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Project Management Concepts


Project, Defined A project is an endeavor to accomplish a specific objective through a series of tasks/activities. A project consumes resources. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Project Management Concepts

Project Management Concepts
Project, Defined
  • A project is an endeavor to accomplish a specific
    objective through a series of tasks/activities.
  • A project consumes resources.
  • A project produces a tangible deliverable.
  • A project has a customer target market.

Six Primary areas of project management
  • Providing leadership and vision
  • Planning and organizing the project
  • Organizing and managing the project team

Six Primary areas, Cont.
  • Estimating costs and developing the project
  • Monitoring and controlling the project schedule
  • Ensuring the quality of the final result

Providing leadership and vision
  • Develop the project vision
  • Why are we undertaking this project
  • What is it expected to achieve
  • How do the members of the team relate to each
  • What standards of conduct are expected
  • How are coordination and cooperation achieved

Providing leadership and vision, cont.
  • Share the project vision
  • Instilling a vision requires frequent and
    continual communication with the project team

Planning and organizing the project
  • Estimate the size of the project
  • Define project milestones
  • Develop a detailed list of tasks
  • Assign resources to tasks
  • Develop and maintain a project schedule
  • Developing a Baseline Plan is an essential part
    of project management.
  • In essence, the plan is a roadmap.
  • Unforeseen circumstances may jeopardize
    achievement of the project objective.

Organizing and managing
  • Recruiting and obtaining staff for the team
  • Cross-functional teams are essential in the early
    phases of a project.
  • Who are the projects stakeholders?
  • Prepare a team charter
  • Assigning team members to work groups and tasks
  • Ensuring that team members are well trained

Organizing and managing, cont.
  • Ensuring that groups develop into effective work
  • The challenge facing the project manager is to
    prevent, anticipate, and/or overcome unforeseen
    circumstances by using high performance teams.

Estimating costs and developing the project budget
  • Two of the most difficult tasks
  • Ongoing for the life of the project

Monitoring and Controlling Projectscomparing
actual to predicted
  • Tracking progress using the schedule and defined
  • Maintaining an open items control log
  • Understanding and utilizing corrective procedures
  • Implementing consistent status review and
    communication techniques
  • Managing client expectations

Ensuring the quality of the final result
  • Validate to ensure that the system meets the user
  • Verify to ensure that the system is internally
    consistent and correct
  • Walkthroughs validate diagrams against user
    requirements and ensure consistency
  • Testing validates the system

Project Objective
  • Prior to developing a project plan, justify the
    need for a project and define the project
  • The objective must be
  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Actionable
  • Relevant
  • Time bound
  • The project objective is usually defined in terms
    of scope, performance, schedule and cost.

The Baseline Plan
  • Clearly defines the project objective.
  • Determine the specific tasks that need to be
    performed using the Work Breakdown Structure.
  • Create relationships among the tasks. Determine
    predecessors and PERT chart.

The Baseline Plan (cont.)
  • Determine the resources needed and how many. Make
    a time schedule and cost estimate.
  • Communicate this baseline plan in a Gantt chart.

The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  • A task/activity is a piece of work that consumes
  • The WBS is a hierarchical tree of end
    tasks/activities to be accomplished.
  • A work item is one small piece of the project.
  • A work package is the lowest-level item.
  • Responsibility is assigned at the work package
    and work item tasks.

Responsibility Matrix
  • Displays in tabular format the individuals
    responsible for the work items.
  • Used for team resource leveling in ensuring a
    fair distribution of work.
  • X can be used to indicate who is responsible.
  • P indicates who has primary responsibility.
  • S indicates who has secondary responsibility.

Preparing the PERT chart Sequencing Tasks
  • Ask the following questions regarding each
  • Which activities must be finished immediately
    before this activity can be started?
  • Which activities can be done concurrently with
    this activity?
  • Which activities cannot be started until this
    activity is finished?
  • MS Project will create both PERT and Gantt charts.

Project Scheduling
  • It is necessary to select an estimated start time
    and a required completion time for the overall
  • Relate these times to the project objective,
    contracts (RFP) resources available.
  • Be aggressive since people work up/down to

Activity Duration Estimates
  • The first step in allocating time to each task is
    to estimate how long each activity will take.
  • The duration estimate is the total elapsed time
    for the work to be done PLUS any associated
    waiting time.
  • The person responsible for performing the
    activity should help make the duration estimate.

Schedule Calculations
  • Once you have an estimated duration for each
    activity and an overall window, you must
    determine whether the activities can be done by
    the required completion date.

Schedule Calculations
  • A project schedule includes
  • the earliest times (or dates) at which each
    activity can start and finish, based on the
    project's estimated start time (or date)
  • the latest times (or dates) by which each
    activity must start and finish in order to
    complete the project by its required completion
    time (or date)

Scheduling Outcomes
  • Critical Path the series of tasks that must be
    completed within duration in order to not delay
    the project.
  • Alternate definitionthe longest path through the
    tasks of a project, which identifies the earliest
    possible completion date.
  • Slack Time a task whose start time can be
    delayed without affecting the required completion

Controlling the Project
  • A regular reporting period should be established.
    Reports are produced which document the
  • Data on actual performance
  • Information on any changes in scope, schedule,
    and budget
  • Keep in mind
  • Data should be collected in a timely manner and
    used to update the schedule and budget
  • Compare updated schedule and budget to the
    baseline and analyze

The Baseline Plan
  • Keep in mind
  • Projects overrun their budgets, miss completion
    dates, or only partially satisfy their technical
    specifications because there is no viable
    baseline plan.
  • The people involved in performing the project
    should participate in planning the work they are
    most knowledgeable.
  • Customer satisfaction increases in proportion to
    involvement in the baseline plan.