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The Millennial Generation: The Current Generation in K-12 and the Next Generation in College Enrollment

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Title: The Millennial Generation: The Current Generation in K-12 and the Next Generation in College Enrollment


1
The Millennial GenerationThe Current Generation
in K-12 and the Next Generation in College
Enrollment
  • Terri Manning
  • Bobbie Everett
  • Cheryl Roberts

Wyoming Seminary March 23, 2006
A Study Funded by the Workforce Development Board
2
It May Take a Village to Raise a Child, but it
Takes a Society to Raise a Generation
  • Economic Conditions
  • Societal Norms
  • Political Events
  • Major Crises

3
Each Generation
  • Consists of approximately a 20-year span (not all
    demographers and generation researchers agree on
    the exact start/stop dates)
  • Has a unique set of values
  • Reacts to the generation before them
  • Looks at their generation as the standard of
    comparison
  • Looks at the next generation skeptically these
    kids today
  • Those born on the cusp may have a blended set
    of characteristics
  • They are either idealistic, reactive, civic or
    adaptive

4
Two Responses to This Research
  • The Millennials are spoiled rotten brats whose
    parents have given them everything.
  • This generation is extremely talented and will
    bring technology and teamwork skills to the
    workforce.

5
The Veterans (also known as the Silent Generation
or the Greatest Generation) 19221943 (adaptive)
Core Values Dedication Hard Work Conformity Law
and Order Patience Delayed Reward Duty before
Pleasure Adherence to Rules Honor
6
The Veterans
  • Children of the Great Depression and WWII, this
    generation decided not to attack the institutions
    created by the generation before them, but
    instead, as global thinkers, they chose to focus
    on improving and refining them so that they could
    be good for everyone, not just a select few.
  • The overall goal was not to change the system,
    but to work within it.
  • While economically very successful, they were
    also the inventors of "the midlife crises"
    probably because they didn't get a chance to
    enjoy the freedoms of their youth.

7
The Veteran Generation Childhood
  • Raised by the GI Generation (civic)
  • Large families (3-5 children)
  • Strong sense of extended family (same town or
    home)
  • Grandparents in the home
  • Average 10-year-old spent 4-6 hours daily with a
    significant adult role model
  • Rural society
  • Apprenticeship businesses and farming
  • Perception of the world as safe

8
The Baby Boomers 19431964 (the largest
generation, idealist)
Core Values Optimism Team Orientation Personal
Gratification Health and Wellness Personal
Growth Youth Work Involvement
9
The Baby Boomer Childhood
  • Divorce reached a low in 1960 of 9
  • Families moved due to GI Bill, GI housing and
    industrialization
  • First generation to live miles from extended
    family
  • Family size smaller (2-3 children)
  • Few grandparents in the home
  • Moms stayed home
  • Dads carpooled
  • Children spent significant time with adult role
    models
  • Perception of the world as safe

10
Baby-boomer Results
  • Very idealistic - banned together and walked
    through life with their fists held high
  • Generation gap occurred between them and their
    parents
  • Captured phrases like why be normal and
    question authority
  • They werent friendly toward authority figures
  • Did not get along with their parents and swore
    they would not raise their kids like they were
    raised
  • As adults - work an average of 55 hours per week

11
The Gen Xers 19651982
A Lost Generation A Nomadic Generation.. Half
the Size of the Baby Boom (reactive) Core
Values Dedication Hard Work Conformity Law and
Order Patience Delayed reward Duty before
pleasure Adherence to rules Honor
12
Generation X
  • This is the conscientious, extremely pragmatic,
    self-sufficient generation that has a ruthless
    focus on the bottom-line.
  • Born and raised at a time when children were at
    the bottom of our social priorities, Gen Xers
    learned that they could only count on one thing -
    themselves. As a result, they are very "me"
    oriented.
  • They are not active voters, nor are they deeply
    involved in politics in general.

13
The Gen X Childhood
  • Divorce reached an all-time high
  • Single-parent families became the norm
  • Latch-key kids were a major issue of the time
  • Children not as valued looked at as a hardship
  • Families spread out (miles apart)
  • Family size 1.7 children (many only-children)
  • Perception of the world as unsafe
  • Average 10 year old spent 14 ½ minutes a day with
    a significant adult role model
  • Parents looked around and said we need to do
    this better

14
Generation Next (civic)
15
The Echo Boom/Millennials
  • The Millennials are almost as large as the baby
    boom-some say larger - depending on how you
    measure them (approx. 81M).
  • The Millennials are the children born between
    1982 and 2002 (peaked in 1990), a cohort called
    by various names

Echo Boom
Generation Y
Net Generation
Millennials
16
Millennials
  • This generation is civic-minded, much like the
    previous GI Generation.
  • They are collectively optimistic, long-term
    planners, high achievers with lower rates of
    violent crime, teen pregnancy, smoking and
    alcohol use than ever before.
  • This generation believes that they have the
    potential to be great and they probably do. We
    are looking to them to provide us with a new
    definition of citizenship.

17
The Millennial Childhood
  • The most monumental financial boom in history.
  • Steady income growth through the 1990s.
  • Still great disparity between races.
  • Saw their parents lose all their stocks and
    mutual funds (college funds) during the early
    2000s.

18
Demographic Trends
  • The Baby Boomers chose to become older parents in
    the 1980s while Gen X moms reverted back to the
    earlier birth-age norm, which meant that two
    generations were having babies.
  • In 1989, 29 percent of the 4.4 million live
    births were to women aged 30 and older.
  • Millennials have older largely Baby Boomer
    parents Average age of mothers at birth at an
    all time high of 27 in 1997.

19
Demographic Trends, cont.
  • Smaller families Only
    children will comprise
    about 10 of the
    population.
  • More parental education 1 in 4 has at least one
    parent with a college degree.
  • Kids born in the late 90s are the first in
    American history whose mothers are better
    educated than their fathers by a small margin.

20
Demographic Trends Changing Diversity
  • Increase in Latino immigration - Latino women
    tend to have a higher fertility rates than
    non-Latino women.
  • Nearly 35 of Millennials are nonwhite or Latino.
  • Twenty percent of this generation has at least
    one parent who is an immigrant.
  • Millennials have become the most racially and
    ethnically diverse generation in US History.

21
Safety Issues
  • The Safest Generation
  • This generation was buckled up
    in car seats, wore bike helmets,
    elbow and knee pads when
    skating, and were the inspiration for Baby on
    Board signs.
  • The Well-Being of U.S. Teens
  • Mortality Rate for US teens aged 1519 declined
    from 1960 to 1997.
  • -Teens are having fewer accidents than Boomers

22
Major Influencing Factors
  • Their parents
  • The self-esteem movement
  • The customer service movement
  • Gaming and technology
  • Casual communication

23
Parenting Millennials
  • This generation is being parented by
    well-educated, over-involved adults who
    participate in deliberate
    parenting. They have
    outcomes in mind.
  • Boomers were the first
    generation to be thrown
    out in to an unsafe world
    as adolescents.
  • The 60s and 70s were very scary and many of us
    felt unprepared for it.
  • We were naïve and didnt have enough tools in our
    tool box to deal with it.

24
Baby Boomers as Parents
  • Boomers rebelled against the parenting practices
    of their parents.
  • Strict discipline was the order
    of the day for boomers.
  • They made conscious decisions
    not to say because I told you
    so or because Im the
    parent and youre the
    child.
  • Boomers became more
    friendly with their children.
    They wanted to have open lines of communication
    and a relationship with them.

25
Baby Boomers as Parents
  • They explained things to their children,
    (actions, consequences, options, etc.) they
    wanted them to learn to make informed decisions.
  • They allowed their children to have input into
    family decisions, educational
    options and discipline
    issues.
  • We told them just because it is on
    television doesnt mean its
    true or you cant
    believe everything
    you read.
  • We wanted them to question
    authority.

26
The Result
  • Millennials have become a
    master set of negotiators who
    are capable of rational
    thought and decision-making
    skills at young ages.
  • They will negotiate with anyone including their
    parents, teachers and school administrators.
  • Some call this arguing.

27
CPCC Sociology Instructor
  • More and more students challenge me and the
    material. They either see it as opinion, and
    nothing else, or they see it as propaganda.

28
Helicopter Parents
  • Helicopter Parent (n) A
    parent who hovers over his
    or her children.
  • Or Snowplow parent Parents who clear the way for
    their children
  • these (echo) boomers are confident,
    achievement-oriented and used to hovering
    "helicopter" parents keeping tabs on their every
    move. (Anthony DeBarros, "New baby boom swamps
    colleges," USA Today, January 2, 2003)

29
Helicopter Parent go to
College
  • A new generation of over-involved
    parents are flooding campus
    orientations, meddling in
    registration and
    interfering with students' dealings
    with professors, administrators and
    roommates, school officials say.
  • Some of these hovering parents, whose numbers
    have been rising for several years, are
    unwittingly undermining their children's chances
    of success, campus administrators say. Now,
    universities and colleges are moving rapidly to
    build or expand programs aimed at helping parents
    strike a better balance.

Colleges Ward Off Overinvolved Parents By Sue
Shellenbarger From The Wall Street Journal
Online
30
Go to College
  • (One mother) acknowledges she is part of the
    problem. She chose the Texas university her
    daughter will attend this fall, successfully
    lobbied administrators for a particular roommate,
    helped pick her daughter's courses and bought her
    books. She has also been e-mailing administrators
    on a range of topics for
    months. She admits she's "much
    too involved." But
    she's too anxious about seeing
    her daughter leave home to let go.

Colleges Ward Off Overinvolved Parents By Sue
Shellenbarger From The Wall Street Journal
Online
31
Go To College..
  • The University of Vermont employs "parent
    bouncers," students trained to divert moms and
    dads who try to attend registration and explain
    diplomatically that they're not invited.
  • At the University of Georgia, students who get
    frustrated or confused during registration have
    been known to interrupt their advisers to whip
    out a cell phone, speed-dial their parents and
    hand the phone to the adviser, saying, "Here,
    talk to my mom. The cell phone has become "the
    world's longest umbilical cord."

Colleges Ward Off Overinvolved Parents By Sue
Shellenbarger From The Wall Street Journal
Online
32
Baby Boomer Parents have been their Biggest
Cheerleaders
  • Millennials expect and need praise.
  • Will mistake silence for disapproval.
  • Millennials expect feedback.

33
Parental Care in the Millennial Era
  • Todays typical family is spending more, not
    less, time with kids.
  • Smaller families mean more
    time with each child.
  • Fathers are spending more
    time with children.
  • Less housework is being done.
  • There is a strong connection between the social
    lives of parents and kids.
  • They get along with their parents and share their
    parents values.

34
Focus on Self-esteem
  • This generation was the center of the
    self-esteem movement.
  • 9,068 books were written about self-esteem and
    children during the 80s and 90s (there were 485
    in the 70s).
  • The state of California spent millions studying
    the construct and published a document entitled
    Toward a State of Self-esteem.
  • Yet they cant escape the angst of adolescence
    they still feel disconnected, question their
    existence, purpose and the meaning of life. They
    want to feel valued and cared about.

35
Focus on Customer Service
  • Expect access (24/7)
  • Expect things to work like
    they are supposed to
  • If they dont that is your
    problem
  • They want what they have paid for
  • Everything comes with a toll-free number or web
    address
  • Want Gateway Go Back in
    classes

36
Add the Impact of Gaming
  • Gaming has impacted children
  • The game endings changed based
    on the decisions children made
    (Role Playing Games
    Legend of
    Zelda, Final Fantasy, Chronotrigger)
    impacting locus of control.
  • Involves a complex set of decision-
    making skills.
  • Teaches them to take multiple
    pieces of data and make
    decisions quickly.
  • Learning more closely resembles Nintendo, a trial
    and error approach to solving problems.

37
We navigated our way through..
38
They navigated their way through..
39
Technology
  • This generation has been plugged in since they
    were babies.
  • They grew up with educational software and
    computer games.
  • They think technology should be free.
  • They want and expect
    services 24/7.
  • They do not live in an
    85 world.
  • They function in an
    international world.

40
Millennials Want to Learn
  • With technology
  • With each other
  • Online
  • In their time
  • In their place
  • Doing things that matter (most important)

Source Achievement and the 21st Century Learner.
41
Technology In School
  • Students are increasingly savvy when
    it comes to technology.
  • In general, students expect faculty to
    incorporate technology into their
    teaching and be proficient at it.
  • At the very least, communication via e-mail,
    access to online resources, PowerPoint
    presentations, Internet activities, discussion
    boards and electronic classrooms are expected.
  • Faculty will need to balance the use of
    technology with their own philosophies of
    teaching.

42
Technology Use
  • Children under 6 years
  • 48 have used a computer
  • 27 (4-6 year-olds) use a computer daily
  • 39 use a computer several times a week
  • 30 have played computer games
  • Teens
  • 100 use the internet to seek information
  • 94 use the internet for school research
  • 41 use email and IM to contact teachers and
    schoolmates about school work
  • 81 email friends and relatives
  • 70 use IM to keep in touch
  • 56 prefer the internet to the telephone

43
By age 21..
  • It is estimated that the
    average child will have
  • Spent 10,000 hours playing video games
  • Sent 200,000 emails
  • Spent 20,000 hours watching TV
  • Spent 10,000 hours on their cell phone
  • Spent under 5,000 hours reading
  • But these are issues of income. Will a child who
    grows up in a low income household have these
    same experiences?

44
The Information Age Mindset
  • Students have never known life without the
    computer. It is an assumed part of life.
  • The Internet is a source of research,
    interactivity, and socializing (they prefer it
    over TV).
  • Doing is more important than
    knowing.
  • There is zero tolerance for
    delays.
  • The infrastructure and the
    lecture tradition of colleges
    may not meet the
    expectations of students
    raised on the Internet and interactive games.

45
Cell Phone Technology
  • They all have cell phones and expect
    to be in contact 24/7.
  • Not a phone a lifestyle management tool
  • Staying connected is essential.
  • Communication is a safety issue for
    parents.
  • Communication has become casual
    for students (IM, email and
    cell phones.

46
What About 1st Generation Students?
  • Not all students will be proficient
    first-generation and students from working class
    families may have less experience.
  • Their experience with technology has been in
    arcades and minimally in school (poorer
    districts.)
  • They have not had the exposure to educational
    uses of technology.
  • We need another placement test remedial
    keyboarding and technology.
  • Huge digital divide between the haves and the
    have nots based on income levels (class).
  • This group may not do as well in school.

47
In School
  • They need to understand why
    they are doing what they are
    doing objectives of classroom
    activities and projects.
  • They want to have input into
    their educational processes.
  • They want to be involved in meaningful
    activities, not mundane work.
  • They think it is cool to be smart.
  • They will respond well to programs like learning
    communities and service learning.

48
Millennials have High Expectations
  • They are likely to appreciate clear expectations,
    explicit syllabi, and well structured
    assignments.
  • They expect detailed instructions and guidelines
    for completing assignments.
  • They want to know what will be covered on tests
    and what exactly must be done to earn an A.
  • Because of their high expectations of themselves,
    students may become demoralized by earning a B or
    C in college.

49
Attitudes ..
TV Generation Boomers PC Generation gen X Net Generation millennials
Web What is it? Web is a tool Web is oxygen
Community Personal Extended Personal Virtual
Perspective Local Multi-national Global
Career One career Multiple careers Multiple reinventions
Loyalty Corporation Self Soul
Authority Hierarchy Unimpressed Self as expert
50
Issues for Schools, Colleges and Universities in
an Information Age
  • Plagiarism (consumer/creator blurring)
  • Cheating (must define it)
  • Cell Phone Policies
  • Typing vs. Handwriting

From The Information Age Mindset Changes in
Students and Implications for Higher Education.
By Jason L. Frand. Educause. Sep/Oct 2000.
51
How are Millennials doing in school?
  • Teachers report that students are doing better
    academically.
  • The largest gains have been in math and science
    for ages 9 and 13.
  • Verbal skills show less clear
  • trends.
  • Millennials have corrected a late 80s decline in
    writing proficiency.
  • Reading scores show modest gains
    through the 90s.

52
SAT Scores a Twenty Year Reversal
Millennials Taking SAT
Highest SAT Scores in 35 Years
53
Verbal - Changes by Race from 1993 to 2003
54
Math Changes by Racefrom 1993 to2003
55
College Full-time Enrollments in Millions
First Millennial College Graduates Spring 2004
--- Peak Enrollment 2010. Of the 5.8 million in
college in 2010, 56 will be women.
56
Ambitions
  • Most popular college majors
  • Medicine
  • Education/teaching
  • Business and marketing
  • Engineering
  • Law and politics
  • Computer science
  • Most sought after qualities in careers
  • Idealistic and committed co-workers
  • Responsibility
  • Independence
  • Creativity
  • Most common job trends
  • Seek security benefits
  • Stay with company that offers a challenge
  • Multi-taskers
  • Change Careers

Source Industry Week, March, 1998.
57
Difference in Values
  • They have witnessed their baby boomer parents
    coming home from stressed jobs, exhausted,
    falling asleep at the dinner table and dont
    want that for themselves.
  • They are a generation who is interested in a life
    with value and meaning they do not aspire to
    what the boomers aspire to they want
    something different.

58
True Multi-taskers
  • Millennials have lived programmed
    lives and are already quite
    capable of
    learning several jobs
    simultaneously and performing
    them
    admirably.
  • Millennials will change careers
    many times.
  • Retooling and recycling their
    skills and talents
    will become
    common.
  • To retain them, smart employers
    will encourage Millennials to
    try out different careers within the same company.

59
Need for Services
  • It is estimated that 3 million Millennials have
    been diagnosed with ADHD and have been medication
    (80 are boys).
  • Within student populations, the number with
    disabilities has jumped from 3 to 9.
  • Many have had individual education plans.
  • Many need testing services (quiet, separate).
  • Need to self-advocate to teachers.
  • Major transition from high school to college.

60
Communication is Key
  • They are in contact with friends 24/7 (IM and
    cell phones.)
  • Millennials have expectations that the
    information they want will be provided in a
    timely, fast efficient manner.
  • Communication, suggestions, feedback - positive
    and negative - need to travel in both directions
    for Millennials.


61
2004 Research Study
  • Central Piedmont Community Colleges Center for
    Applied Research was contracted to do this study
    by the Workforce Development Board.
  • Focus Groups were conducted.
  • An Online Survey was administered.
  • Data collected JanuaryMarch 2004 from the
    University of NC at Charlotte, Central Piedmont
    Community College and Johnson C. Smith University.

62
Characteristics They Look for in Teachers
  • At least 50 said
  • Enthusiastic about the course/teaching
  • Are fun to be around
  • Provide intellectual challenges
  • Have flexible class policies
  • Are sensitive to your needs/feelings
  • Emphasize preparing for future career

63
This Validates the Research
  • The research says they want
  • To be trusted and respected
  • Teachers to act as helpers
  • Opportunities to be responsible
  • Freedom, not license
  • A place where people care
  • Teachers who help them succeed
  • To have choices

64
Working in Teams
  • How do you feel about working in teams?
  • I like it 44.7
  • Have no feelings about it 25.9
  • I dont like it 29.4

65
Working in Teams
  • In the classroom, do you do the following? 1
    never
  • 2 rarely
  • 3 sometimes
  • 4 often
  • Mean (sd)
  • Are given team grades on working
  • with others 2.62 (.89)
  • Write papers/do projects with others 2.41 (.79)
  • Study/do research in teams 2.35 (.80)

66
What Will You Do After
Graduating?
  • Immediately get a job 43
  • Continue my education 34
  • Take some time off 5
  • Marry/start a family 6
  • Not sure 13

67
Career Field
  • How likely do you think it is that your first job
    out of college will be in your career field?
  • Somewhat Likely 37.4
  • Not Likely/Not Sure 20.5
  • Very Likely 39.4

68
Comparing Yourself to People Your Parents Age..
  • When your generation is your parents age, will
    you take more, about the same or less interest
    in
  • New Technology - more interest
  • Voting and Government - about the same
  • Reading and the Arts - about the same

69
Careers They Plan to Pursue (most selected of 27
listed)
70
Salary Expectations
  • Realistically, what do you expect your starting
    salary will be when you begin working?
  • Millennials
  • 15-20K 7.7
  • 21-30K 29.3
  • 31-40K 27.0
  • 41-50K 15.9
  • 50K 7.0
  • Not sure 12.5

Approximately 65 felt they would learn 40K or
less
71
Importance of Career Components
  • Elements thought to be very important
  • Respected on the Job
  • Opportunity for Professional Development
  • Ability to Have an Impact on the World

72
Importance of Career Components
  • Items thought to be somewhat important
  • Access to Information and Expression of Personal
    Opinion
  • Having High Job Prestige
  • Working with Inspiring Colleagues
  • Geographic Location of Job
  • Receive Guidance and Direction from Supervisor

73
Importance of Career Components
  • Items thought to be somewhat important
  • Participating in Company Decisions
  • Independence/Professional Autonomy
  • Using Creativity on the Job
  • Lots of Responsibility
  • Flexible Work Hours
  • Dress Code Appropriate to
  • Work Environment

74
Importance of Job Benefits
  • Benefits thought to be very important
  • Health Insurance
  • Salary Growth
  • Plans like 401K
  • Life Insurance
  • Bonuses
  • Employer-paid Retirement
  • Benefits thought to be unimportant
  • Stock Options
  • Profit Sharing

75
Jobs in Lifetime
  • How many jobs do you
    think you will hold in
    your lifetime?
  • 1-3 35.7
  • 4-6 41.5
  • 7-10 16.5
  • Over 10 6.2
  • 64 expect to have 4 or more jobs

76
Worry
  • Things they worry about frequently Future Plans
  • Things they worry about occasionally
    Transitioning to Life After College
  • Finding a Job to Fulfill your Goals and
    Aspirations
  • Money to Travel/for Hobbies
  • Life After College
  • Financial Debt

77
Worry
  • Things they worry
    about occasionally
  • Home Ownership
  • Paying Monthly Bills
  • Finding a Job in Your Field
  • Relationships After College
  • Things they dont worry about at all
  • Being Penalized for No Job Experience

78
Future Odds
  • The following felt it was very likely that they
    would someday
  • Work for themselves/own business 21
  • Have lifestyle they grew up with 63
  • 79 felt a two income household would be somewhat
    to very important in reaching their lifestyle
    goals?

79
Quality of Life?
  • Rank order of items that contribute
    to a good quality of life
  • ( ranking item in top 3 on a scale
    of 1-8)
  • Having a secure future for my family 71.5
  • Time to enjoy family/children 68.7
  • Having family/children 63.2
  • Having a great job 60.4
  • Having good friends 55.2
  • Having plenty of money 45.5
  • Having plenty of free time 40.2

80
What Kind of Community do You Intend to Live?
  • Predominantly Urban, Mixed Housing Style 22.7
  • Suburban Community, Single Family Homes 40.1
  • Rural Area with Large Lots/Open Space 30.1
  • Other 7.1

81
Your Generation in the Future
  • Someday, your generation will be raising kids,
    running corporations and occupying high political
    office. When that day comes, which areas of
    American life will be better, the same or worse
    than today because of your generation?
  • 3 better
  • 2 same
  • 1 worse

82
Areas they felt they would do better
Technology Race Relations Areas they
felt they would do about the same
Economy Schools Arts/Culture
Foreign Affairs Areas they felt they
couldnt improve on
Government Family Life Religion
Crime/Public Order
83
Some are already in the workforce. What are they
saying?
  • The technology is too slow.
  • Just because Im young doesnt mean I should be
    given low pay and a poor work schedule.
  • I expect to be treated fairly.
  • We are inheriting a mess in the workforce who
    got us there?
  • My dad worked 60 hours a week and then lost his
    pension no way Im doing that.
  • I can get my work done in 40 hours sorry if
    you cant.

Charlotte Observer, Sunday, March 5, 2006.
84
How They Will Push Us
  • More independence in the workforce
  • Consumer-based fairness
  • Better technology
  • Enhanced professional development
  • Get rid of thats the way weve always done it
  • Have more life balance
  • Re-establish priorities

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Final Thoughts
  • Relax well survive theyll survive
  • Life will be better because of them
  • Life may again have balance
  • They are bright, motivated and should be very
    successful once they figure out how they fit into
    the big picture
  • They are nervous and scared its a big world
    out there

86
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studies and reports Title Wyoming Seminary
Presentation Contact us terri.manning_at_cpcc.edu
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