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The Mongols

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The Mongols Mongol Origins The Rise of the Mongol Empire The Decline and Fall Mongol Origins Nomadic horse people N. China Grasslands Raised horses, tended sheep Felt ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Mongols


1
The Mongols
  • Mongol Origins
  • The Rise of the Mongol Empire
  • The Decline and Fall

2
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3
Mongol Origins
  • Nomadic horse people
  • N. China Grasslands
  • Raised horses, tended sheep
  • Felt tents Yerts
  • Language Altaic (Rel. To Turkic, Manchurian)
  • Practiced transhumance

4
Organization
  • Families--gtClans--gtTribes--gt
  • Tribes gathered during annual migration
  • Chiefs elected. Based on nobility, military
    ability, wisdom, leadership skills
  • Religion Shamanism
  • Nature deities, but key god is the Sky God
  • Sacred color blue

5
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6
Temujin Ghengis Khan
  • b. 1167, son of tribal chief
  • Father poisonedfled as youth
  • Returned as adult, avenged father, Eventually
    chief
  • By age forty had unified all Mongol tribes
  • Battles, alliances, ability to survive
  • Elected as the Great Khan
  • Amazing talents along with sons and grandsons

7
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8
Mongol Army Tactics
  • Organized army in Myriads (10,000s)
  • Units within each of 1000, 100, and 10
  • Elaborate signals every part can move in concert
    in battle. Flags, hand signals
  • Tactics retreat, turn, flank, destroy
  • Armaments horsemanship, compound bow
  • Reputation created paralyzing fear
  • By 1241 reached Poland and Hungary

9
Conquest
  • Every man carried their own supplies and had 2
    horses. Ate horse blood and milk
  • Thousands of vassals took loyalty oaths became
    commanders, ran army, ran government
  • Took walled cities by using Chinese siege
    technology
  • Brought Chinese engineers with them
  • Conquered most of Asia, Middle East, Russia

10
Two forms of ladders for scaling walls
11
Catapult
Folding Bridge
12
Flame Thrower
Flying Cloud Thunderclap Eruptor
13
Kiev as it would have looked when conquered by
the Mongols
14
Genghis Khan
  • Mans highest joy is victory to conqueror ones
    enemies, to pursue them, to deprive them of their
    possessions, to make their beloved weep, and to
    embrace their wives and daughters.

15
The Conquest of China
  • Genghis Khan wanted the riches of China
  • First secured his back conquered Tibetan State
    of NW China, Manchu State (N)
  • Took land all the way to Peking by 1227
  • Ghengis Khan died 1227
  • Successors reached the Yellow River 1234
  • Took all of China by 1241

16
Divisions at Genghis Khans Death
  • Four Khanates
  • Kipchak Khanate (Golden Hoarde) Russia
  • IlKhanate Persia
  • Chagatai Khanate Mongolia
  • Great Khanate China, Outer Mongolia, Border
    States, to which the others owed allegiance.
    Later became the Yuan Dynasty

17
Territory of the Mongols
18
Kublai Khan
19
Kublai Khan
  • Grandson of Genghis Khan
  • Moved capital to Peking 1261
  • N. enough to stay in contact with other Khanates
  • S. enough to control most of China
  • Conquered the S. Sung by 1279

20
Building Projects
  • Too far from prosperous south to easily collect
    taxes
  • Built the Grand Canal to Peking
  • Palace of the Khan designed by Arab architects.
  • Summer palace Shangtu (Xanadu)
  • Where a Mongol can be a Mongol
  • Developed hereditary succession

21
Mongol Rule of China Yuan Dynasty
  • Originally, plundered and robbed
  • Learned the art of taxation
  • Mongols ruling elite Highly centralized
  • Emperor--gtSecretariat--gt Roving Secretariat
  • Ruling minority segregated
  • Majority ranked according to ethnicity

22
Ethnic Ranking
  • Mongols Top military, civilian posts
  • Persians, Turks, Non-Chinese nomad stock High
    civil posts
  • N. Chinese, border people, Manchurians Next
    highest posts
  • S. Chinese Lowest civil posts
  • All records and proceedings in Uighur Turkic,
    than translated word by word into Chinese
    (sounded barbaric)

23
Foreign Contact
  • Large, multi-ethnic empire facilitated diffusion
  • Subject states Persian, Arab, Russian, Turkic
  • Goods, art, technology and ideas spread
  • Chinese communities found as far west as Moscow
  • Printing, gunpowder, medicine diffuse west
  • Marco Polo

24
Religion Christianity
  • Policy of toleration
  • Kublai Khans mother was a Nestorian Christian
  • Papal Mission created Peking Archbishop and
    cathedral, complete with Mongol and Turkic sermon
    and Mongol choir boys
  • Wanted 100 learned Catholics to be sent by the
    Pope

25
Buddhism and Islam
  • Tibetan Buddhism gained 500,000 converts
  • Islam gained many converts. A mosque was built in
    a new Islamic quarter of Peking and others built
    in SW China
  • Confucianism survived Considered a tax free
    religion. No real influence at court
  • Most of China in the South remained unchanged

26
Decline and Fall
  • Yuan Dynasty Shortest lived major Chinese
    dynasty (1264-1368)
  • By the death of Kublai Khans son, series of weak
    rulers
  • The Khanates lose cohesion due to religious and
    cultural differences
  • Yuan Dynasty becomes more isolated

27
The End
  • Chinese never really accepted as legitimate
  • Succession wars between heirs and generals
  • High Taxes, Corrupt officials
  • Paper money controversy
  • Yellow River changed course and flooded Grand
    Canal among other natural disasters
  • Decentralization Rise of Warlords
  • Last Khan fled to Mongolia in 1368
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