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HAZARDOUS WASTE OPERATIONS AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE - AWARENESS

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29 CFR 1910.120 Revised July 2000 Objectives Define your role at the Awareness level? Clues to be gathered upon discovering an incident. Be able to read ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HAZARDOUS WASTE OPERATIONS AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE - AWARENESS


1
HAZARDOUS WASTE OPERATIONS AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE
- AWARENESS
  • 29 CFR 1910.120
  • Revised July 2000

2
Objectives
  • Define your role at the Awareness level?
  • Clues to be gathered upon discovering an
    incident.
  • Be able to read placards and labels.
  • Able to read and interpret the DOT book.
  • Able to implement site security and control.
  • Understand the basics of an Emergency Response
    Plan

3
Role of First Responder - Awareness 29 CFR
1910.120(q)
  • Likely to witness or discover release.
  • Trained to initiate emergency response.
  • Take no further action .

4
FIRST RESPONDER AWARENESS LEVEL
  • Understand what hazardous materials
    are and their risks in an incident.
  • Understand the potential outcome of an emergency
    created when hazardous materials are present.
  • Ability to recognize the presence of hazardous
    materials in an emergency.

5
  • Ability to identify hazardous materials if
    possible
  • Role of the First Responder in the Emergency
    Response Plan including site security control
    and DOTs Emergency Response Guidebook.
  • Ability to realize the need for additional
    resources and to make appropriate notification to
    communication center.

6
HISTORY
  • Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of
    1986 (SARA)
  • allocated funds to develop health and safety
    training for workers involved in transportation,
    storage, or disposal of hazardous waste.

7
Hazard Recognition
  • Definitions
  • Hazardous substance OSHA
  • Hazardous waste EPA
  • Hazardous material DOT

8
Hazardous Substance - OSHA
  • A substance which may result in adverse affects
    on the health and safety of employees
  • A substance included as a hazardous material by
    DOT and as a hazardous waste by EPA

9
Hazardous Waste - EPA
  • Poses unreasonable risk to health, safety or
    property when transported in commerce for the
    purposes of treatment, storage, or disposal as
    waste

10
Hazardous Material - DOT
  • Any substance or material in any form or
    quantity which poses an unreasonable risk to
    safety and health and property when transported
    in commerce

11
Chemical Hazards
  • Flammable
  • Corrosive
  • Reactive
  • Toxic
  • Sudden Release of Pressure (explosion)
  • detonation and deflagration

12
Physical Hazards to Employees
  • Radiation
  • Electricity
  • Stress
  • Heat/Cold
  • Slips, trips, falls
  • Steam Chemical clouds

13
Biological Hazards
  • Infectious Hospital Waste
  • Research Materials
  • Raw sewage (hepatitis A, E-coli)
  • Bites from vectors (ticks, rats, wild dogs)

14
Modes and Routes of Entry
  • Mode
  • Inhalation
  • Ingestion
  • Injection
  • Absorption
  • Route
  • Respiratory System
  • Gastrointestinal Sys.
  • Skin
  • Skin

15
Health Effects
  • Acute
  • body response at time of exposure, typically a
    high concentration, or a few days after exposure.
  • Chronic
  • body response takes a long time after repeated or
    prolonged exposures.

16
Definitions
  • PPM
  • TLV
  • PEL
  • REL
  • TWA
  • C
  • STEL
  • IDLH
  • OSHA
  • ACGIH
  • NIOSH

17
Inhalation Hazard?
  • Handy rules of thumb
  • vapor pressure
  • lt10 mmHg slow
  • 10-50 mmHg medium
  • gt50 mmHg fast
  • evaporation rate
  • lt0.8 slow
  • 0.8 - 3 medium
  • gt 3 fast

18
Target Organs
  • Nephrotoxin - kidneys
  • Hepatotoxin - liver
  • Neurotoxin - CNS
  • Hemotoxin - blood
  • Mutagenic - genetic material
  • Teratogenic - fetal deformities
  • Carcinogenic - cancer causing

19
Factors of Toxicity
  • Time Frequency (TWA, STEL)
  • Route by which exposure occurs
  • Physical chemical form of the substance
  • Dose delivered

20
Fire Explosion Characteristics
  • Components of Combustion
  • Fuel
    Oxidizer
  • Ignition Sources

21
Fire Explosive Characteristics Sources of
Ignition
  • Cigarettes
  • Welding
  • Grinding / Cutting
  • Unprotected electrical equipment
  • Open flames
  • Hot surfaces
  • Static electricity
  • Oxidizing chemicals

22
Classes Of Fires
  • Class A
  • Class B
  • Class C
  • Class D

23
  • Class A/Ordinary Combustible -Extinguish with
    water
  • Class B/Flammable Liquids. Use a Dry Chemical
    Extinguisher
  • Class C/Electrical Equipment. Use a CO2
    Extinguisher
  • Class D/Combustible Metals. Use a Dry Powder
    Extinguisher

24
Terminology Flammable
  • Flash Point
  • Ignition
  • Auto Ignition
  • Lower Flammability Limit
  • Upper Flammability Limit
  • Combustible
  • Flammability Range
  • Oxidizers

25
Flammable vs. Combustible
  • Flammable
  • A liquid with a flash point below 100oF
    (Source 29 CFR 1910.106)
  • A liquid with a flash point below 141oF (Source
    DOT)

26
Combustible
  • A liquid with a flash point at or above 100oF but
    below 200oF (Source 29 CFR 1910.106)
  • A liquid with a flash point at or above 141oF but
    below 200oF (Source DOT)

27
Hazard Identification
  • Labels and Placards
  • Other Documentation (MSDS)
  • Container Shape

28
Labels and Placards
  • DOT System
  • NFPA System
  • HMIS System

COR
1831
29
DOT System
  • Shipping papers
  • Markings
  • Labeling
  • Placarding

30
Shipping Papers
  • Proper shipping name
  • Hazard class (9 classes)
  • Identification number
  • Packing group
  • Container type
  • Quantity
  • Shipper data
  • Emergency phone number

31
Markings
  • Proper shipping name
  • Identification number
  • Address of the shipper

32
Labels Placards
  • Graphic representation of the hazard
  • Labels on packaging/containers
  • Placards on the outside - ends sides of trucks,
    rail cars, freight containers

33
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34
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35
NFPA SYSTEM
  • Diamond-shaped
  • Color-coded in 4 small diamonds
  • Blue Health risk
  • Red Flammability
  • Yellow Reactivity
  • White Special information
  • Number-coded in the red, blue, and yellow
    diamonds

36
Chemical Name
Health Hazard
Fire Hazard
Flash Points 4-Below 73 F 3-Below 100 F 2-Below
200 F 1-Above 200 F 0-Will not burn
4-Deadly 3-Extremely Hazardous 2-Hazardous 1-Sligh
tly Hazardous 0-Normal material

Specific Hazard
Reactivity
4-May detonate 3-Shock and heat may
detonate 2-Violent chemical change 1-Unstable if
heated 0-Stable
Oxidizer OX Use NO WATER W
37
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38
HMIS Hazard Materials Identification System
  • Rectangular
  • Color-coded
  • Blue Health risk
  • Red Flammability
  • Yellow Reactivity
  • White Special information/PPE

39
Hazard Materials Information Sheet
Health
Flammability
Reactivity
PPE
40
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41
NFPA vs. HMIS
  • NFPA is geared for fire emergencies
  • HMIS is geared for everyday use
  • NFPA and HMIS numbers are often in conflict
    (especially health and reactivity)
  • HMIS includes necessary PPE
  • NFPA includes special hazards

42
Other Documentation
  • MSDS
  • Shipping Containers
  • Shipping Papers (Bill of Lading)

43
How hazardous is it??
  • Percent by weight
  • How volatile it is (vapor pressure)
  • Lowest exposure limit
  • Physical form
  • Route of entry
  • Chronic vs. acute
  • Where is it? (out in open, confined area)

44
Division of Safety Hygiene
Hazard Communication 96-97
Material Safety Data Sheet
Identify (As Used on Label and List) Note
Blank spaces are not permitted. If any item is
not applicable, or no information is available,
the space must be marked to indicate that.
Manufacturers Name Emergency Telephone
Number Address (Number, Street, City, and ZIP
Code) Telephone Number for Information Date
Prepared Signature of Preparer (optional)
45
Division of Safety Hygiene
Hazard Communication 96-97
Hazardous Ingredients/Identity Information
OSHA PEL
Other Limits Recommended
Hazardous Components (Specific Chemical Identity
Common Name(s)
ACGIH TLV
Optional
46
Division of Safety Hygiene
Hazard Communication 96-97
Physical/Chemical Characteristics
Boiling Point Specific
Gravity (H2O 1) Vapor Pressure (mm Hg.)
Melting Point Vapor Density (AIR 1)
Evaporation Rate (Butyl Acetate 1) Solubility
in Water Appearance and Odor
47
Division of Safety Hygiene
Hazard Communication 96-97
Fire and Explosion Hazard Data
Flash Point (Method Used) Flammable Limits
LEL UEL Extinguishing Media Special Fire
Fighting Procedures Unusual Fire and Explosion
Hazards
48
Division of Safety Hygiene
Hazard Communication 96-97
Reactivity Data
Stability Unstable Conditions
to Avoid Stable
Incompatibility (Materials to Avoid)
Hazardous Decomposition or Byproducts
Hazardous May Occur
Conditions to Avoid Polymerization
Will Not Occur
49
Division of Safety Hygiene
Hazard Communication 96-97
Health Hazard Data
Route(s) of Entry Inhalation? Skin?
Ingestion?
Health Hazards (Acute and Chronic)
Carcinogenicity NTP? IARC Monographs? OSHA
Regulated?
Signs and Symptoms of Exposure
Medical Conditions Generally Aggravated by
Exposure
Emergency and First Aid Procedures
50
Division of Safety Hygiene
Hazard Communication 96-97
Precautions for Safe Handling and Use
Steps to Be Taken in Case Material is Released or
Spilled Waste Disposal Method Precautions to Be
Taken in Handling and Storing Other Precautions
51
Division of Safety Hygiene
Hazard Communication 96-97
Control Measures
Respiratory Protection (Specify Type)
Ventilation Local Exhaust Special
Mechanical
Other Protective
Gloves Eye Protection Other
Protective Clothing or Equipment Work/Hygienic
Practices
(General)
52
Containers
53
Types of Containers
  • Drums and Totes
  • Above ground tanks
  • Underground tanks
  • Tanker trailers
  • Ponds or lagoons
  • Compressed gas cylinders

54
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55
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56
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57
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58
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59
Container Inspection
  • Symbols, words or markings identifying the
    content
  • Signs of deterioration - corrosion, rust, leaks,
    crystallization around opening (peroxides)
  • Signs of container under pressure - bulges
    swelling
  • Drum type
  • Drumhead configuration

60
North American Emergency Response Guidebook
61
EMERGENCY RESPONSE GUIDEBOOK
Yellow Section
  • ID - United Nations (Numerical Order)
  • Guide - Orange Pages
  • Material Name

62
Blue Section
  • Material Name (Alphabetically)
  • Guide Number (Orange Section)
  • ID

63
Orange Section
  • Potential Hazards - (Fire/Explosion, Health)
  • Public Safety - (Notification, PPE, Evacuation)
  • Emergency Response -(Fire, Spill/Leak, First Aid)

64
Green Section
  • Table of Initial Isolation and
  • Protective Action Distances
  • Small And Large Releases
  • Day And Night

65
Emergency Response Plan
ERP
66
EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANS
Elements
  • Emergency escape procedures route designations
  • Procedures for employees who stay to operate
    critical operations before they evacuate.
  • Accountability procedures for all on-site
    personnel.

67
EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANS
  • Elements continued
  • Rescue and medical responsibilities
  • Fire and emergency reporting
  • Emergency call list for notification
    and assistance
  • PPE emergency equipment

68
RISK ASSESSMENT
  • Probability of an unwanted event.
  • Hazards associated with event.
  • Control measures.

69
Hierarchy of Controls A. Engineering
B. Administrative work practices C.
Respirators and PPE
70
Engineering Controls
  • Pressurized cabs on heavy machinery
  • Control booths
  • Remotely operated material handling equipment

71
Work Practices
  • Remove all non-essential personnel
  • Wetting down dusty operations
  • Locating employees upwind of possible hazards

72
The potential risk from the many hazardous
properties of any particular material will vary
depending on the conditions during the emergency.
73
In addition to being able to recognize what has
already happened in an emergency, it is necessary
to recognize the potential for other problems
i.e. a small fire could develop into an
explosion.
74
  • For an Emergency Response Plan to be effective,
    it requires
  • pre-planning
  • Training or exercise (Table Top)
  • critique/follow-up.

75
Additional Resources
A first responder must become familiar with the
capabilities and limitations of the emergency
response team in order to determine the need for
additional help or resources.
76
SITE SECURITY AND CONTROL
  • Safe distances
  • Evacuation isolation
  • Places of refuge

77
Site Security Control cont.
  • point of entry
  • site maps
  • area entry logs
  • boundaries


78
Site Security and Control cont.
  • Accessibility of potential routes
  • Multiple evacuation routes
  • Mark evacuation routes
  • Make escape routes known to all

79
COMMUNICATIONS
----First Responder - Awareness has the ability
to make appropriate notifications to the
communications center.
80
Communications
Internal
megaphones bullhorns compressed air horns site
alarms
bells whistles telephones sirens pagers
81
PLUS . . .
colored flags flares hand signals lights signal
boards
82
External Forms of Communication
Telephone hookups Cell phones Radio
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