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Health Occupations

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Health Occupations Digestive System Digestive/Gastrointestinal System Consists of organs making up ALIMENTARY CANAL From mouth to anus 30 feet long Not a sterile ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Health Occupations


1
Health Occupations
  • Digestive System

2
Digestive/Gastrointestinal System
  • Consists of organs making up ALIMENTARY CANAL
  • From mouth to anus
  • 30 feet long
  • Not a sterile system open to environment at
    both ends
  • Process includes
  • Transportation of food wastes
  • Physical chemical breakdown of food
  • Absorption of digested food
  • Elimination of wastes
  • Helps to maintain proper amounts of water,
    nutrients, electrolytes

3
Definitions
  • Digestion
  • Process of changing food into a usable substance
  • Absorption
  • Transfer of nutrients into the blood

4
Organs of the Digestive System
  • Mouth
  • A. Food enters alimentary canal INGESTION
  • B. Teeth bite chew food to physically break
    it down
  • C. Tongue tastes, chews (MASTICATION),
    helps swallow (DEGLUTITION)
  • D. Hard palate anterior roof of mouth
  • E. Soft palate posterior roof of mouth, not
    attached to bone

5
  • F. Uvula small piece of tissue at back to
    mouth to prevent food from entering nasal cavity
    during chewing
  • G. Process of mastication
  • 1. As food is chewed mixes with
  • saliva
  • 2. 3 salivary glands secrete
  • amylase to begin chemical breakdown of
  • food (enzyme protein that increases the
  • rate of chemical activity in body)
  • a. Parotid
  • b. Sublingual
  • c. Submandibular

6
  • H. Begins the transformation of starch to sugar
  • I. Bolus portion of food, mixed with saliva,
    that is swallowed
  • Pharynx 3 parts nasopharnyx, oropharynx,
    laryngopharynx
  • A. Food passes through oropharynx from mouth to
    esophagus
  • B. Epiglottis closes so you dont inhale
    food/drink
  • Esophagus
  • A. Tube like structure carrying food from mouth
    to stomach
  • B. Peristalsis movement of food down
    esophagus with slow, wavelike movements

7
  • Stomach
  • A. Bolus mixes with HCL enzymes pepsin
    lipase to become CHYME (semifluid material)
  • 1. Pepsin starts protein digestion
  • 2. Lipase starts fat digestion
  • 3. HCL kills bacteria, helps iron
  • absorption, activates pepsin
  • 4. Rennin in infants, helps milk
  • digestion, not present in adults
  • 5. Direct absorption alcohol, glucose,
  • some drugs via stomach walls

8
  • 6. Cardiac sphincter valve preventing chyme
    from flowing back
  • into esophagus
  • 7. Pyloric sphincter controls flow
  • of chyme into intestines. Takes 1-4
  • hours for stomach to empty into
  • intestines

9
5. Small Intestine
  • Coiled section about 20 feet long, 1 inch in
    diameter
  • 3 sections
  • 1. Duodenum 1st 9-10 inches where bile from
    gall bladder liver pancreatic juices enter
    through ducts
  • 2. Jejunum 8 feet in length, middle section
  • 3. Ileum final 12 feet, connects with large
    intestine at cecum

10
Ileum
  1. Ileocecal valve separates ileum cecum,
    prevents food from returning to ileum
  2. Digestion completed in small intestine, products
    are absorbed into bloodstream
  3. Intestinal juices produced by small intestine,
    contains enzymes that break down sugars into
    simple forms (maltase, sucrase, lactase)
  4. Also has pepsidases protein digestion
  5. Steapsin aids in fat digestion
  6. Bile from liver gall bladder to physically
    break down fats

11
Ileum
  • Pancreatic enzymes complete process of breaking
    down food
  • Pancreatic amylase sugar
  • Trypsin/chymotrypsin proteins
  • Lipase/steapsin fats
  • Villi small fingerlike projections lining walls
    of small intestine contain capillaries
    lacteals
  • Capillaries absorb nutrients carry to liver
    for storage or released into circulation
  • Lacteals absorb fat carry to thoracic duct of
    lymph system to be released into circulation
  • Only wastes, indigestibles, water are left

12
6. Large Intestine
  • Final section, 5 feet in length, 2 inches in
    diameter
  • Functions
  • Absorb water other nutrients
  • Stores indigestible materials before elimination
  • Synthesizes absorbs B vitamins Vitamin K by
    bacteria
  • Transports wastes out

13
C. Divided into a series of connected sections
  • 1. Cecum 1st section, connected to ileum,
    contains appendix
  • 2. Colon 4 parts
  • a. Ascending up right side of body
  • to lower liver
  • b. Transverse across abd below
  • liver stomach, above sm intestine
  • c. Descending down left side of body
  • d. Sigmoid S shaped section, joins with
  • rectum

14
  • e. Rectum final 6 8 inches, stores wastes
    indigestibles
  • f. Anal canal narrow canal at end,
  • opening into anus where wastes are
  • expelled through

15
7. Peritoneum
  • Flat serous membrane surrounding abdominal cavity
  • Lubricates prevents friction between organs
  • Mesentary fan-shaped projection of peritoneum
    that contains blood vessels nerves
  • 1. binds to abdominal organs to keep them in
    place

16
8. Accessary Organs
  • Liver largest gland in body
  • Located under diaphragm in RUQ
  • Secretes bile emulsify fats makes them water
    soluble to be absorbed
  • Stores sugar glycogen, converts to glucose
    released to bloodstream when extra sugar is
    needed
  • Stores iron vitamins
  • Produces heparin, fibrinogen, prothrombin
    prevent clotting of blood
  • Detoxifies substances like alcohol pesticides
  • Destroys bacteria taken into blood by intestine

17
B. Gallbladder
  1. Small muscular sac located under liver, attached
    by connective tissue
  2. Stores concentrates bile (receives from liver)
  3. Contracts when bile is needed to emulsify fats,
    bile goes through the common bile duct into
    duodenum

18
C. Pancreas
  1. Gland located behind stomach
  2. Produces pancreatic juices contain enzymes to
    digest food
  3. Pancreatic juices enter duodenum through
    pancreatic duct
  4. Produces insulin which regulates metabolism,
    burning of carbs to convert glucose to energy

19
Parotid gland
Esophagus
Cardiac sphincter
Stomach
Pancreas
Transverse colon
Descending colon
Sigmoid colon
Rectum
Anus
Appendix
Cecum
Ileum
Ascending colon
Duodenum
Pyloric sphincter
Gall bladder
Liver
Larynx
Pharynx
20
Appendicitis
  • Acute inflammation of appendix, usually from
    obstruction infection
  • Symptoms
  • Generalized abd pain, later localizing in RLQ
  • N V
  • Mild fever
  • Elevated WBC
  • If ruptures, infectious material spills into
    peritoneum causes peritonitis
  • TX - appendectomy

21
Cholecystitis
  • Inflammation of gallbladder where gallstones form
    (cholelithiasis)
  • Symptoms occur after fatty meal
  • Indigestion, N V
  • Pain under ribcage, radiates to right shoulder
  • If gallstones block bile ducts, gallbladder can
    rupture
  • Tx low fat diet, lithotripsy, cholecystectomy

22
Cirrhosis
  • Chronic destruction of liver cells with formation
    of fibrous connective scar tissue
  • Causes
  • Hepatitis
  • Bile duct disease
  • Chemical toxins
  • Malnutrition associated with alcoholism
  • Symptoms
  • Liver enlargement
  • Anemia
  • Indigestion, N V
  • Nosebleeds
  • Jaundice
  • Ascites

23
Cirrhosis
  • Tx
  • Prevent more damage to liver
  • Avoid alcohol
  • Good nutrition
  • Supplements
  • Rest
  • Infection prevention
  • Appropriate exercise

24
Constipation
  • Fecal material remains in colon too long
  • Causes excessive reabsorption of water
  • Stool hard, dry, difficult to eliminate
  • Causes
  • Poor bowel habits
  • Chronic laxative use
  • Low fiber diet
  • Digestive diseases
  • TX
  • High fiber diet
  • Adequate fluids exercise
  • Occasional laxatives

25
Diarrhea
  • Condition with frequent watery stools
  • Causes
  • Infection
  • Stress
  • Diet
  • Irritated colon
  • Toxic substances
  • Very dangerous in young
  • Tx
  • Eliminating cause
  • Adequate fluids
  • Modifying diet

26
Diverticulitis
  • Inflammation of diverticula (pouches that form in
    intestine as mucosal lining pushes through
    surrounding muscle)
  • Fecal material bacteria become trapped in
    diverticula, creating inflammation
  • Result abscess formation or rupture
  • Symptoms vary with level of inflammation
  • Abd pain, N V
  • Irregular BM
  • Flatus, constipation, diarrhea
  • Abd distension
  • Low grade fever

27
Diverticulitis
  • Tx
  • Antibiotics
  • Stool softeners
  • Pain meds
  • surgery

28
Gastroenteritis
  • Inflammation of mucous membrane lining stomach
    intestine
  • Causes
  • Food poisoning
  • Infection
  • toxins
  • Sx
  • Abd cramping, N V
  • Fever diarrhea
  • Tx
  • Rest, fluids
  • Antibiotics, IV
  • Meds to slow peristalsis

29
Hemorrhoids
  • Painful, dilated or varicose veins of rectum or
    anus
  • Causes
  • Straining to defecate
  • Constipation
  • Pressure during pregnancy
  • Insufficient fluids
  • Laxative abuse
  • Prolonged sitting or standing

30
Hemorrhoids
  • Sx
  • Pain
  • Itching
  • bleeding
  • Tx
  • High fiber diet
  • Increased fluids
  • Stool softeners
  • Sitz baths or warm moist compresses
  • hemorrhoidectomy

31
Hepatitis
  • Viral inflammation of liver
  • Type A highly contagious, transmitted in food
    or water contaminated by feces of infected
    person, vaccine available
  • Type B transmitted by blood, can lead to
    chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis, vaccine available
  • Other strains
  • SX fever, anorexia, N V, fatigue, dark
    colored urine, clay-colored stools, enlarged
    liver, jaundice
  • TX rest, diet high in protein calories but
    low in fat, may need liver transplant

32
Hernia
  • Rupture, occurring when internal organ pushes
    through a weakened area or natural opening in a
    body wall
  • Hiatal hernia stomach protrudes through
    diaphragm into chest cavity or esophagus see
    heartburn, abd distention, chest pain, difficult
    swallowing
  • Tx bland diet, small freq meals, staying
    upright after meals, surgery

33
Inguinal hernia
  • Protrudes through lower abd wall
  • Sometimes can be reduced (pushed back into place)
  • Surgery

34
Pancreatitis
  • Inflammation of pancreas where pancreatic enzymes
    begin to digest the pancreas itself
  • Pancreas becomes necrotic, inflamed, edematous
  • Can lead to shock hemorrhage if it extends into
    blood vessels
  • Causes excessive alcohol
  • Gallstones
  • idiopathic

35
Pancreatitis
  • Sx
  • Severe abd pain radiating to back
  • N V
  • Diaphoresis
  • jaundice
  • Tx
  • Depends on cause
  • Pain control
  • Nutritional support
  • Surgery

36
Peritonitis
  • Inflammation of peritoneal cavity
  • Usually occurs when intestine ruptures allows
    contents to enter peritoneum
  • Common cause ruptured appendix or gallbladder
  • Sx abd pain, distension, N V, fever
  • Tx antibiotics, surgical repair

37
Ulcer
  • Open sore on lining of digestive tract
  • May be gastric (stomach) or intestinal (Duodenal)
  • H. Pylori bacteria that burrows into stomach
    membranes and allow acids digestive juices to
    create an ulcer
  • Sx
  • Burning pain, indigestion
  • Hematemesis
  • Melena

38
Ulcer
  • TX
  • Antacids
  • Bland diet
  • Decreased stress
  • Avoid irritants (alcohol, fried foods, tobacco,
    caffeine)
  • With H.Pylori give antibiotics Pepto-Bismol
  • Severe - surgery

39
Ulcerative colitis
  • Severe inflammation of colon accompanied by
    formation of ulcers abscesses
  • Causes stress, food allergy, autoimmune
  • Sx bloody diarrhea
  • Pus, mucous
  • Weight loss
  • Weakness
  • Abd pain, anorexia
  • Anemia
  • Periods of remission exacerbation

40
Ulcerative colitis
  • Tx
  • Control inflammation
  • Reduce stress
  • Good nutrition
  • Avoid irritants
  • May need surgery colostomy

41
Alactasia
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Dont produce enough lactase so unabsorbed
    lactose ferments in intestines gas, cramps,
    diarrhea
  • Tx decrease dairy intake or take lactase
    supplements

42
Food poisoning
  • Common, includes 300 illnesses transmitted by
    food (I.e. salmonella, listeria)
  • Sx
  • HA
  • Unrelenting diarrhea
  • N V
  • Fever
  • Tx - antibiotics

43
Mumps
  • Viral infection of parotid glands
  • Most common in 5 15 year olds
  • Parotids painfully swell
  • Can damage reproductive organs if older
  • Treat symptoms, no cure, runs its course

44
Phenylketonuria
  • PKU
  • Inherited disease that can lead to mental
    retardation if untreated
  • 1/8000 babies
  • Causes abn metabolism of proteins
  • SX irritability in infant, restless, eventually
    leads to convulsions
  • TX diet modification routine blood work
  • All babies are tested

45
Pyloric stenosis
  • Constricted pyloric sphincter
  • Doesnt allow food to easily pass into small
    intestine
  • 1/4000 infants
  • Sx projectile vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration,
    weight loss
  • TX - surgery
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