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Appreciative Inquiry: A Positive Revolution in Change David L. Cooperrider

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Title: Appreciative Inquiry: A Positive Revolution in Change David L. Cooperrider


1
Weatherhead School of Management Case
Western Reserve University
Appreciative Inquiry A Positive Revolution
in ChangeDavid L. Cooperrider

2
(No Transcript)
3
A Time For Re-thinking... Human Organization And
Change
  • Global Context of Democratization
  • End of Apartheid
  • No Limits To Cooperation
    E-CompanyConnect! Now
  • Shuttle into Space Reality
    Isnt What it Used to Be
  • Whole System Change
  • Large Groups...
  • Positive Revolution Aiming Higher

4
It is a Time for Re-thinking Human Organization
Change
We are at the very point in time when a
400-year old age is dying and another is
struggling to be born, a shifting of culture,
science, society, and institutions enormously
greater than the world has ever experienced.
Ahead, the possibility of the regeneration of
relationships, liberty, community, and ethics
such as the world has never known, and a harmony
with nature, with one another, and with the
divine intelligence such as the world has never
dreamed. --Dee Hock, Founder
CEO--Visa
5
Exciting Stories and Results
  • Hunter Douglas
  • Culture Change
  • Strategic Planning
  • Total Quality
  • Results
  • Employee Engagement
  • Leadership Bench Strength
  • Strategic Vision Alignment

6
Exciting Stories and Results
  • Nutrimental Foods
  • Whole System Visioning Strategic Planning
  • Annual Whole System Summits
  • Results
  • 200 Increase Profits
  • 300 Decrease Absenteeism

7
Exciting Stories and Results
  • United Religions Initiative
  • Annual Global Summits
  • Organization Design
  • Results
  • June 2000 Charter Signing
  • The Birth of a Global Chaordic Organization
  • Centers on Every Continent
  • Over a Million Pledges of Support

8
Exciting Stories and Results
  • GTE
  • Positive Change Network
  • Culture Change
  • Union Management Partnership
  • Call Center Excellence
  • Results
  • 1997 ASTD Award
  • Employee Surveys
  • Contract Negotiations

9
Five Principles of Appreciative Inquiry
  • Constructionist Principle The way we know is
    fateful.
  • Principle of Simultaneity Change begins at the
    moment you ask the question.
  • Poetic Principle Organizations are an open book.
  • Anticipatory Principle Deep change change in
    active images of the future.
  • Positive Principle The more positive the
    question, the greater and longer-lasting the
    change.

10
1. Story of high point ?
11
2. ValuingSelf . Work
12
3. Continuity Search
  • The 3 things that are the best about us
    now--qualities, competitive advantages,
    practices, core capabilities-- that I want to
    keep, even as we change in the future?

13
4. The powerful macro-trends, most exciting
opportunities?
14
5. Positive Images of the Future The
Organization You Want 2005(wake up)
15
Starting Appreciative Interview(dialogue in
pairs)
  • A--gtB (20 min)
  • B--gtA (20 min)
  • Spirit of discovery
  • Take brief notes
  • At the end.. summary thanks
  • Return

16
Opening Interview
  • High point moment
    story ____________?
  • Valuing self, work?
  • Continuity?
  • Positive Images of the Future
    Wake Up 2010?

17
Positive Image-gt Positive Action
  • Powerful Placebo
  • Pygmalion
  • Positive Affect
  • Imbalanced Inner Dialogue
  • Rise and Fall of Cultures
  • Affirmative Capability

18
A Theory of Affirmative Organizing
  • Organizations are made and imagined
  • No iron laws
  • Metaphor heliotropic hypothesis
  • Healthy organizations 21positively imbalanced
    inner dialogue
  • Educative effect of positive imagery
  • Positive image (discourse) as an obstacle
  • Organizations do not need to be fixed
  • Leadership affirmation

19
Group Discussion/Discovery(groups of 6stay with
partner)
  • Introduce highlights from interview with your
    partner
  • Find Common Themes
    1. High points
    2. Continuity (things we want to
    keep) 3. Images of the Future Org. we
    want
  • Return 1140 for group reports

20
?
Where Do Positive Images and Stories Come From?
21
Problem Solving
Appreciative Inquiry
  • Identify Problem
  • Conduct Root Cause Analysis
  • Brainstorm Solutions Analyze
  • Develop Action Plans
  • Metaphor Organizations are problems to be solved
  • Appreciate What is (What gives life?)
  • Imagine What Might Be
  • Determine What Should Be
  • Create What Will Be
  • Metaphor Organizations are a solution/mystery
    to be embraced.

22
Deficit Based Change Unintended Consequences
  • Much lamented fragmented responses
  • Slow Puts attention on yesterdays causes
  • No new positive images of future
  • Visionless voice... fatigue
  • Weakened fabric of relationships
    defensivenessnegative culture
  • out of sync with the embedded economy of speed,
    partnerships, alliances, e-commerce

23
Deficit Language at GTE
YES MEN
MISSED COMMITMENTS
Gap Analysis
Repeat Reports
BURNOUT
REORGANIZATION
TURF BATTLES
Critical Thinking
New Circuit Failure Rate
UNFAVORABLE
Down Time
WARNING
SILOS
CUSTOMER COMPLAINTS
TROUBLE REPORT
Spell Check
DEBUG
RISK
PERFORMANCE REVIEW
BLOCKED CALLS
Red Tape
24
Organizations Grow In The Direction Of What They
Study
June Results

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25
Words Are Tools
  • To a hammer everything is a nail!

26
Ap-preci-ate, v.,
  • 1.valuing the act of recognizing the best in
    people or the world around us affirming past and
    present strengths, successes, and potentials to
    perceive those things that give life (health,
    vitality, excellence) to living systems
  • 2. to increase in value, e.g. the economy has
    appreciated in value.
  • Synonyms VALUING, PRIZING, ESTEEMING, and
    HONORING.

27
In-quire (kwir), v.,
  • 1. the act of exploration and discovery.
  • 2. To ask questions to be open to seeing new
    potentials and possibilities.
  • Synonyms DISCOVERY, SEARCH, and SYSTEMATIC
    EXPLORATION, STUDY.

28
What would you call it?(all these things taken
together)
  • Achievements
  • Strategic opportunities
  • Product strengths
  • Technical assets
  • Innovations
  • Elevated thoughts
  • Best business practices
  • Positive emotions
  • Financial assets
  • Organization wisdom
  • Core competencies
  • Visions of possibility
  • Vital traditions, values
  • Positive macrotrends
  • Social capital
  • Embedded knowledge
  • Business ecosystem s eg. suppliers, partners,
    competitors, customer

29
The Positive Core
30
Appreciative Inquiry 4-D Cycle
Discovery What gives life? (The best of what
is) Appreciating
Destiny How to empower, learn, and
adjust/improvise? Sustaining
Dream What might be? (What is the world calling
for) Envisioning Results
Affirmative Topic Choice
Design What should be--the ideal? Co-constructi
ng

31
Best Way to Build High Enthusiasm?
  • Do an organization survey of low morale?
  • Magnify and learn from moment of highest
    enthusiasm?

32
Deficit Problems Affirmative Topics
Deficit Issues Sexual Harassment Mid-mgmt.
Turnover Fear of Job Loss Low Morale Turfism/Silos
Delayed Orders Customer Complaints Lack of
Training Missed Commitments
Affirmative Topics Positive Cross-Gender
Working Relationships
33
Topic Choice Examples
World Vision Integrative Process Innovation Empowe
rment Quality Diversity Organizational Learning
North American Steel Team Mindset Magnetic
Connections Revolutionary Responsiveness Continuou
s Learning Ownership Camaraderie Energized
Engagement Industry Leading Agility
34
Groups(select spokesperson)
  • 1. Build on earlier themes high points,
    continuity, 2010 Future
  • 2. Create 3-5 great topics
  • Be Bold
  • Something Desired
  • Want to learn
  • Strategic/high leverage
  • Energizing (sometimes opposites together)

35
The Art of the Question
  • Whats the biggest problem here?
  • Why did I have to be born in such a troubled
    family?
  • Why do you blow it so often?
  • Why do we still have those problems?
  • What possibilities exist that we have not thought
    about yet?
  • Whats the smallest change that could make the
    biggest impact?
  • What solutions would have us both win?
  • What makes my questions inspiring, energizing,
    and mobilizing?

36
Genius is Creating the Question
  • What would the universe look like if I were
    riding on the end of a light beam at the speed of
    light?
  • ---Albert Einstein

37
Creating the Powerful Question
  • Choose one of your topics
  • Create an AI set of questions for that one topic
    (see examples pg. 59)
  • Topic-- Positive Preface
  • A. Ouestion that elicits a powerful story
  • B. Question that helps envision future

38
What Makes AI Questions Important?
  • Language questions statements
  • Focus attention
  • Heighten energydrive to complete, to answer
  • Every creative act
  • Rapport and relationship (people are honored)
  • Fulcrum change connect to strength, imagination
  • Break automatic thinking, essence of learning
  • Alter internal dialogue storytelling
  • Specific positive future (the fairway)

39
AI 4-D Cycle Typical Summit
  • Discovery
  • Opportunity Context
  • Positive Core
  • Destiny
  • People/Members
  • Structures
  • Practices
  • Dream
  • Purpose
  • Vision

Summit Topic
  • Design
  • Constitutional Propositions
  • Relationship Organization


40
Applications Appreciative Inquiry
  • Strategic change... Org Summit
  • Core business redesign
  • Qualitysurveysculture change
  • Customer partnerships
  • Labor-management relations
  • Transformation of measurements
  • Knowledge exchange the PCN
  • Business ecosystem analysis...

41
The AI Organization Summit Method
Increasing positive capacity through large group
methods
42
4 Common Aproaches to Change
  • Top Down Strategies
  • Bottom Up Strategies
  • Representative Cross-Section Strategies
  • Pilot Strategies

43
Typical Results
  • Less Informed and Ultimatley Less Effective
    Change Efforts
  • A Few Try to Convince Many That Change is Needed
  • Partial Responsibility Mindset
  • Change Occurs Sequentially
  • Change is Perceived as a Disruption of Real Work

44
Typical Results (cont)
  • Pace of Change is Too Slow
  • Substantial Change in Part or Modest Change in an
    Entire Organization
  • Breakdown at Implementation

45
Dream Design The AI Organization Summit
  • Whole System in the Room
  • Task is Clear...
  • Future Focus--In Historical and Global
    Perspective
  • Self-Management and Dialogue
  • Common Ground (not conflict management as
    the frame of reference)
  • 3-Day event/100 to 1000 Participants
  • Uncommon Action/Follow Through

46
AI 4-D Cycle Typical Summit
  • Discovery
  • Opportunity Context
  • Positive Core
  • Destiny
  • People/Members
  • Structures
  • Practices
  • Dream
  • Purpose
  • Vision

Summit Topic
  • Design
  • Constitutional Principles
  • Relationship Organization


47
Nutrimental Foods
  • Why is this so easy?
  • Experience of WHOLENESSan amazing power.
  • Why? How? Your Theory?

48
Typical Results from Whole System Ai Summit
  • More Informed and Ultimately More Effective
    Change Efforts
  • A Critical Mass of People Making Changes that
    they All Believe Are Needed
  • A Total Organization Mindset
  • Simultaneous Change
  • Change is Percieved as Real Work
  • FastEntire OrganizationStrong
    ImplementationActionUnifyingSpirit

49
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50
Insights on Success
  • Holographic Beginning
  • Polyphonic--Multiple Voices
  • Dislodgement of CertaintyAppreciative
  • From Negotiation to Narrative (Stories)
  • From Common Ground to Higher Ground
  • Retrospective Consensus
  • Inspired Action on Behalf of the Whole
  • Chaordic Organizing

51
What do we mean by principles?
  • That shared body of beliefs--about our
    relationships and organizing-- that are necessary
    for realization of Purpose, and will be used to
    design and guide practices, structures, etc.
  • The foundational body of belief as in-- We hold
    these truths to be self evident, that all people
    are created equal
  • Not platitudes, not specific practices

52
Example Principles
  • Authority is vested in and decisions are made at
    the most local level possible, and includes all
    relevant and affected parties.
  • Each partner organization has the right to
    maintain its autonomous identity and to organize
    in any manner, using any practices, which are
    consistent with the Purpose and Principles.

53
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54
Destiny Creating a Positive Change Network
  • GTE How to Invite 67,000 people to create a new
    culture?
  • Storytelling and hope
  • Ai at the front line
  • The zealots are coming
  • Labor management an impasse
  • The positive change networkongoing!!

55
Group Brainstorming
  • As you imagine and think about high leverage
    ways that appreciative inquiry can add value and
    strength to us at Roadway.what are the high
    potential things we could do?
  • 1. At the whole system level (important
    topics/issues/opportunities)?
  • 2. At a smaller unit levelthings I/we could do?

56
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57
What Matters Most?
  • Being a student of organization alive
  • Power of the unconditional positive question
  • Relational basis of knowing communicamus ergo
    sum
  • Our positive images of the future lead our
    positive actionswords create worlds, nothing so
    practical
  • Yoga with the positive change core
  • Ai accelerates the non-linear interaction of the
    positive--a convergence zone for sudden
    dialogic repatterning
  • The best in peoplewholeness heals
  • Letting go of deficit based change vocabularies
  • AI is not a thing in its infancy (5 ) many
    questions...

58
Applications Appreciative Inquiry
  • Strategic change... Org Summit
  • Core business redesign
  • Qualitysurveysculture change
  • Customer partnerships
  • Labor-management relations
  • Transformation of measurements
  • Knowledge exchange the PCN
  • Business ecosystem analysis...

59
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