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Implementation of Quality-by-Design (QbD) Principles in CMC Review of Generic Drugs

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A modern, science and risk-based pharmaceutical quality assessment system Acknowledgement Andre Raw Robert Lionberger Radhika Rajagopalan Lai Ming Lee Frank ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Implementation of Quality-by-Design (QbD) Principles in CMC Review of Generic Drugs


1
Implementation of Quality-by-Design (QbD)
Principles in CMC Review of Generic Drugs
  • Lawrence X. Yu, Ph. D.
  • Director for Science
  • Office of Generic Drugs
  • Food and Drug Administration

Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science
October 26, 2005
2
OGD Question-based Review System
  • Why?
  • How?
  • And What?

3
Receipts of ANDAs
4
Receipts of Supplements
5
cGMP Initiative Desired State Regulatory
  • Regulatory policies and procedures are tailored
    to recognize the level of scientific knowledge
  • Risk based regulatory scrutiny is associated
    with the level of scientific understanding...

6
Current OGD CMC Review
  • One size fits all Risk is not systematically
    considered
  • Does not adjust review to the level of scientific
    understanding
  • All products (simple and complex) use the same
    approach
  • All products are subject to the same
    post-approval supplements

7
Why Question-based Review?
  • Workload
  • Quality
  • cGMP for 21st Century Quality by Design
  • Continuous improvement of our review process

8
OGD Question-based Review System
  • Why?
  • How?
  • And What?

9
cGMP Initiative Desired State Manufacturing
  • Product quality and performance achieved and
    assured by design of effective and efficient
    manufacturing processes
  • Product specifications based on mechanistic
    understanding of how formulation and process
    factors impact product performance
  • An ability to effect continuous improvement and
    continuous "real time" assurance of quality

10
Discussions Internally
  • Question-based Review Timetable
  • 1/2005 2/2005 Question-based Review Drafted
  • 3/2005 4/2005 Division Directors Discussion
  • 5/2005 6/2005 Team Leaders Discussion
  • 7/2005 8/2005 Reviewers Discussion
  • 2/2005 12/2005 Discussions with Stakeholders
    and Upper Management
  • 9/2005 12/2006 Trial Period and Gradual
    Implementation
  • 1/2007 Full Implementation

11
Discussions Externally
  • February 24, 2005 GPhA Technical Committee
    meeting
  • June 8, 2005 GPhA Technical Steering Committee
    meeting
  • June 29, 2005 GPhA Technical Meeting
  • October 5, 2005, AAPS Workshop
  • October 21, 2005 GPhA QbR WG Meeting
  • October 25, 2005 OGD QbR Report
  • More

12
Question-Based Review for CMC Evaluations of
ANDAs The Office of Generic Drugs (OGD) is
developing a question-based review (QbR) for the
Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC)
evaluation of an Abbreviated New Drug Application
(ANDA) that is focused on critical pharmaceutical
quality attributes. The QbR initiative began in
early 2005 with the development of a revised
review template and is approaching the early
implementation phase as we gain feedback through
wide internal and external discussions. The QbR
will transform the CMC review into a modern,
science and risk-based pharmaceutical quality
assessment that incorporates and implements the
concepts and principles of the FDAs
Pharmaceutical cGMPs for the 21st Century A
Risk-Based Approach and Process Analytical
Technology initiatives .. ..   August, 2005
13
How is Question-based Review Developed?
  • Quality built in by design, development, and
    manufacture and confirmed by testing
  • Risk-based approach to maximize economy of time,
    effort, and resources
  • Preserve the best practices of current review
    system and organization
  • Best available science and wide consultation to
    ensure high quality questions

14
OGD Question-based Review System
  • Why?
  • How?
  • And What?

15
Question-based Review
  • Question-based Review is a general framework for
    a science and risk-based assessment of product
    quality
  • Question-based Review contains the important
    scientific and regulatory review questions to
  • Comprehensively assess critical formulation
    manufacturing process variables
  • Determine the level of risk associated with the
    manufacture and design of the product

16
What Does a CMC Reviewer do?
  • Evaluates identity, strength, stability, purity,
    and quality
  • Definition of Quality the drug product is free
    from contamination and will reproducibly deliver
    the therapeutic benefit promised in the label to
    the consumer (Janet Woodcock)
  • Determines that the generic drug product
  • is appropriately designed (a pharmaceutical
    equivalent to the brand name product)
  • can be reproducibly manufactured

17
Questions to Whom?
  • CMC Reviewer
  • Questions guide reviewers to provide a consistent
    and comprehensive evaluation of the application
  • Industry
  • Questions also alert the industry to what issues
    we generally consider critical in the evaluation
    of their applications

18
CMC Review Under QbR
  • Questions guide reviewers to provide a high
    quality and comprehensive evaluation of the
    application
  • Some CMC deficiencies under the current system
    are related to reviewer chemists education and
    experience
  • Allow reviewers to derive bioequivalence
    inferences
  • Pharmaceutical development/quality by design
    information and prior knowledge

19
CMC Review Under QbR
  • The risk and science-based regulatory assessment
  • Level of assessment is associated with complexity
    of drug products
  • Post-approval change supplements are related to
    scientific understanding

20
CMC Review Under Question-based Review
(Continued)
  • Three-tiered assessment of manufacturing
  • Tier 1 applies to all dosage forms
  • Tier 2 applies to dosage forms that are not
    solutions (equivalent to current practice)
  • Tier 3 applies to dosage forms that are not
    solutions, IR tablets, or IR capsules

21
CMC Review Under Question-based Review (Continued)
  • Proposed Risk-based Scoring System
  • ANDA drugs Risk score
  • NTI Drugs
    1
  • Complex dosage form 1
  • Insufficient or missing PD reports 1
  • Application of poor quality (gt 2 CMC cycles) 1

22
CMC Review Under Question-based Review (Continued)
  • Post-approval Change Recommendation
  • Total risk score of 1 or less
  • Many CBE-0 and CBE-30 changes shifted to annual
    report
  • Possible to downgrade certain PAS changes to
    CBE/annual report
  • Total risk score of gt1
  • No change in supplement submission and review
  • At the time of ANDA approval the review team will
    propose a risk assessment score for the
    application

23
CMC Review Under Question-based Review (Continued)
  • Risk-based Conclusion and Post-approval
    Supplements Reduction
  • Should the application be approved?
  • What post-approval waivers/commitments are
    appropriate for this product?
  • Eliminate/ downgrade up to 80 of CMC
    supplements, and thus free up scarce review
    resources
  • Allow sponsors freedom to execute changes in
    manufacturing processes for which they have
    demonstrated process understanding

24
Generic Drug Applications Under Question-based
Review
  • Common Technical Document Format
  • Quality Overall Summary that will
  • directly address the reviewers questions and
    guide reviewers through the application
  • eliminate unnecessary copying of information such
    as composition, specification, and manufacturing
    process, etc., resulting in shorter review time

25
Generic Drug Applications Under Question-based
Review (Continued)
  • Product Development Report (Quality by Design)
    that will explain
  • how drug substance and formulation variables
    affect the performance of the drug product
  • how the sponsor identifies the critical
    manufacturing steps, determines operating
    parameters, selects in-process tests to control
    the process, and scales up the manufacturing
    process

26
Generic Drug Applications Under Question-based
Review (Continued)
  • The 1999 Guidance for Industry Organization of
    an ANDA
  • Does not include Quality by Design principles
  • Does not provide for a QoS
  • Is no longer current for the OGD Question-based
    Review

27
Generic Drug Applications Under Question-based
Review (Continued)
  • Future Generic Applications
  • We strongly recommend that generic sponsors
    submit generic applications based on the format
    of ICH CTD, preferably, electronically
  • Module 1 Administrative Information
  • Module 2 Quality Overall Summary and Clinical
    Summary
  • Module 3 Quality
  • Pharmaceutical Development Quality by Design
  • Module 4 Nonclinical
  • Module 5 Clinical (Bioequivalence)

28
Benefits of Question-based Review
  • Risk based reduction of supplements
  • Science based specifications
  • Consistency and transparency of review
  • Efficient and timely review process

29
Reviewer Education
  • Regulatory Science Training Series
  • Past training workshops
  • Polymorphism, Controlled Release, Injectable Drug
    Products, Aerosols and Sprays, Impurities,
    Excipients, and Manufacturing
  • Future training workshops
  • Quality by Design (OPS)
  • Preformulation, Biopharmaceutics, Dissolution
  • Process Identification, Simulation, Monitoring,
    and Control

30
Expectations
  • Office of Generic Drugs
  • Ask the right questions
  • Produce a concise, consistent, and comprehensive
    review
  • Industry
  • Consistent, science and risk-based assessment
  • Accelerated approval of applications
  • Reduced supplements

31
OGD Question-based Review System
  • Why?
  • Workload, cGPM initiative, and current review
    process
  • How?
  • Quality by design, risk and science-based
    approach, and wide consultation
  • What?
  • A modern, science and risk-based pharmaceutical
    quality assessment system

More Information on Question-based
Review www.fda.gov/cder/ogd/QbR.htm
32
Acknowledgement
  • Andre Raw Robert Lionberger
  • Radhika Rajagopalan Lai Ming Lee
  • Frank Holcombe Rashmikant Patel
  • Florence Fang Vilayat Sayeed
  • Paul Schwartz Richard Adams
  • Lawrence Yu (Chair)

Gary Buehler, Robert West, Rita Hassall, Brenda
Arnwine, Gururaj Bykadi, James Fan, Scott
Furness, Dave Gill, Shing Hou Liu, Albert
Mueller, Michael Smela, Glen Smith, Ubrani
Venkataram, Karen Bernard, Neeru Takiar, Roslyn
Powers, Mouna Selvam, Ramnarayan Randad, Shanaz
Read, Quan Zhang, Andrew Langowski, Susan
Rosencrance, Barbara Scott, Robert Iser, Guoping
Sun, Yanping Pan, Raman Murali, Aloka Srinivasan,
Ruth Warzala, Barbara Davit, Christina Bina,
Koung Lee, and Tom Hinchliffe
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