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EPSY 8334

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... 1 20 Acculturation Acc. Rating Scale: range 1-5 Parenting skills ... * * * Science in Counseling Psychology Are our interventions effective? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: EPSY 8334


1
EPSY 8334
  • Class 1 and 2 (Spring 2013)
  • Heppner et al 3 -4
  • Pyrczak Bruce 1-4

2
Science in Counseling Psychology
  • Are our interventions effective?
  • Empirically Validated Treatments
  • Experimental studies- randomized clinical trials
  • Relations about psychological phenomena

3
Class Goals
  • Identify a research question
  • Develop a research proposal that includes
  • An introduction/literature review that provides
    conceptual framework for research question based
    on theoretical/empirical literature
  • Methods to conduct study
  • Participants
  • Instruments to collect the data
  • Procedures
  • Analyses

4
Class Goals
  • Demonstrate skills necessary to understand
    results sections of journals
  • correlation, T-Test, ANOVAS MANOVAS Regression,
    moderation/mediation analyses
  • Demonstrate knowledge regarding characteristics
    of articles that report results of randomized
    clinical trials

5
Conceptualizing a Research Question
  • Three steps
  • What do we know about the issue.
  • What we do not know about the issue.
  • How will the study bridge the gap.
  • How what we know leads to the questions in the
    study

6
Identify Research Topics 4/8
  1. Read, Read, Think Think..
  2. Identify/discuss ideas
  3. Build on previous research
  4. Identify research questions (Kiplinger Lee,
    2001)

7
Identify Research Topics 4/8
  • Identify
  • Measurable constructs
  • Instruments to assess constructs
  • Participants
  • Statistical analyses

8
Studies Replication vs.Guide
  • Use different operational definition of variable
  • Add moderator or control variables
  • Develop different way to test hypotheses
  • Combine questions/strategies from several studies
  • Examine similar questions with a different
    population
  • Identify gaps weaknesses in previous work that
    you will address in your study

9
Research Proposal
  • Describe your research interests in general,
    broad terms.
  • Identify testable research question(s)
  • Identify the variables/constructs embedded in the
    question
  • Provide conceptual definitions for variables.
  • Provide operational definitions for variables
  • Instruments

10
Assumptions Research Paradigms
  • Ontology
  • Epistemology
  • Methodology

10
11
Assumptions Research Paradigms
  • Ontology
  • Epistemology
  • Methodology
  • Branch of metaphysics that deals with the nature
    of being reality
  • Branch of philosophy that investigates the
    origin, nature, methods, and limits of human
    knowledge
  • Relationship of Knower to Known
  • Procedures to gain knowledge about the world
    (reality others)

11
12
Assumptions Paradigms
  • Positivism
  • Post-Positivism
  • Constructivism
  • Critical Theory
  • Ontology
  • Epistemology
  • Methodology

12
13
True or False??
  • The scientific method allows us to observe facts
    without bias.
  • Observations of psychological states measured
    with scores on an instrument always will include
    true and error measurement.

13
14
True or False??
  • In research, the observed cannot be separated
    from the observer.
  • There is privileged and non-privileged knowledge.

14
15
Positivism
Ontology
Epistemology
Methodology
16
Positivism
Ontology Truth is universal, absolute it can be grasped/discovered Human nature follows cause-effect laws
Epistemology Discover universal laws that govern nature and human behavior Theories are reductionist
Methodology Scientific Method Scientific method allows individuals to observe facts without bias The observer is a nuisance
17
Post- Positivism
Ontology Universal truths exist Human nature follows laws Nature of universe cannot be known Probabilistic statements about truth p value
Epistemology Observations always truth error Successive studies to approximate truth
Methodology Scientific Method Observations true error measurement Researchers cannot be 100 objective Scientific community arbitrates knowledge
18
Constructivism
Ontology Truth - purely objective reality does not exist Reality knowledge are socially constructed Meanings given to an experience are more important than the experience itself
Epistemology Knower and known cannot be separated Knowledge is based on interpretations of observed interactions within a context
Methodo logy Hermeneutics Interpretations- Qualitative Dialectics relation of investigator and participant- to understand constructions
19
Constructivism--Critical Theory
Ontology A purely objective reality does not exist Knowledge is socially constructed shaped by those in power
Epistemology Knower and known cannot be separated Observers location in social context biases observations
Methodology Hermeneutics - Interpretations Dialectics relation of investigator and participant- to change constructions Social Change --- Social Justice in CP
20
True or False??
  • The scientific method allows us to observe facts
    without bias.
  • Observations of psychological states measured
    with scores on a test always will include true
    and error measurement.

21
True or False??
  • The observed cannot be separated from the
    observer.
  • There is privileged and non-privileged knowledge.

22
Goals of Science
  • Advance knowledge
  • Make discoveries
  • Increase our understanding of human behavior, and
  • Acquire facts about counseling (behavior)

23
Science Practice
Knowledge for its own sake Academic freedom Seeks to understand populations probability Individual differences nuisance/confound Knowledge for what it can accomplish Public service Seeks to understand individuals 0 or 100 Individual differences focus of attention
24
Testable Research Question (Kerlinger Lee, 2000)
  • Asks a Question
  • About
  • That

24
25
Testable Research Question
  • Asks a Question
  • About the relation of two or more constructs
    (correlation/experimental)
  • That can be measured in some way

25
26
Types of Research Questions
  • Descriptive
  • Describe what a phenomenon is like
    Collect/Categorize Information- Survey
  • Difference
  • Compare between two or more groups
  • experimental
  • association
  • Correlation (association)
  • Extent to which 2 or more continuous
    psychological constructs vary together

27
Research Questions (which analyses?)
Descriptive, Difference, Correlation
  • What are the levels of anxiety and career
    indecision reported by college men and women?
  • Do college women report higher levels of anxiety
    than college men?
  • Do college women report higher levels of career
    indecision than college men?

28
Research Questions (which analyses?)
Descriptive, Difference, Correlation
  • Among college students, are anxiety scores
    related to career indecision scores?
  • Do college students diagnosed with an anxiety
    disorder report higher levels of career
    indecision than college students without an
    anxiety disorder ?

29
Research Questions Descriptive, Difference,
Correlation
  • Among college students, what is the combined and
    unique contribution of anxiety, self-esteem and
    optimism to career indecision ?
  • Among college students, are there gender
    differences in the relation of anxiety to career
    indecision?

30
Moderation Question
  • Among college students, are there gender
    differences in the relation of anxiety to career
    indecision?
  • Among men, is anxiety related to career
    indecision?
  • Among women, is anxiety related to career
    indecision?

31
Research Questions Descriptive, Difference,
Correlation
Report to
  • Is career indecision CDS-- a multifactorial or a
    one-dimensional construct?

32
Types of Variables
  • Categorical
  • Discrete groups gender, depressed diagnosois
  • Continuous Interval Scale (equal intervals)
  • Temperature, money, days
  • Continuous Ordinal
  • Rank ordered Likert Scales

33
Types of Research Questions
  • Descriptive
  • Describe what a phenomenon is like
    Collect/Categorize Information - Survey
  • Difference
  • Compare Between-groups
  • Independent variable categorical and
  • status or experimental
  • Correlation
  • Extent to which 2 or more continuous
    psychological constructs vary together

34
Analyses Descriptive
  • Collect/Categorize Information - Survey
  • Means, SD
  • Mean score in standardized test by groups
  • Mean score in opinion survey by groups
  • Proportions of populations/groups
  • Percentage of high school graduates who attend
    college, by ethnic group,
  • Percentage of college students who graduate in 6
    years or less, by gender

35
Analyses Difference
  • Compare means in continuous variables between
    two or more groups t-test, ANOVA, MANCOVA
  • Experimental- DV is categorical and manipulated
  • Non-experimental- DV is categorical and status
    variable (not manipulated)

36
Analyses Difference
  • African American depressed adults who receive
    culturally infused CBT will obtain lower
    post-test scores in the Beck Depression
    Inventory(BDI) than their counterparts who
    receive traditional CBT.
  • Experimental or Non-Experimental ?
  • IV
  • DV

37
Analyses Difference
  • African American depressed adults who receive
    culturally infused CBT will obtain lower
    post-test depression scores (Beck Depression
    Inventory-BDI) than their counterparts who
    receive traditional CBT.
  • Experimental or Non-Experimental ?
  • Random assignment to treatment groups
  • IV Treatment Group CICBT --- TCBT
  • DV Scores in BDI

38
Analyses Difference - T-Test
Treatment (Random assignment) BDI Post test Mean SD BDI Post test Mean SD
Culturally Infused CBT 10.3 5.3
Traditional CBT 15.1 6.2
plt.05 Possible range of scores BDI 1-20 plt.05 Possible range of scores BDI 1-20 plt.05 Possible range of scores BDI 1-20
39
Analyses Difference
  • Women will obtain higher BDI scores at post-test
    than men (regardless of treatment group)
  • Experimental or Non-Experimental ?
  • IV
  • DV

40
Analyses Difference
  • Women will obtain higher BDI scores at post-test
    than men (regardless of treatment group)
  • Experimental or Non-Experimental ?
  • Gender status variable, no random assignment
  • IV Gender -
  • DV BDI scores

41
Analyses Difference - T-Test
Clients Gender BDI Post-Test Mean SD BDI Post-Test Mean SD
Men 11.5ns 5.2
Women 12.3 6.5
Possible range of scores BDI 1-20 Possible range of scores BDI 1-20 Possible range of scores BDI 1-20
42
2X2 ANOVA Treatment and Client Gender
Differences in Depression
IVs DV Post Test BDI Scores F statistic
Treatment T I vs.T2 (CI-CBT vs Trad CBT) Main Effect
Client Gender Male vs Female Main Effect
Treatment x Gender T1 x Male T2 x Male T1 x Female T2 x Female Interaction Effect
43
Moderation Analyses
Gender Mean BDI Post-Test CICBT TCBT Mean BDI Post-Test CICBT TCBT
Male 11.8 16.5
Female 12.5ns 13.1
plt.05 Possible range of BDI 0-20 plt.05 Possible range of BDI 0-20 plt.05 Possible range of BDI 0-20
44
Analyses Difference
  • Hispanic mothers who are diagnosed with
    clinical depression (BDIgt16) will obtain lower
    scores in parenting skills (Parenting Skills
    Rating Scale PSRS) than Hispanic mothers who are
    not clinically depressed.
  • Experimental or Non-Experimental?
  • IV
  • DV

45
Analyses Difference
  • Hispanic mothers who are diagnosed with
    clinical depression (BDIgt16) will obtain lower
    scores in parenting skills (Parenting Skills
    Rating Scale PSRS) than Hispanic mothers who
    are not clinically depressed.
  • Experimental or Non-Experimental?
  • Status variables- no randomnization
  • IV Depression group Yes vs. No
  • DV Score in Parenting SRS

46
Analyses Difference - T-Test
Clinically Depressed Parenting Skills Rating Scale Mean SD Parenting Skills Rating Scale Mean SD
Yes 2.3 1.4
No 3.8 1 .1
plt.05 Possible range of PSRS 1-5 plt.05 Possible range of PSRS 1-5 plt.05 Possible range of PSRS 1-5
47
Analyses Differences 2 IVs
  • Are there differences in scores in the Parenting
    Skills Scale among Hispanic mothers (a) who are
    depressed or non depressed (b) and whose children
    are boys or girls?
  • Does childs gender moderate (makes a difference
    in) the association of mothers depression
    status to scores on parenting skills ratings?
  • IVs
  • DV

ns
48
Analyses Differences 2 IVs
  • Are there differences in scores in the Parenting
    Skills Scale among Hispanic mothers (a) who are
    depressed or non depressed (b) and whose children
    are boys or girls?
  • Does childs gender moderate the association of
    mothers depression status to scores on parenting
    skills ratings?
  • IVs childs gender (Mod) depression status
  • DV parenting skills

49
2X2 ANOVA Depression Status and Childs
Gender Differences in Parenting Skills (n100)
IVs DV Parenting Skills F statistic
Depression Status (n50) Yes- No (n50 and 50) Main Effect
Childs Gender (n50) Boy vs Girl (n50 and 50) Main Effect
Depression x Gender DY x Boy (25) DN x Boy (25) DY x Girl (25) DN x Girl (25) Interaction Effect
50
Difference Mothers depression and childs
gender differences in parenting skills means
Independent Variable Parenting Rating Scale Parenting Rating Scale
Depression Yes No
2.3 3.8
Gender Boys Girls
3.1 2.9
Dep X Gender NS
Depression X Gender Interaction Depression X Gender Interaction Depression X Gender Interaction
Gender Mom Depression Mom Depression
Yes No
Boys 2.5 3.6
Girls 2.4 3.4
plt.05
51
Difference Mothers depression and childs
gender differences in parenting skills (DV)
Independent Variable Parenting Rating Scale Parenting Rating Scale
Gender Mom Depression Mom Depression
Yes No
Boys 2.5 3.6
Girls 2.4 3.4
Does child gender moderate the association of Moms depression status to parenting skills? or Does child gender moderate the difference in parenting skills between depressed and non depressed moms. Does child gender moderate the association of Moms depression status to parenting skills? or Does child gender moderate the difference in parenting skills between depressed and non depressed moms. Does child gender moderate the association of Moms depression status to parenting skills? or Does child gender moderate the difference in parenting skills between depressed and non depressed moms.
52
Difference Mothers depression and childs
gender differences in parenting skills (DV)
Independent Variable Parenting Rating Scale Parenting Rating Scale
Gender Mom Depression Status Mom Depression Status
Yes No
Boys 2.5ns 3.6ns
Girls 2.4 3.4
Does mom depression status moderate the association of child's gender to parenting skills? or Does moms depression status moderate the difference in parenting skills between moms of boys and moms of girls? Does mom depression status moderate the association of child's gender to parenting skills? or Does moms depression status moderate the difference in parenting skills between moms of boys and moms of girls? Does mom depression status moderate the association of child's gender to parenting skills? or Does moms depression status moderate the difference in parenting skills between moms of boys and moms of girls?
53
Analysis Correlation Questionscorrelation
coefficient Pearsons r
  • Among Hispanic mothers, are depression symptoms
    associated to parenting skills ?
  • IV DV
  • Depression Symptoms- Scores in Beck Depression
    Inventory Range of scores 0 20
  • Parenting skills Scores Parenting Skills Rating
    Scale Range of scores 1-5
  • Parameters Pearson r .40 plt.05 r2
    .16

54
Analysis Correlation -- Regression
  • Among Hispanic mothers, are depression symptoms
    and acculturation level associated to levels of
    parenting skills?
  • IV DV
  • Depression Symptoms- Beck Depression Inventory
    range of scores 1 20
  • Acculturation Acc. Rating Scale range 1-5
  • Parenting skills Parenting Skills Rating Scale
    range of scores 1-5
  • Parameters R2 .20 and Beta Coefficients

55
External and Internal Validity
E I Experimental Field E i Correlational/ Descriptive Field
e I Experimental Laboratory e i Correlational/ Descriptive Laboratory
Clinical Trials
56
Fill in the Blanks
  • The best research design is
  • What type of design is used in the randomized
    controlled clinical trials used to examine
    therapy outcome?
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