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International Theory: The Second Debate Realism versus Behavioralism

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Title: International Theory: The Second Debate Realism versus Behavioralism


1
International Theory The Second DebateRealism
versus Behavioralism
  • Or, to be more precise
  • Traditionalism versus Scientism
  • Or also
  • the debate between Understanding and Explanation

2
Basic Terms
  • Ontological concerning itself with what exists -
    a 17th century coinage for the respective branch
    of philosophical metaphysics
  • Epistemological concerning itself with the
    theory of knowledge origin of knowledge,
    the role of experience in generating know-ledge,
    the function of reason in generating knowledge,
    the relationship between know-ledge and
    certainty, and the criteria accor-ding to which
    we decide on the validity and tenability of
    statements

3
  • During the first part of the seminar, we looked
    at the ontology of I.R., at the respective world
    views linked to particular Grand Theories.
  • Classic Example of different ontologies the
    First Great Debate betweeen Idealism and Realism
    (or between a Hobbesian a Lockean/Kantian/Grotia
    n view of IR)
  • The Second Great Debate between Traditionalism
    and Scientism looks at the epistemology of I.R.
    How can we be sure that the statements we
    formulate are correct ??

4
The methodological-epistemological/ontological
field of I.R.theory
  • Billiard-Ball-Model of
    Int. Politics
  • REALISM
    NEOREALISM
  • Traditionalism
    Scientism
  • Qualitative, historical-
    Quantitative
  • hermeneutical ,
    (deductively-) empirical,
  • common-sensual
    nomological
  • IDEALISM
    GLOBALISM
  • Cobweb-Model of
    Int. Politics

5
The Billard-Ball-Model of International Politics
6
Cobweb model of international Relations
7
Traditionalism vs. Scientism I
  • The Traditional Approach to theorizing derives
    from philosophy, history, and law, and is
    characterized above all by explicit reliance upon
    the exercise of judgment and by the assumption
    that if we confine ourselves to strict standards
    of verification very little can be said of
    international relations. General propositions
    about this field must therefore derive from a
    scientifically imperfect process of perception
    and intuition general propositions cannot be
    accorded more than tentative and inconclusive
    status adequate to their doubtful fuzzy origin

8
Traditionalism vs. Scientism II
  • The Behavioralist or Scientistic Approach shows a
    concern with
  • explanatory rather than normative theory
  • recurring patterns rather than the single case
  • operational concepts that have measurable
    empirical referents rather than reified concepts
  • conceptual frameworks rather than
    all-encompassing world-explaining theories
  • the techniques of precise data gathering,
    measurement and presentation.

9
Literaturtipp
  • Klaus Knorr/James N. Rosenau (eds.) Contending
    Approaches to International Politics. Princeton,
    N.J. Princeton UP 1969
  • Martin Hollis/Steve Smith Explaining and
    Understanding in International Relations. Oxford
    Clarendon Press 1990

10
Traditionalism I
  • scientific/cognitive interest
  • Scientific advice to those who govern, and
    political education of those who are governed
    evaluating comments, norm-based opinions, and
    recom-mendations for action regarding present
    political decisions on the basis of respective
    scientific research results

11
Traditionalism II
  • Problem statement
  • striving for an understanding of politics on the
    basis of an insight into and of a knowledge of
    historical-social deve-lopments and processes

12
Traditionalism III
  • specific view of the object of enquiry
  • Politics is a specific social form of action full
    of sense and values an art which can be learned
    on the basis of historical examples. Historical
    and social phenomena can be clearly distinguished
    from natural phenomena thus, they are not
    susceptible to scientific explanations taking the
    form of if - then statements
  • b) International Politics competitive
    zero-sum-game for power and influence in an
    anarchic world of states, characterized by the
    security dilemma and the role of states as
    primary (if not near-exclusive) international
    actors

13
Traditionalism IV
  • methods of analysis
  • hermeneutic, ideographic, descriptive, or
    normative approaches typical for the arts and
    historical sciences
  • validity criteria of scientific statements
    Common Sense the view that we know most, if not
    all, of those things which ordinary people think
    they know and that any satisfactory
    epistemological theory must be adequate to the
    fact that we know such things
  • Value relationship scientific statements are
    characterized by explicit dependence on values

14
Traditionalism V
  • Concept of Theory
  • Constitution of a general theory of political
    action based on the regular appearance of
    phenomena and forms of international politics
    over time, formulating recommendations to
    political decision-makers for action in
    comparable situations
  • Formulation of ideal types based on historical
    comparisons which help with the understanding and
    classification of concrete historical and
    political phenomena

15
Scientism
  • Scientism is a philosophical position that exalts
    the methods of the natural sciences above all
    other modes of human inquiry. Scientism embraces
    only empiricism and reason to explain phenomena
    of any dimension, whether physical, social,
    cultural, or psychological.
  • Drawing from the general empiricism of The
    Enlightenment, scientism is most closely
    associated with the positivism of August Comte
    (1798-1857) who held an extreme view of
    empiricism, insisting that true knowledge of the
    world arises only from perceptual experience.
    Comte criticized ungrounded speculations about
    phenomena that cannot be directly encountered by
    proper observation, analysis and experiment.
  • Such a doctrinaire stance associated with science
    leads to an abuse of reason that transforms a
    rational philosophy of science into an irrational
    dogma. It is this ideological dimension that we
    associate with the term scientism. Today the term
    is used with pejorative intent to dismiss
    substantive arguments that appeal to scientific
    authority in contexts where science might not
    apply.

16
Scientism (2)
  • Epistemological scientism lays claim to an
    exclusive approach to knowledge. Human inquiry is
    reduced to matters of material reality. We can
    know only those things that are ascertained by
    experimentation through application of the
    scientific method. And since the method is
    emphasized with such great importance, the
    scientistic tendency is to privilege the
    expertise of a scientific elite who can properly
    implement the method.

17
Behavioralism
  • The so-called behavioral revolution took hold
    in academic disciplines and grant-making bodies
    during the 1940s, placing emphasis on individual
    level psychological variables and quantitative
    methods.

18
The Behavioral Revolution
  • Goal an interdisciplinary, methodologically
    rigorous science of human behavior, with the
    ability to predict as well as prescribe.
  • Announcing its commitment to behavioralism, the
    Ford Foundation identified two main convictions
  • All problems from war to individual adjustment
    could be traced to individual behavior and human
    relations.
  • Methodologically rigorous research might uncover
    laws of human behavior and thus help to inform
    policy.

19
Behavioralism Characteristics
  • One of the most "influential" definitions of
    behavioralism has been David Easton's list of its
    characteristics
  • 1) search for regularities, even with explanatory
    and predictive value,
  • 2) verification with testable propositions,
  • 3) self-conscious examination for rigorous
    techniques,
  • 4) quantification for precision when possible and
    relevant,
  • 5) keeping values and empirical explanations
    analytically distinct,
  • 6) systematization as an intertwining of theory
    and research,
  • 7) pure science preceding the application of
    knowledge, and
  • 8) integration of the social sciences
  • (Easton 1962 7-8 Easton 1965 7).

20
Stimulus-Response-Model
  • Stimulus-Response-Model (Reiz-Reaktions-Modell)
  • S R
  • Later, in somewhat less rigorous form,
  • Stimulus-Organism-Response-Model

S O R
21
Literaturtipp
  • David Easton The New Revolution in Political
    Science.. The American PoliticalScience Review,
    Vol. 63, No. 4, Dez.1969., 1051-1061.
  • Falter, Jürgen W. Der "Positivismusstreit" in
    der amerikanischen Politikwissenschaft, Opladen
    Westdeutscher Verlag 1982
  • Falter, J. W./Honolka, H./Ludz, U. Politische
    Theorie in den USA. Eine empirische Analyse der
    Entwicklung von 1950 bis 1980. Opladen
    Westdeutscher Verlag 1990

22
Positivism I
  • Axioms correspondence theory of truth,
    methodological unity of science, value-free
    scientific knowledge
  • Premisses Division of Subject and Object,
    Naturalism deduction of all phenomena from
    natural facts, Division of statements of facts
    and statements of values

23
Positivism II
  • Consequences
  • Postulated existence of a real world (Object)
    independent from the theory- loaded grasp of the
    scientist (subject)
  • identification of facts in an intersubjectively
    valid observation language independent from
    theories
  • methodological exclusion of idiosyncratic
    characteristics and/or individual (subject)
    identities assures objective knowledge of an
    intersubjectively transferable character

24
Positivism III
  • Postulate of like regularities in the natural as
    well as the social world, independent of time,
    place, and observer, enables the transfer of
    analytic approaches and deductive-nomological
    processes of theory formulation from the field of
    the natural to the field of the social sciences
    to the analysis of social/societal problems
  • Knowledge generated on the basis of positivist
    research approaches and methodologies is limited
    to the objective (i.e. empirical) world.
    Statements and decisions on values are outside
    the sphere of competence of science.

25
Positivism IV
  • Further Consequences
  • Concept of Reason predicated on the purposeful
    rationality/rationality of purpose of
    instrumental action aiding the actor to
    technically master her/his environment
  • Rationalisation of societal (inter-)action by its
    predication on planned/plannable means-
    end-relationships, technical (or engineering)
    knowledge, depersonalisation of relationships of
    power and dominance, and extension of control
    over natural and social objects (rationalisation
    of the world we live in)

26
Positivism V
  • Theory regards itself as problem-solving theory,
    which accepts the institutions and
    power/dominance relationships of a pre-given
    reality as analytical and reference frameworks,
    and strives for the explanation of causal
    relationships between societal phenomena its aim
    is the elimination of disturbances and/or their
    sources in order to insure friction-less
    action/functioning of social actors
  • International politics is regarded as the
    interaction of exogeneously constituted actors
    under anarchy, the behaviour of which is as a
    rule explained by recourse to the characteristics
    or parameters of the international system
    (top-down explanation)

27
  • Positivism VI

28
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29
Positivist theory creation and testing
hypotheses
predictions
logical deduction
theory amended
Prediction not fulfilled, theory appears
inconsistent with the facts
empirical observation
either
or
Prediction fulfilled, theory appears consistent
with the facts
theory discarded, new theory needed
theory correct
30
Literaturtipp
  • A.J.Ayer Logical Positivism. New York Free
    Press 1959
  • Rudolf Haller Neopositivismus. Eine Historische
    Einführung in die Philosophie des Wiener Kreises.
    Darmstadt Wissen-schaftliche Buchgesellschaft
    1993

31
Praktischer Hinweis für IT-Theoretiker
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