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Young Adult Outcomes from the Good Behavior Game: a classroom behavior management program applied in 1st and 2nd Grades

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Title: Young Adult Outcomes from the Good Behavior Game: a classroom behavior management program applied in 1st and 2nd Grades


1
Young Adult Outcomes from the Good Behavior
Game a classroom behavior management program
applied in 1st and 2nd Grades
  • Sheppard G. Kellam, M.D.
  • AIR Center for Integrating Education and
    Prevention Research in Schools
  • Presentation at SREE
  • December 11, 2006
  • Funding since 1984 by National Institutes of
    Health
  • NIDA, NIMH, NICHD

2
Co-Authors
  • Sheppard G. Kellam, M.D. 1,4
  • C. Hendricks Brown, Ph.D. 2
  • Jeanne Poduska, Sc.D. 1
  • Carla Ford, Ph.D. 1
  • Amy Windham, Ph.D. 1
  • Natalie L. Keegan 1
  • John Reid, Ph.D. 3
  • Nicholas Ialongo, Ph.D. 4
  • Hanno Petras, Ph.D. 6
  • Bonnie Copeland, Ph.D. 5
  • Linda Chinnia, 5
  • 1 American Institutes for Research,
  • Center for Integrating Education and Prevention
    Research in Schools
  • 2 University of South Florida, Prevention Science
    Methodology Group

3
The Baltimore Education and Prevention Partnership
  • The Baltimore City Public School System (BCPSS)
    has collaborated in 3 generations of education
    and prevention epidemiologically-based randomized
    field trials.
  • Trials were directed at helping children master
    key social task demands in 1st and 2nd grade
    classrooms.
  • Interventions were tested separately, then
    together.
  • The 1st generation will be our main focus today,
    where the Good Behavior Game (GBG) was tested by
    itself and the children, now young adults, were
    recently followed to ages 19-21.

4
Developmental Epidemiological Randomized
Preventive Trials
  • One of a set of current prevention research
    strategies
  • Intervention is directed at early risk factor to
    reduce risk and improve developmental paths
  • Defining population helps control selection bias
  • Allows study of means, but also variation in
    developmental paths and in impactwho benefits
    and under what conditions
  • Periodic follow-up to determine impact on paths
    and outcomes

5
Early Risk in Prevention and Education Research
  • Over the last four decades much has been
    learned about early risk factors and paths
    leading to behavioral, mental health, and school
    problems.
  • Most if not all are strongly related to
    academic failure, also a major risk factor for
    later school drop-out, delinquency, drug abuse,
    depression, and other problem outcomes.
  • Aggressive, disruptive behavior as early as 1st
    grade has been repeatedly found a risk factor for
    later school failure, delinquency, violence, drug
    abuse, and high risk behaviors.

6
Stancavage Theory
7
Design of 1st Generation Baltimore Trial Aimed
at Aggressive Behavior and Poor Achievement
Separately
  • 41 1st grade classrooms in 19 schools
  • Across schools 3 or 4 schools in each of 5 low
    to low/mid SES urban areas were matched. 70
    African American. Schools were randomly assigned
    either to the standard program (control) or to
    an enhanced curriculum (Mastery Learning--ML) or
    to a classroom behavior management program (Good
    Behavior Game--GBG).
  • Within intervention schools Children were
    balanced across all 1st grade classrooms. 1st
    grade classrooms and teachers were randomly
    assigned to standard program classrooms or to
    intervention classrooms.

8
Study Design cont.
  • In the 1st generation, the GBG trial was done
    over 1st and 2nd grades in 2 consecutive first
    grade cohorts.
  • 1st cohort with 40 hours of teacher training and
    support thru the year. This was the
    effectiveness trial, and will be our focus today.
  • 2nd cohort with same teachers with little
    training and support, tested the sustainability
    of resultsthe naïve trial.

9
Classroom Levels of Aggressive, Disruptive
Behavior 8-10 Weeks After Random Assignment in
First Grade (control classrooms)
10
High Risk Children in Well vs Poorly-Managed
Classrooms (control classrooms)
  • If the top 25 of all children on aggressive
    behavior were in disrupted classrooms, their risk
    of severe aggressive behavior problems by middle
    school was up to 59 times the average childs.
  • If similar children were in well-managed
    classrooms, the risk was 2.7 times the average
    childs.
  • Random assignment of children and teachers within
    schools allowed inferences re classroom effect.

11
Impact of Poorly Managed Classrooms on Teachers
  • The number-one reason for teacher burn-out is the
    inability to manage classrooms.
  • Teachers need tested tools to manage classrooms,
    i.e., to teach children how to be students.
  • A large portion of 1st grade teachers need such
    tools, e.g. 50 in Baltimore.

12
Goals of the Good Behavior Game (GBG)
  • Provide teachers a classroom-wide method to
    socialize children into the role of student
  • Reduce classroom aggressive, disruptive behavior
    among children to enhance classroom teaching and
    learning
  • Prevent school failure, drug abuse, delinquency,
    and other problem outcomes

13
The History of the Good Behavior Game (GBG), a
Classroom-wide Program
  • The GBG was originally developed by Barrish,
    Saunders, Wolfe at the University of Kansas in
    the late 1960s
  • The GBG had been reported in over 20 scientific
    papers, none randomized field trials, prior to
    the Baltimore large scale epidemiologically based
    trials.

14
GBG Implementation
  • In Baltimore, the GBG consists of dividing the
    1st grade class into 3 heterogeneous teams.
  • Teacher exhibits a large poster that states
    proper student behaviors, i.e., classroom rules.
  • Teams are rewarded for each childs pro-social
    behavior, and not rewarded when a child is
    disruptive. It is group contingent.

15
GBG Implementation (contd)
  • Early in the year, the GBG was played
    systematically for ten minutes, 3 times a week,
    and the time extended over the year.
  • Rewards were more abstract as the year went on.
    It was carried out in first and second grades.

Kellam Framework
16
Measure of Early Classroom Aggressive, Disruptive
Behavior
  • For this presentation a sub-set of Teachers
    Observations of Classroom Adaptation (TOCA R), a
    measure of each childs social adaptation to
    classroom rules for student behavior
  • Structured 2 hour interview with the teacher, not
    a checklist
  • Ratings were obtained for each child in the
    classroom in fall and spring of 1st and 2nd
    grades, and thereafter in spring of 3rd through
    7th grades
  • TOCA Aggressive, Disruptive Items on 6 point
    scales (1) breaks rules, (2) harms others and
    property, (3) breaks things, (4) takes others
    property, (5) fights, (6) lies, (7) teases
    classmates (8) yells at others, (9) stubborn,
    (10) trouble accepting authority

17
The Young Adult Follow-up Data
  • Ages 19-21
  • 2 Hour (average) telephone interview with each
    respondent.
  • Developmental, psychological and psychiatric
    status, WHO version of the CIDI for diagnoses.
  • Juvenile court and school records.
  • Social adaptational status in social fields of
    parental family, school, work, intimate
    relations, marital family if any, peers.

18
GBG Impact vs All Controls on Any Service Use for
Males
19
GBG Impact vs All Controls on Alcohol Abuse or
Dependence Disorder for Males
20
GBG Impact vs All Controls on Drug Abuse or
Dependence Disorder for Males
21
GBG Impact vs All Controls on Drug Abuse or
Dependence Disorder for Females
22
GBG Impact vs All Controls on Antisocial
Personality Disorder for Males
23
GBG Impact vs All Controls on Regular Smoking for
Males
24
GBG Impact vs All Controls on Completed High
School for Males
25
GBG Effectiveness trial vs. GBG Sustainability
Trial
  • Although the results from the 1st generations
    1st cohort were impressive, the results from the
    2nd cohort-- the sustainability trial-- except
    for drug abuse and dependence disorder-- revealed
    less impact, but in the same direction.
  • Since the mid 1980s we have learned more about
    the problem of sustainability of practices and
    results over subsequent cohorts.
  • We are currently trying a model with BCPSS based
    on multi-level mentoring and continual monitoring.

26
Lessons Learned I
  • First-grade classrooms are of central importance
    to later academic, mental, and behavioral health.
  • A relatively simple universal method of classroom
    behavior management in 1st and 2nd grades, aimed
    at aggressive, disruptive behavior-- a risk
    factor shared by a set of long term outcomes--
    appears to improve the set of long term outcomes.
  • Females are less responsive to GBG than are
    higher risk males. More research is needed re
    females.

27
Lessons Learned II
  • Without a system to mentor, model, and monitor
    teacher practices over time, GBG practices are
    prone to deteriorate.
  • Teachers need support from principals principals
    from area leaders area leaders from chief
    academic and executive officers.

28
Lessons Learned III
  • Randomized field trials (RFTs) are vital in
    testing what works, for which children, in what
    conditions.
  • Demographic epidemiology, analytic modeling,
    Pre-RFT observational studieslead to testing
    with RFT designs
  • Partnerships among researchers and school
    districts are essential to support such studies,
    and dissemination.

29
Thank you,
  • The End

30
Had baseline TOCA
Followed as young adult
31
2nd Generation Ed/Prev Trial in Baltimore Schools
  • Combined curriculum/instruction (CI) and GBG
    from 1st trial
  • New family/classroom partnership program (FCP)
    tested separately
  • Children, teachers, intervention condition all
    randomly assigned within 9 schools
  • 3 Classrooms randomly assigned within each school
    to 1) CI GBG 2) FCP alone or 3) the
    standard program
  • Results By middle school combined GBG and CI
    improved both achievement and behavior
  • Family/classroom partnership by itself had modest
    impact

32
3rd Generation Ed/Prev Trial in Baltimore Schools
  • Integrate 3 components into 1 Whole Day Program
    (WD) GBG CI F/C partnership
  • 8 Development Schools helped design and refine
    interventions and measures
  • Within 12 trial schools, random assignment of all
    1st grade children, teachers, and classrooms to
    WD or standard program
  • Children in 12 Whole Day 1st grade classrooms are
    compared to children in 12 Standard Program
    classrooms

33
Phases of Education and Prevention Trials
34
Baltimore analytic model
Decreased Later Substance Abuse
Decreased Aggressive, Disruptive Classrooms
Decreased Individual Aggression
Classroom Behavior Management
Individual
Classrooms
Aggression
Decreased Later Conduct Anti- social
Personality Disorders
Teachers Effective Academic Instruction
Increased Achievement
Poor
Poor
Improved Reading Skills
Reading Skills
Achievement
School Success Decreased Drop-Out
Decreased Depressive Symptoms
Effective Family-Classroom Partnerships
Depressive
Symptoms
Decreased Later Depressive Disorders
  • Other mediating or moderating variables
  • Family and poverty
  • Deviant peers
  • School building
  • Community economic health,
  • resources, drugs, and violence

Whole Day First Grade Education and Prevention
Program

Whole Day


35
Prevention Research Strategies
DEVELOPMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY directed at early
proximal targets
COMMUNITY PREVENTION directed at Community
School proximal targets
MORE IMMEDIATE RISK directed at more recent
proximal targets
COMMUNITY / SOCIETAL directed at Policies
Laws as proximal targets
Kellam Framework
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