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Forestry Science I Unit 1

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Forestry Science I Unit 1 Definitions Acre A unit of land measurement consisting of 43,560 square feet or 10 square chains. A square acre measures 208.7 feet on each ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Forestry Science I Unit 1


1
Forestry Science IUnit 1
  • Definitions

2
Acre
  • A unit of land measurement consisting of 43,560
    square feet or 10 square chains. A square acre
    measures 208.7 feet on each side.
  •  

3
Ad Valorem Tax
  • Annual taxes assessed by the local county
    government on the basis of land and timber value.
  •  

4
Afforestation
  • The act of creating forests.
  •  

5
Annual Ring
  • A ring of wood put on each year by a growing
    tree that is, the line indicating the growth for
    the period of one year. From the annual rings the
    age of the tree may be determined.
  •  

6
Artificial Regeneration
  • Establishing a new forest by planting seedlings
    or by direct seeding.

7
Best Management Practices (BMPs)
  • A practice or combination of practices, that is
    determined by a state (or designated area-wide
    planning agency), after problem assessment,
    examination of alternative practices and
    appropriate public participation, to be the most
    effective, practicable (including technological,
    economic, environmental, and institutional
    considerations) means of preventing or reducing
    the amount of pollution generated by non-point
    sources to a level compatible with water quality
    goals.

8
Board Foot
  •   A unit of timber measure equal to a piece of
    board 1 foot square and 1 inch thick. The term
    also is used as a measure when estimating the
    amount of lumber in trees, sawlogs, and veneer
    logs. Board foot volume in a piece of lumber is
    determined by
  • BF. (length in feet X width in inches X
    thickness in inches)/12
  •  

9
Bottom Lands
  • Lands, usually flood plains, adjacent to a river
    or watercourse. This land is often highly
    productive for both pine and hardwoods, but often
    can be difficult to manage and harvest because of
    drainage problems and the presence of hardwoods.

10
Catface
  • A scar on a tree resulting from turpentine
    operations an old wound or burn.

11
Chain
  •  
  • A unit of measure 66 feet or 4 rods long.
  •  

12
Chip-N-Saw
  • Generally, trees larger than pulpwood size, but
    smaller than saw timber trees (often between 10"
    - 12" DBH). These trees are used to produce pulp
    chips and lumber.

13
Clearcut
  •  
  • A harvesting method that removes all the trees
    (regardless of size) on an area. After
    clearcutting, seedlings often are transplanted
    onto the site to ensure adequate reforestation.
    Clearcutting often is used to reforest species
    like pine that require full sunlight to reproduce
    and grow.
  •  

14
Commercial Forest Land
  • Forest land that is capable of producing timber
    for industrial use. Areas qualifying as
    commercial timberland have the capability of
    producing in excess of 20 cubic feet (1/3 to 2
    cord) per acre per year of wood in natural
    stands.
  •  

15
Competition
  • The struggle among trees for growth requirements
    such as sunlight, nutrients, water, and growing
    space. Competition goes on among both the roots
    and crowns of trees in the same stand.

16
Conifer
  •   A tree bearing seed cones usually an
    evergreen.
  • A softwood.
  • See Gymnosperms.

17
Conservation
  • The protection, improvement, and wise use of
    natural resources to provide the greatest social
    and economic value for the present and future.
  •  

18
Controlled Burning
  • Any burning that has been started intentionally
    by a landowner to accomplish some particular
    purpose, and over which he exercises some
    surveillance or control.
  •  

19
Cord
  • A volume measure of stacked wood. A standard
    cord is 4' x 4' x 8' or 128 cubic feet of wood,
    bark, and space. Cord volume in standing trees
    averages 70 to 90 cubic feet, because only the
    tree volume is measured -- not the tree volume
    plus the empty spaces that form when the wood is
    stacked. Pulpwood volume is typically measured in
    cords. A face cord or short cord is 4 feet by 8
    feet of any length wood less than 4 feet and is
    often the measurement used for firewood.

20
Crown
  •   The expanse of branches, twigs, and foliage of
    a tree the tree top.
  •  

21
Cubic Foot
  • A wood volume measurement containing one cubic
    foot of wood, such as a piece of wood measuring 1
    foot on a side. A cubic foot of wood actually
    contains about 6 to 10 usable board feet of
    lumber rather than 12 board feet because some
    wood is lost as sawdust and shaving during
    processing.

22
Deciduous Tree
  • A tree that drops its leaves at some time during
    the year, usually in the fall. These are
    primarily hardwoods such as oak, hickory, ash and
    sweetgum. Magnolia and American holly are
    evergreen hardwoods and not classified as
    deciduous trees.

23
Diameter at Breast Height (DBH)
  •  
  • Abbreviation for tree diameter at breast height
    (4 2 feet above the ground). DBH is usually
    measured in inches.

24
Even-aged Forest
  •   A forest containing trees with relatively small
    age differences existing between individual
    trees. The maximum age difference permitted in an
    even-aged stand is usually 10 to 20 years. Where
    the stand will not be harvested until it is 100
    to 200 years old, larger differences up to 25
    percent of the rotation age may be allowed. Pine
    plantations are even-aged forests that result
    from clearcut harvesting and reforestation with
    seedlings.

25
Firebreak
  •   A plowed barrier, often made by a bulldozer
    pulling a fireplow, designed to stop an advancing
    wildfire or to act as a line from where to work
    during fire fighting efforts.

26
Forest Floor
  • The covering of the mineral soil of a forest --
    humus, duff and litter under-forest growth.

27
Forest Management
  •  Giving the forest proper care so it stays
    healthy and vigorous and provides the products
    and values the landowner desires.
  • Technical definition Applying technical forestry
    principles, practices and business techniques
    (such as accounting, benefit-cost analysis, etc.)
    to forest management.

28
Forest, Virgin
  •   A mature or over-mature forest essentially
    uninfluenced by human activity. Forester. A
    professionally trained individual who supervises
    the development, care, and management of forest
    resources- including timber, water, wildlife, and
    recreation.

29
Forester
  • A professionally trained individual who
    supervises the development, care, and management
    of forest resources- including timber, water,
    wildlife, and recreation.

30
Gymnosperms
  •   The botanical name for the group of plants that
    includes the so-called softwoods literally the
    word means "seeds not enclosed." Terms commonly
    applied to trees belonging to the gymnosperm
    group softwoods, evergreens, nonporous wood,
    needle- or scale-leaved trees, and conifers.
    Most, but not all, true gymnosperms are
    needle-leaved, evergreen, and cone-bearing.

31
Hardwood
  • A loose term generally including all species of
    trees that lose their leaves in winter. Some
    hardwoods, such as magnolia, retain leaves
    throughout the year. Soft hardwoods are
    soft-textured, such as maple, hackberry,
    sweetgum, yellow poplar, magnolia, blackgum and
    sycamore. Hard hardwoods are hard-textured such
    as birch, hickory, oak, dogwood, wild persimmon
    and black locust.
  • Hardwood species often are used for furniture,
    flooring, paneling, fine veneers, pallets and
    firewood.

32
Harvest
  •   Removing trees on an area to (1) obtain income
    from the wood products (2) develop the
    environment necessary to regenerate the forest.

33
Heartwood
  •   The wood in the interior of the tree, extending
    from the pith to the sapwood, where the cells no
    longer participate in the life processes of the
    tree. Heartwood serves chiefly the mechanical
    function of support. Heartwood may contain
    phenolic compounds, gums, resins and other
    materials that usually make it darker and more
    decay-resistant than sapwood.

34
High-grading
  • The practice of harvesting only the biggest and
    best trees from a stand and leaving poor,
    low-quality trees to dominate the site.

35
Incising
  •   Making slit-like holes in the lateral surface
    of timbers that are resistant to treatment, so
    deeper and more uniform penetration of
    preservative may be obtained.

36
Intolerance
  •   The incapacity of a tree to develop and grow in
    the shade of, and in competition with, other
    trees.

37
Log
  •   To cut and remove logs from an area.

38
Logger
  • A person who is engaged in logging operations.
  • Locally, a person who hauls logs to landings or
    skidways.

39
Marking, Timber
  •   Selecting and indicating, usually by blaze or
    paint spot, trees to be cut or retained in a
    cutting operation. Synonym spotting-the M.B.F.
    abbreviation for "thousand board feet."
  •  

40
Merchantable
  • Trees or stands of size and quality suitable for
    marketing and utilization. They may or may not
    be located to be accessible for logging. Also, a
    specific grade of southern yellow pine timbers.

41
Naval Stores
  • A term applied to turpentine and rosin.

42
Nursery, Forest Trees
  • An area where young trees are grown for forest
    planting. It may be characterized as a temporary
    or permanent seedling or transplant.

43
Oriented Strand Board (OSB)
  • A type of particle panel composed of strand-like
    flakes that are purposefully aligned in
    directions that make a panel stronger, stiffer,
    and with improved dimensional properties in the
    alignment directions than a panel with random
    flake orientation.

44
Plywood
  • Boards made from three or more thin layers of
    wood glued together.
  •  

45
Pole
  • A young tree 4 inches d.b.h. or more. The maximum
    size of poles is usually, though not invariably,
    taken to some d.b.h. between 8 and 12 inches.
  • Used in structural applications that require
    timber relatively straight and knot free.
    Examples are poles used to support telephone
    lines. Can range in length from 30-125 feet. One
    of the most valuable timber products.  

46
Prescribed Burning
  • Burning carried out under the direct supervision
    of crews trained in the methods of when, where,
    and how fire can be used beneficially to improve
    timber management.

47
Preservation
  •   Wood preservation is the art of protecting
    timber and wood products against the action of
    destructive living organisms, especially fungi,
    insects, and marine borers. Usually refers to
    the treatment of wood with chemical substances
    (preservatives) that reduce its susceptibility to
    deterioration by organisms.

48
Pulpwood
  • Wood cut or prepared primarily for manufacture
    into wood pulp, for subsequent manufacture into
    paper, fiber board, or other products. Pulpwood
    depends largely on the species cut and the
    pulping process.

49
Quarter Sawed
  • Lumber sawed radially rather than across the
    grain.
  •  

50
Reforestation
  • The propagation of trees by natural or
    artificial means.
  •  

51
Sapling
  • A young tree less than 4 inches d.b.h. The
    minimum size of saplings is usually, though not
    invariably, placed at 2 inches d.b.h.

52
Silviculture
  • The art of producing and tending a forest the
    application of the knowledge silvics in the
    treatment of a forest the theory and practice of
    controlling forest establishment, composition,
    and growth.
  •  

53
Site
  • An area, considered by its ecological factors,
    with reference to capacity, to produce forests of
    other vegetation the combination of biotic,
    climatic, and soil conditions of an area.

54
Site Index
  •   A specific measure of site quality based on
    tree height in relation to tree age. In the
    South, the base year index for natural stands is
    50 years and plantations is 25 years. A site
    index table for plantation grown slash pine would
    show the expected height of the tree at age 25
    years. An example of a good site would be a slash
    pine site index of 90 feet at age 25 a poorer
    quality site would be 65 feet at 25 years.

55
Softwood
  • One of the botanical group of trees that
    generally have needle or scale-like leaves, such
    as conifers. Also, the wood produced by such
    trees regardless of texture or density.

56
Species (of trees)
  •   Subordinate to a genus. Trees having common
    characteristics. In common language, a kind or
    variety of tree.

57
Stumpage
  • Standing timber, or the value of timber as it
    stands. Stumpage often is estimated by the acre,
    cord, or thousand board feet.

58
Thinning
  •   Removing inferior trees from a stand to provide
    for better development of crop trees.
  •  

59
Timber
  • Standing trees woodlands lumber any piece or
    pieces of wood of considerable size a principal
    beam in a ship's framing.
  •  

60
Uneven-aged
  • Applied to a stand where there are considerable
    differences in age of trees and where three or
    more age classes are represented.
  •  
  •  
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