    perceptual systems evolved via natural selection
    as phylogenetic adaptations.

37
Cognition J. J. Gibsons ecological realism and
awareness
  • Gibsons theory of ecological realism provides a
    detailed and coherent account of the evolution of
    knowledge from the earliest organisms to human
    perception.
  • Species evolved to be sensitive to those aspects
    of the environment which afford possibilities or
    opportunities for behavior affordances.
  • Affordances are informative that is, they
    constitute information.
  • Affordances are defined jointly by organism and
    environment.
  • Affordances come naturally to be "picked up" by
    perceptual systems evolved via natural selection
    as phylogenetic adaptations.
  • Gibson termed raw perception awareness.

38
There are three sorts of "raw" awareness Gibson
(1966 1979).
39
There are three sorts of "raw" awareness Gibson
(1966 1979).
  • 1. Awareness of affordances in the terrestrial
    environment, such as those provided by physical
    objects as support, obstacles to motion, etc.

40
There are three sorts of "raw" awareness Gibson
(1966 1979).
  • 1. Awareness of affordances in the terrestrial
    environment, such as those provided by physical
    objects as support, obstacles to motion, etc.
  • 2. Awareness of social affordances provided by
    other animals. Emotional displays can be
    conceptualized as social affordances.

41
There are three sorts of "raw" awareness Gibson
(1966 1979).
  • 1. Awareness of affordances in the terrestrial
    environment, such as those provided by physical
    objects as support, obstacles to motion, etc.
  • 2. Awareness of social affordances provided by
    other animals. Emotional displays can be
    conceptualized as social affordances.
  • 3. Awareness via interoceptors of vague
    sensations of internal origin--feelings and
    emotions--the "pangs and pressures of the
    internal environment" (Gibson, 1966, p. 31).
    These may be conceptualized as bodily
    affordances.

42
There are three sorts of "raw" awareness Gibson
(1966 1979).
  • 1. Awareness of affordances in the terrestrial
    environment, such as those provided by physical
    objects as support, obstacles to motion, etc.
  • 2. Awareness of social affordances provided by
    other animals. Emotional displays can be
    conceptualized as social affordances.
  • 3. Awareness via interoceptors of vague
    sensations of internal origin--feelings and
    emotions--the "pangs and pressures of the
    internal environment" (Gibson, 1966, p. 31).
    These may be conceptualized as bodily
    affordances.
  • In the present view subjectively experienced
    affects--feelings and desires--constitute
    awareness of bodily affordances.

43
COGNITION IS DEFINED AS KNOWLEDGE
44
COGNITION IS DEFINED AS KNOWLEDGE
  • AWARENESS DIRECT PERCEPTION, KNOWLEDGE-BY-ACQUAIN
    TANCE.

45
COGNITION IS DEFINED AS KNOWLEDGE
  • AWARENESS DIRECT PERCEPTION, KNOWLEDGE-BY-ACQUAIN
    TANCE.
  • COGNIZANCE KNOWLEDGE-BY-DESCRIPTION.

46
COGNITION IS DEFINED AS KNOWLEDGE
  • AWARENESS DIRECT PERCEPTION, KNOWLEDGE-BY-ACQUAIN
    TANCE.
  • COGNIZANCE KNOWLEDGE-BY-DESCRIPTION.
  • Pavlovian Conditioning Simple association.

47
COGNITION IS DEFINED AS KNOWLEDGE
  • AWARENESS DIRECT PERCEPTION, KNOWLEDGE-BY-ACQUAIN
    TANCE.
  • COGNIZANCE KNOWLEDGE-BY-DESCRIPTION.
  • Pavlovian Conditioning Simple association.
  • Instrumental conditioning Goal oriented.

48
COGNITION IS DEFINED AS KNOWLEDGE
  • AWARENESS DIRECT PERCEPTION, KNOWLEDGE-BY-ACQUAIN
    TANCE.
  • COGNIZANCE KNOWLEDGE-BY-DESCRIPTION.
  • Pavlovian Conditioning Simple association.
  • Instrumental conditioning Goal oriented.
  • Higher-level cognitive processing.

49
COGNITION IS DEFINED AS KNOWLEDGE
  • AWARENESS DIRECT PERCEPTION, KNOWLEDGE-BY-ACQUAIN
    TANCE.
  • COGNIZANCE KNOWLEDGE-BY-DESCRIPTION.
  • Pavlovian Conditioning Simple association.
  • Instrumental conditioning Goal oriented.
  • Higher-level cognitive processing.
  • UNDERSTANDING LINGUISTIC KNOWLEDGE.

50
COGNITION IS DEFINED AS KNOWLEDGE
  • AWARENESS DIRECT PERCEPTION, KNOWLEDGE-BY-ACQUAIN
    TANCE.
  • COGNIZANCE KNOWLEDGE-BY-DESCRIPTION.
  • Pavlovian Conditioning Simple association.
  • Instrumental conditioning Goal oriented.
  • Higher-level cognitive processing.
  • UNDERSTANDING LINGUISTIC KNOWLEDGE.
  • Unique to human beings?

51
A HIERARCHY OF COGNITION
LINGUISTIC UNDERSTANDING
LANGUAGE
COG. PROCCESSING
COGNIZANCE
REASON
EMOTION
INSTRUMENTAL LEARNING
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
AWARENESS
"RAW" KNOWLEDGE BY ACQUAINTANCE
LOW
HIGH
EVOLUTION OF CONSCIOUSNESS
52
LANGUAGE
THE GHOST IN THE MACHINE
A HIERARCHY OF COGNITION
COG. PROCESSING
GOAL-DIRECTED INSTRUMENTAL LEARNING
ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING/ CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
"RAW" AWARENESS KNOWLEDGE BY ACQUAINTANCE
53
A Developmental-Interactionist conception of
emotion Another visualization of the
conceptualization
  • 1. Emotion involves an interaction between
    biologically-based knowledge-by-acquaintance
    (affect) and rational knowledge-by-description
  • 2. This interaction occurs in a developmental
    context

54
DEVELOPMENTAL-INTERACTIONIST THEORY CONCERNS THE
DYNAMIC EVENTS WITHIN THE ORGANISM THAT MEDIATE
BETWEEN STIMULUS AND RESPONSE
55
THESE EVENTS INCLUDE THE RATIONAL AND
EMOTIONAL PROCESSING OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL
STIMULI
ORGANISM
EXTERNAL STIMULUS
INTERNAL STIMULUS
56
A "FILTER" DETERMINES THE EMOTIONAL IMPACT OF
PERCEPTUAL INFORMATION REGARDING AN EXTERNAL OR
INTERNAL STIMULUS
ORGANISM
EXTERNAL STIMULUS
FILTER
EMOTION
INTERNAL STIMULUS
57
The filter determines the impact of a stimulus
for a particular person in a particular
situation.
  • One aspect of the filter involves the Primary
    Motivational-Emotional Systems (PRIMES) of the
    individual.
  • AROUSAL Current state of activation.
  • AROUSABILITY Capacity to become aroused.
  • The second aspect of the filter involves relevant
    learning experiences associated with the
    stimulus.

58
PRIMARY MOTIVATIONAL-EMOTIONAL SYSTEMS
(PRIMES) RESPOND TO THE EMOTIONAL ASPECTS OF A
STIMULUS
FILTER
ORGANISM
PRIMARY MOTIVATIONAL- EMOTIONAL SYSTEMS
EXTERNAL STIMULUS
PRIMES
EMOTION
INTERNAL STIMULUS
59
THE PRIMES INTERACT WITH LEARNING RELEVANT TO THE
STIMULUS, SUCH AS CONDITIONED EMOTIONAL
RESEPONSES (CERs)
FILTER
ORGANISM
RELEVANT LEARNING (i.e., CERs)
EXTERNAL STIMULUS
PRIMES
EMOTION
INTERNAL STIMULUS
60
THE EMOTION I READOUT (AROUSAL) INVOLVES
ADAPTIVE/HOMEOSTATIC RESPONSES (i.e., THE FIGHT
OR FLIGHT RESPONSE)
FILTER
ORGANISM
RELEVANT LEARNING (i.e., CERs)
REASON
EXTERNAL STIMULUS
PRIMES
INTERNAL STIMULUS
I. AROUSAL
61
THE EMOTION II READOUT (EXPRESSION) INVOLVES
TENDENCIES TO EXPRESS OR DISPLAY THE EMOTION
FILTER
ORGANISM
RELEVANT LEARNING (i.e., CERs)
REASON
EXTERNAL STIMULUS
PRIMES
II. EXPRESSION
INTERNAL STIMULUS
I. AROUSAL
62
THE EMOTION III READOUT (AFFECT) IS SUBJECTIVE
EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE, BASED UPON SPECIFIABLE
NEUROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS
FILTER
ORGANISM
RELEVANT LEARNING (i.e., CERs)
REASON
EXTERNAL STIMULUS
III. EXPERIENCE
PRIMES
II. EXPRESSION
INTERNAL STIMULUS
I. AROUSAL
63
AUTONOMIC, ENDOCRINE, AND IMMUNE SYSTEM RESPONSES
DIRECTLY REFLECT AROUSAL
FILTER
ORGANISM
RELEVANT LEARNING (i.e., CERs)
REASON
EXTERNAL STIMULUS
III. EXPERIENCE
PRIMES
II. EXPRESSION
INTERNAL STIMULUS
I. AROUSAL
64
EXPRESSIVE TENDENCIES ARE READ OUT DIRECTLY IN
REFLEXIVE DISPLAYS (PHEROMONES, VOCALIZATIONS,
STARTLE, FREEZE)
FILTER
ORGANISM
RELEVANT LEARNING (i.e., CERs)
REASON
EXTERNAL STIMULUS
III. EXPERIENCE
PRIMES
II. EXPRESSION
INTERNAL STIMULUS
I. AROUSAL
AUTONOMIC, ENDOCRINE, IMMUNE SYS.
65
SUBJECTIVE EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE IS READ OUT
IN HIGHER-LEVEL RATIONAL COGNITION
FILTER
ORGANISM
RELEVANT LEARNING (i.e., CERs)
REASON
EXTERNAL STIMULUS
III. EXPERIENCE
PRIMES
II. EXPRESSION
INTERNAL STIMULUS
I. AROUSAL
66
SENSORY NEOCORTEX
HIGH ROAD
SENSORY THALAMUS
AMYGDALA
LOW ROAD
STIMULUS
RESPONSE
LeDOUX (1996) DISTINGUISHES BETWEEN A DIRECT "LOW
ROAD" AND AN INDIRECT "HIGH ROAD" TO THE AMYGDALA
67
THIS IS THE FAST BUT INCOMPLETE "LOW ROAD" TO
RESPONSE (LeDoux, 1996)
FILTER
ORGANISM
RELEVANT LEARNING (i.e., CERs)
REASON
EXTERNAL STIMULUS
III. EXPERIENCE
PRIMES
II. EXPRESSION
INTERNAL STIMULUS
I. AROUSAL
68
IN A SLOWER PROCESS, HIGHER-ORDER RATIONAL
COGNITION IS INFORMED OF THE FILTERED STIMULUS
FILTER
ORGANISM
RELEVANT LEARNING (i.e., CERs)
REASON
EXTERNAL STIMULUS
III. EXPERIENCE
PRIMES
II. EXPRESSION
INTERNAL STIMULUS
I. AROUSAL
69
INITIAL APPRAISAL AND LABELING IS BASED UPON
KNOWLDEGE OF THE STIMULUS, AND THE SUBJECTIVE
EMOTIONAL RESPONSE TO THE STIMULUS
FILTER
ORGANISM
RELEVANT LEARNING (i.e., CERs)
REASON
APPRAISAL, LABELING
EXTERNAL STIMULUS
III. EXPERIENCE
PRIMES
II. EXPRESSION
INTERNAL STIMULUS
I. AROUSAL
70
THE EMOTION IS LABELED BASED UPON THE
STIMULUS, PREVIOUS LEARNED ASSOCIATIONS,
AND SUBJECTIVE EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE
FILTER
ORGANISM
RELEVANT LEARNING (i.e., CERs)
REASON
LABELED EMOTION/ MOTIVE
APPRAISAL, LABELING
EXTERNAL STIMULUS
III. EXPERIENCE
PRIMES
II. EXPRESSION
INTERNAL STIMULUS
I. AROUSAL
71
THIS IS THE SLOWER BUT MORE COMPLETE "HIGH ROAD"
TO RESPONSE (LeDoux, 1996)
FILTER
ORGANISM
RELEVANT LEARNING (i.e., CERs)
REASON
LABELED EMOTION/ MOTIVE
APPRAISAL, LABELING
EXTERNAL STIMULUS
III. EXPERIENCE
PRIMES
II. EXPRESSION
INTERNAL STIMULUS
I. AROUSAL
72
NON-REFLEX DISPLAYS (VOCALIZATIONS, POSTURES,
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS) MAY REFLECT
SELF-PRESENTATIONAL DISPLAY RULES
FILTER
ORGANISM
RELEVANT LEARNING (i.e., CERs)
REASON
LABELED EMOTION/ MOTIVE
APPRAISAL, LABELING
EXTERNAL STIMULUS
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS, VOCALIZATIONS, PHEROMONES,
ETC.
III. EXPERIENCE
PRIMES
DISPLAY RULES
II. EXPRESSION
INTERNAL STIMULUS
I. AROUSAL
AUTONOMIC, ENDOCRINE, IMMUNE SYS.
73
GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIORS AND SELF-REPORTS REFLECT
RATIONAL AND EMOTIONAL FACTORS AS WELL AS
DISPLAY RULES
FILTER
ORGANISM
GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOR
RELEVANT LEARNING (i.e., CERs)
REASON
DISPLAY RULES
LABELED EMOTION/ MOTIVE
APPRAISAL, LABELING
SELF- REPORTS
EXTERNAL STIMULUS
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS, VOCALIZATIONS, PHEROMONES,
ETC.
III. EXPERIENCE
PRIMES
DISPLAY RULES
II. EXPRESSION
INTERNAL STIMULUS
I. AROUSAL
AUTONOMIC, ENDOCRINE, IMMUNE SYS.
74
THE RATIONAL-EMOTIONAL INTERACTION MAY FEED BACK
TO STIMULATE ADDITIONAL RESPONSES
FILTER
ORGANISM
GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOR
RELEVANT LEARNING (i.e., CERs)
REASON
DISPLAY RULES
LABELED EMOTION/ MOTIVE
APPRAISAL, LABELING
SELF- REPORTS
EXTERNAL STIMULUS
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS, VOCALIZATIONS, PHEROMONES,
ETC.
III. EXPERIENCE
PRIMES
DISPLAY RULES
II. EXPRESSION
INTERNAL STIMULUS
I. AROUSAL
AUTONOMIC, ENDOCRINE, IMMUNE SYS.
75
THE RATIONAL-AFFECTIVE INTERACTION TAKES PLACE
IN A DEVELOPMENTAL CONTEXT
FILTER
ORGANISM
GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOR
RELEVANT LEARNING (i.e., CERs)
REASON
DISPLAY RULES
LABELED EMOTION/ MOTIVE
APPRAISAL, LABELING
SELF- REPORTS
EXTERNAL STIMULUS
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS, VOCALIZATIONS, PHEROMONES,
ETC.
III. EXPERIENCE
PRIMES
DISPLAY RULES
II. EXPRESSION
INTERNAL STIMULUS
I. AROUSAL
AUTONOMIC, ENDOCRINE, IMMUNE SYS.
76
THE DEVELOPMENTAL-INTERACTIONIST MODEL From R.
Buck, "Human Motivation and Emotion" John Wiley
Sons. 2nd edition, 1988. Figure 1.6
FILTER
ORGANISM
GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOR
RELEVANT LEARNING (i.e., CERs)
REASON
DISPLAY RULES
LABELED EMOTION/ MOTIVE
APPRAISAL, LABELING
SELF- REPORTS
EXTERNAL STIMULUS
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS, VOCALIZATIONS, PHEROMONES,
ETC.
III. EXPERIENCE
PRIMES
DISPLAY RULES
II. EXPRESSION
INTERNAL STIMULUS
I. AROUSAL
AUTONOMIC, ENDOCRINE, IMMUNE SYS.
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