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Appreciative Inquiry: The Positive Core of Change

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Title: Appreciative Inquiry: The Positive Core of Change


1
Appreciative Inquiry The Positive Core
of Change
  • Sponsored by University of St. Thomas OD Program
    and MN OD Network
  • Presented by David L. Cooperrider
  • Case Western Reserve University
  • (http//appreciativeinquiry.cwru.edu)

2
An Open Moment We Are In It.
Now.
  • Thank God our precious time is now M.L. King
  • A Time to Re-think Human Relationships and
    Change, e.g.
  • No Limits to Cooperation Power of Wholeness
  • Realities and Relationships The Language of
    Life
  • A Positive Revolution in Change

3
Appreciative Inquiry is a Shift
  • No problem can be solved from the same level of
    consciousness that created it. We must learn to
    see the world anew.
  • There are only two ways to live your life. One
    is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is
    as though everything is a miracle.
  • Albert Einstein

4
Discovery What gives life? (The best of what
is) Appreciating
Dream What might be? (What is the worldcalling
for) Envisioning Results
Destiny How to empower, learn, and
improvise? Sustaining
Affirmative Topic Choice
Design What should bethe ideal? Co-constructi
ng

Appreciative Inquiry 4-D
5
Five Principles of AI
  • Constructionist Principle
  • Principle of Simultaneity
  • Open Book Poetic Principle
  • Anticipatory Principle
  • Positive Principle
  • (One MorePrinciple of Wholeness)

6
1. Moments of Magnified Meaning Making
7
2. Exploring Moments of Leadership in Your
Life
  • A story of a high point experienceleading
    positive change?

8
3. Your Vision of a Better World Your Images
and Vision of
  • Business as an Agent of World Benefit? How
    Ideally Organized? Practices? Bring Out Best in
    Human Beings?

9
Starting AI Interview (dialogue
in pairs)
  • A--gtB (15 min)
  • B--gtA (15 min)
  • Spirit of discovery
  • Take brief notes
  • At the end.. summary thanks
  • Return _at_445

10
Pioneering ResearchAcross Many Fields
  • An Emerging Vocabulary of Positive Change

11
Many Disciplines
Positive Images of Future Positive Change
  • Positive HealthPlacebo, etc.
  • Pygmalion We are Made and Imagined In Each
    Others Eyes
  • What Good are Positive Emotions? Inspiration,
    Hope, Joy
  • Imbalanced Inner Dialogue
  • Our Inner Media Outer Media
  • Affirmative Capacity

12
Deficit Theory of Change and Cultural
Consequences of Deficit Discourse
  • Identify problem
  • Conduct root cause analysis
  • Brainstorm solutionsand analyze
  • Develop action plans
  • The signal accomplishment of the industrial age
    was the notion of continuous improvement. It
    remains the secular religion of most managers
    has reached the point of diminishing returns in
    incremental improvement programs. Gary Hamel
    Leading The Revolution

Metaphor Organizations are problems to be solved
13
With person next to you
  • Things most interesting-- or important-- in any
    of these areas?
  • (positive health placebo pygmalion inner
    dialogue outer media positive emotions
    affirmative capability)
  • Any examples from your life? Other research?

14
Deficit Theory of Change and Cultural
Consequences of Deficit Discourse
  • Identify problem
  • Conduct root cause analysis
  • Brainstorm solutionsand analyze
  • Develop action plans
  • Vocabularies of
  • Professional Vocabularies of Deficit
  • Bureaucratic Disenchantment
  • Original Sin
  • Critical Theory
  • Deconstruction
  • Critical-Cynical Media

Metaphor Organizations are problems to be solved
15
Cultural Consequences of Deficit Discourse
  • Fragmentation
  • Few New Images of PossibilitySelf-Fulfilling
    Frames/Questions
  • Exhaustion Visionless Voice
  • The Experts Must KnowDependence and Hierarchy
  • Spirals in Deficit Vocabularies
  • Breakdown in Relations/Closed Door
    Meetings/Decrease in Public Space/Cycle of

16
Ap-preci-ate, v.,
  • 1. Valuing
  • The act of recognizing the best in people and the
    world around us
  • Affirming past and present strengths, successes,
    and potentials
  • To perceive those things that give life (health,
    vitality, and excellence) to living systems.
  • 2. To increase in value, e.g. the economy has
    appreciated in value.
  • Synonyms valuing, prizing, esteeming,and
    honoring.

17
In-quire (kwir), v.,
  • 1. The act of exploration and discovery.
  • 2. To ask questions to be open to seeing new
    potentials and possibilities.
  • Synonyms discovery, search, studyand systematic
    exploration.

18
What would you call it?(all these things taken
together)
  • Achievements
  • Strategic opportunities
  • Cooperative Moments
  • Technical assets
  • Innovations
  • Elevated thoughts
  • Community assets
  • Positive emotions
  • Financial assets
  • Community wisdom
  • Core competencies
  • Visions of possibility
  • Vital traditions, values
  • Positive macrotrends
  • Social capital
  • Embedded knowledge
  • Business ecosystem s eg. suppliers, partners,
    competitors, customer

19
The Positive Core
  • Complete Organizational WealthWell-being
  • An Incredible Energy
  • AI as an Organizational Yoga

20
Whole Organizational Connection to the Positive
Core
  • Elevates positive emotions of hope, inspiration,
    confidence, joy raises intelligence expands the
    language of life (internal dialogue) increases
    in appreciative interchange and mutually
    elevating relationships higher creativity,
    better decision making, increased collective
    capacity.
  • Undo Negative Impacts letting go, makes
    irrelevant, finishes the residual of negative
    past.
  • Protection in Future Increases health-ability
    resilience accumulation of power like an
    increase in immune system functioning.

21
The Idea of Positive Change
  • Any form of organization change, re-design, or
    planning that begins with comprehensive analysis
    of an organizations positive core and then
    links this knowledge to the heart of any
    strategic change agenda.
  • Because human systems move toward what they
    persistently ask questions about, positive change
    involves the deliberate discovery of everything
    that gives a system life when it is most
    effective in economic and human terms.
  • Link the positive core directly to any strategic
    agenda, and changes never thought possible are
    more rapidly mobilized while simultaneously
    building enthusiasm, corporate confidence, and
    human energy.

22
Discovery What gives life? (The best of what
is) Appreciating
Dream What might be? (What is the worldcalling
for) Envisioning Results
Destiny How to empower, learn, and
improvise? Sustaining
Affirmative Topic Choice
Design What should bethe ideal? Co-constructi
ng

Appreciative Inquiry 4-D
23
An Exciting Story Example of Ai In Action
  • Recently Featured in Fast Company
  • Roadway ExpressLets Look Closer.

24
We Are Born To Appreciate Three Facts About All
Human Beings
  • Exceptionality
  • Essentiality
  • Equality/Voice and Vision

25
Positive Topic Choice
  • Human systems move in the direction of what we
    deeply and persistently ask questions about
  • Transformational topics are possible in any
    situation, and will generate more positive
    changeevery time.
  • The skill of framing and re-framing

26
Topic Creation Examples
Community in Full Voice Transformational
Cooperation Healthy Multi-racial
Relationships Revolutionary Customer
Response Magnetic Work Environment Outstanding
Arrival Experiences Business as an Agent of World
Benefit Courageous Acts of Goodness Empowering
Enlightened Leadership
27
Creating Topics for An AI That Has High
Transformational Potential
  • Some groups create a 3 topics for inquiry for the
    community . Other groups create AI topic for your
    center itself.
  • Good Topics are
  • Desired
  • The words are energizingyou would like to learn,
    discover, and do interviews around the topic
  • Have high potential to generate positive
    changebold.
  • Opposites are OK.sometimes are the best topics.

28
Website For These Slides and for Sharing AI
Tools
  • http//appreciativeinquiry.cwru.edu
  • (Appreciative Inquiry Commons, Weatherhead
    School of Management, Case Western Reserve
    University)
  • Please submit/share your new tools, stories,
    studies!

29
Appreciative Inquiry Mini Forum
  • The Art of the Question
  • The Ai Summit Method

30
1. Moments of Magnified Meaning Making
31
2. Exploring Moments of Leadership in Your
Life
  • A high point story of change

32
3. Your Vision of a Better World Your Images
and Vision of
  • Business as an Agent of World Benefit? How
    Ideally Organized? Practices? Bring Out Best in
    Human Beings?

33
We Live in the Worlds Our Questions Create
Be patient and try to love the questions
themselves. Live the questions now. Perhaps you
will then gradually, without noticing it, live
along some distant day into the answer. Rainer
Maria Rilke
34
The Art of the Question
  • Whats the biggest problem here?
  • Why did I have to be born in such a troubled
    family?
  • Why do you blow it so often?
  • Why do we still have those problems?
  • What possibilities exist that we have not yet
    considered?
  • Whats the smallest change that could make the
    biggest impact?
  • What solutions would haveus both win?
  • What makes HR questions inspiring, energizing,
    and mobilizing?

35
Genius is Creatingthe Question
  • What would the universe look like if I were
    riding on the end of a light beam at the speed of
    light?
  • Albert Einstein

36
The Encyclopedia ofPositive Questions
  • A Craft That Can Change Everything
  • Consider the Shifts

37
What New Questions?
  • From a Study Customer Dissatisfaction and
    Complaints

38
Magnetic Connections
  • Preface
  • In the physical world, all matter is held
    together by the pull between opposite electric
    charges. Successful e-companies are highly
    nimble, flexible communities. People connect in
    new and innovative ways. Suppliers and customers
    are pulled together and become seamless
    edge-to-edge organizations. Communities of
    interest form and are pulled together by shared
    values. Knowledge networks form as catalysts for
    innovation and creativity.

39
Magnetic Connections (continued)
  • Think of a time when you felt magnetically
    connected to your client, your colleagues, and
    your community connected in a way that the
    force was so strong that it could not be broken.
    What was that experience? What did it feel like?
  • As you look into the future, describe how you see
    us connected to our customers and our colleagues
    in ways that are so strong that we are seen as
    inseparable business partners.

40
From an Analysis of Grievance Reduction to.
41
Engagement and Positive Energy
  • Preface
  • Organizations work best when they are vibrant,
    alive and fun. You know, when the "joint is
    jumping!" You can sense that the spirit of the
    organization is vital and healthy and that people
    feel pride in their work. Everyone builds on
    each other's successes, a positive can do
    attitude is infectious and the glow of success is
    shared. What's more, this positive energy is
    appreciated and celebrated so it deepens and
    lasts.

42
Engagement and Positive Energy
  • Questions
  • A. Tell me about a time when you experienced
    positive energy that was infectious. What was
    the situation? What created the positive energy?
    How did it feel to be a part of it? What did
    you learn?
  • B. If positive energy were the flame of the
    organization, how would you spark it? How would
    you fuel it to keep it burning bright?

43
What Would You Study?
  • From Analysis of Baggage Delays
  • To

44
Exceptional Arrival Experience
  • Preface
  • Our goal is to provide an exceptional travel
    experience both in the air and on the ground.The
    handling of a flights arrival and baggage
    reconciliation is of equal importance to any
    other aspect of a passengers journey. The
    arrival experience is the time to leave a
    wonderful lasting impression. It also provides
    the opportunity to recover from any service
    shortfall the customer may have encountered.
    Focusing on Exceptional Arrival Experience
    demonstrates commitment to both our customers and
    to one another.

45
Exceptional Arrival Experience (continued)
  • Describe your most memorable arrival experience,
    as a customer or, as airline personnel. What made
    it memorable for you? How did you feel?
  • Tell me a story about your most powerful service
    recovery. Describe the situation.
  • What was it about you that made it happen?
  • Who else was involved and why were they
    significant?
  • What tools did you use or what did you do that
    others might be able to do when in a similar
    situation?

46
Exceptional Arrival Experience (continued)
  • If you had a magic wand, how would you use it to
    enhance our overall arrivals experience for our
    customers? What ideas do you have to ensure
    exceptional arrival experiences for all our
    customers? And to make the process easier for us,
    as well!

47
The Surprise of Friendship!
  • One could say a key task in life is to discover
    and define our life purpose, and then accomplish
    it to the best of our ability.     
  • Can you share a story of a moment, or the period
    of time, where clarity about life purpose emerged
    for you. For example, a moment where your calling
    happened, where there was an important awakening
    or teaching, where there was a special experience
    or event, or where you received some guiding
    vision?
  • Now, beyond this story what do you sense you
    are supposed to do before your life, this life,
    is over?

48
Education
  • Knowledge empowers people and people power Hunter
    Douglas. We each contribute to Hunter Douglas
    position of market leadership through personal
    knowledge of our jobs and equipment other
    functions in the Company our customers our
    competition and the industry.
  • To maintain our position as market leaders, we
    must continue to invest in each employees
    training and education through
  • Challenging work assignments
  • Individual coaching
  • Job cross-training
  • Tuition assistance
  • On- and off-site classes and
  • Family scholarships for our children

49
Education (continued)
  • If knowledge empowers people, and people power
    Hunter Douglas, what kind of learning
    opportunities would turbo charge Hunter Douglas?
  • Tell me about the best training you have ever
    experienced, and what made the best?
  • How did this influence your development as a
    professional?
  • How did it influence the training you passed on
    to others?

50
Education (continued)
  • Reflecting on your past and where you are
    today,what types of training have proven the
    mostbeneficial to you?
  • Robert Fulghum wrote a book entitled All I
    Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten.
    If this was kindergarten, what would you like to
    learn for the future?

51
Discovering Optimal Margins
  • With revenues, tonnage, and sales at record
    levels one of the most important opportunities we
    face is to engage everyone in increasing positive
    margins now and to do so will call on discovery
    of new strengths, build on old strengths, and
    carry us to higher levels financially.
  • As you look at Roadway from the perspective of
    our capabilities, and as you think about the
    business context and opportunities, how do you
    define "optimal margin for us? Define it what
    is the positive margin you want and believe we
    have the capability to create? Right now? In the
    moderate time frame? Longer term?

52
Discovering Optimal Margins(continued)
  • As you reflect on your leadership here at Roadway
    times where you have mobilized or helped
    develop others there have been high points and
    low points, successful moments, etc. Please
    describe one situation, or change initiative that
    you are proud about an achievement in which you
    feel you had impact in realizing better margins.
    What happened? What were the challenges" What was
    it about you or your leadership style? Lessons
    learned?
  • If anything imaginable was possible, if there
    were no constraints whatever, what would the
    nature of an ideal Roadway organization look like
    if we were to rapidly move into stage of
    delivering optimal margins? Describe, as if you
    had a magic wand, what we would be doing new,
    better, or different? Envision it happening? What
    do you see happening that isnew, different,
    better ?

53
We Live in the Worlds Our Questions Create
  • Be patient and try to love the questions
    themselves. Live the questions now. Perhaps you
    will then gradually, without noticing it, live
    along some distant day into the answer.
  • Rainer Maria Rilke

54
GroupsCrafting the Question
  • Choose one of your Topics? the Ai question (s) 3
    PARTS
  • I. Positive Prefaceit is a topic intro.
  • A question to evoke a story from persons history

  • A question to evoke/help give voice to their best
    images of future
  • return...

55
An experience from your lifea moment of Wonder
  • Turn to person next to youinvite them to share a
    moment, a story, an experience of wonder!

56
Applications Appreciative Inquiry
  • AI Organization Summit Method
  • Strategic Change/Planning
  • Full Engagement of People Schools Communities.
    Networks, Movements, Organizations
  • Magnetic Connections, Retaining the Best
  • Strength of Diversity
  • Labor-management partnerships
  • Transformation of measurements
  • Operational Excellence Optimal Margins
  • Mergers, Synergy and Customer Partnering
  • Knowledge exchange the PCN

57
The AI Organization Summit Method
Increasing positive capacity through large group
methods
58
4 Common Approaches to Change
  • Top Down Strategies
  • Bottom Up Strategies
  • Representative Cross-Section Strategies
  • Pilot Strategies
  • Back Room

59
Typical Results
  • Less Informed and Ultimatley Less Effective
    Change Efforts
  • A Few Try to Convince Many That Change is Needed
  • Partial Responsibility Mindset
  • Change Occurs Sequentially
  • Change is Perceived as a Disruption of Real Work

60
Typical Results (cont)
  • Pace of Change is Too Slow
  • Substantial Change in Part or Modest Change in an
    Entire Organization
  • Breakdown at Implementation

61
Dream Design The AI Organization Summit
  • Whole System in the Room
  • Task is Clear...
  • Future Focus Continuity Search
  • Self-Management and Dialogue
  • Narrative Rich Inter-generational
  • Silence (traffic control)
  • From Common Ground to Inspired Action
  • 3-Day event/100 to 1000 Participants
  • Uncommon Action/Follow Through

62
AI 4-D Cycle
  • Discovery
  • Opportunity Call
  • Positive Core
  • History
  • Destiny
  • People Actions
  • Learning
  • Improvisation
  • Dream
  • Purpose
  • New Story

Topic Vision of Business As Agent of World
Benefit
  • Design
  • Provocative Propositions
  • Ideal Organizations World


63
Nutrimental Foods
  • Why is this so easy?
  • The experience of wholenessan amazing
    power.why? How?

64
The Power of AI Stories
  • Stories stick like glue
  • Make information easier to rememberWhole brain
  • Builds identities and fosters relationships
  • Medium for conveying values, visions
  • Moves the internal dialogue of the system
  • Human Hope

65
A 2 Hour Intro of AI
  • 900-915 Opening excitement time to re-think
    organization and change.objectives
  • 915-950 Mini-Ai.pairs4 quesitons
  • 950-1000 Quick debriefadjectives
  • 1000-1015 Beyond PS to AI (slide)
  • 1015-1030 The 4-D cycle examples, emphasize
    topics show a tangible interview guide
  • 1030-1045 Envisioning potentials at xyz
  • 1045-1100 Enough interest to develop full
    proposal.?

66
Destiny Creating a Positive Change Network
  • GTE How to Invite 67,000 people to create a new
    culture?
  • Storytelling and hope
  • Ai at the front line
  • The zealots are coming
  • Labor management an impasse
  • The positive change networkongoing!!

67
The PCN What is it?
  • Special invitation call to people to be change
    leaders
  • Ai program on positive change
  • Many applications
  • Self-organizing...
  • Connected in knowledge sharing

68
We Are Born to Appreciate!
We Are Born to Appreciate!
Exceptionality
n
Essentiality
n
Equality/Voice
n
69
Website For These Slides and for Sharing AI
Tools
  • http//appreciativeinquiry.cwru.edu
  • (Appreciative Inquiry Commons, Weatherhead
    School of Management, Case Western Reserve
    University)
  • Please submit/share your new tools, stories,
    studies!
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