AFRICAN PARLIAMENTARIAN COLLOQUIUM ON MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS (MEAs) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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AFRICAN PARLIAMENTARIAN COLLOQUIUM ON MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS (MEAs)

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Title: AFRICAN PARLIAMENTARIAN COLLOQUIUM ON MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS (MEAs)


1
MAINSTREAMING MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL
AGREEMENTS IN AFRICA
  • AFRICAN PARLIAMENTARIAN COLLOQUIUM ON
    MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS (MEAs)
  •  
  • Theme MEAs in National and Regional
    Development
  •  
  • Kampala, 6-9 June 2012

2
Presentation Coverage
  • Defining mainstreaming and its relevance to MEAs
    implementation
  • Rationale for Mainstreaming
  • The role of MEAs in sustainable development
  • The role of Parliamentarians in MEAs
    implementation
  • Approaches to MEAs mainstreaming
  • Challenges in mainstreaming MEAs
  • Some examples and initiatives in Africa
  • Mainstreaming Outcomes
  • Conclusions

3
Defining environmental mainstreaming
  • Environmental mainstreaming has been defined as
    the informed inclusion of environmental
    considerations into the decisions of institutions
    that drive national, local and sectoral
    development policy, rules, plans, investment and
    action.
  • The need for environmental mainstreaming in
    development policy has been motivated by the
    realization that
  • The economy and society especially in Africa are
    intimately dependent upon the health of the
    environment
  • A large proportion of the wealth of developing
    countries and poor people consists of
    environmental assets

4
Benefits of environmental mainstreaming
  • Poor environmental management threatens
    development and complicates poverty reduction
    efforts
  • Mainstreaming therefore promises to not only
    minimise risks and problems in the development
    process it should also assist in highlighting
    environmental potentials to enhance sustainable
    development
  • Mainstreaming has the potential to facilitate
    incorporation of local beliefs, norms and values
    into national development policy
  • Hence it has to be done both at national (such as
    planning and finance ministries), local (where
    daily decisions are made) and sectoral levels
    (government departments, business and other
    stakeholders organizations).

5
Benefits of mainstreaming
  • Integrated policy interventions that avoid
    development vs environment arguments
  • More efficient planning of environmental assets
    and environmental hazard management
  • Support technological innovation that is inspired
    and informed by nature
  • Informed debates on policy formulation on big
    issues
  • Improve productivity, resilience and adaptability
    of social and economic systems

6
MEAs and the Environment
  • Multilateral environmental agreements refer to a
    number of legally binding international
    instruments which states use to achieve specific
    environmental goals. MEAs are therefore primarily
    environmental instruments.
  • According to UNEP there are over 500 conventions
    related to environment over 320 of these are
    regional and a majority have been adopted after
    the 1972 Stockholm Conference on Environment and
    Development
  • It is possible to categorize MEAs into three
    groups core environmental conventions global
    conventions relevant to the environment,
    including regional ones and others restricted by
    scope and geography
  • We are here more concerned with core
    environmental conventions, though regional
    environmental conventions applicable to Africa
    are a key part of this discussion.

7
MEAs and the Environment
  • In terms of subject matter MEAs may be divided
    into the following categories
  • Biodiversity related conventions such as the CBD
    and its protocols, and the ITPGRFA,
  • The atmosphere conventions such as the UNFCCC,
    the Ozone Convention and the Protocols
    thereunder,
  • The land conventions such as the UNCCD,
  • The chemicals and hazardous wastes conventions
    such as the Basle, Bamako, Stockholm conventions
    and the POPs
  • Regional seas conventions covering the
    Mediterranean, Kuwait, West and Central Africa,
    East Africa

8
MEAs Objectives and Priorities
  • The three Rio Conventions (UNFCCC, CBD and the
    UNCCD) are widely considered core sustainable
    development MEAs
  • The rest generally address sustainable
    utilization of natural resources and the
    environment or the protection of the environment
    to ensure its sustainability
  • MEAs provide a number of advantages for parties
    that are important for national development.
  • These include strengthening capacity of parties
    to meet their obligations through technical and
    financial support strengthening scientific basis
    for decision making and strengthening
    international cooperation.

9
MEAs Benefits/Advantages
  • Protecting public health
  • Improving governance
  • International comity and respect, and solidarity
  • Financial and technical assistance
  • Facilitating long term economic benefits
    sustainable development
  • Facilitating trade
  • Facilitating changes in domestic environmental
    law by elevating the importance of an issue

10
Approaches to MEAs mainstreaming
  • Greater participation and interaction between
    environment and development stakeholders. Agenda
    21 has provided significant impetus to public and
    community mobilization
  • Integrated environment-development policy and
    associated political will/leadership
  • Inclusion of environment-development linkages in
    national and sector plans the NAPAs, NEAPs,
    NBSPs and NSSDs have drawn considerably from MEAs
    processes to inform national actions

11
Approaches to MEAs mainstreaming
  • Inclusion of environment-development linkages in
    budgets and fiscal instruments,
  • Improved domestic and foreign resource
    mobilization for environmental investments
  • Sustained behavioral change by individuals,
    institutions and society in both private and
    public domain
  • Production, consumption and waste management in
    sectors and localities are informed by
    environmental considerations

12
General principles of environmental mainstreaming
  • Leadership, focusing on mobilization of political
    will, engaging with champions
  • Integration, strengthening the development-environ
    ment interface
  • Focusing on key sectors, especially the economic
    sectors
  • Strengthening dialogue and ownership
  • Subsidiarity making sure decisions are made at
    the lowest level where change is expected
  • Utilize upstream processes, existing
    analytical/planning processes
  • Transparency and accountability, information on
    issues, decisions made and reasons
  • Environmental sustainability the process should
    take into account major environmental processes,
    potentials, stresses and limits

13
Steps in mainstreaming
  • Review the political economy and governance
    framework affecting development and environment
  • Convene a multi-stakeholders group to steer the
    mainstreaming process
  • Identify links between environment and
    development
  • Propose desirable environment and development
    outcomes
  • Map institutional roles and responsibilities for
    each of the links and desirable outcomes
  • Identify entry points for environmental
    manistreaming in decision making process

14
Overcoming sectoral barriers
  • A key challenge for mainstreaming is how to
    create incentives for non environment
    groups/stakeholders to respond positively
  • This may require use of language that is not too
    environment specific and aligning positive
    arguments to those groups own goals and
    aspirations.
  • The following may be used to incentivize various
    stakeholders

15
Steps in mainstreaming
  • Conduct expenditure review and make business case
    for environmental mainstreaming
  • Establish or use existing forum for debates and
    consensus building
  • Reflect agreed changes in key mainstream policy,
    plan and budget documentation
  • Promote key investments in environment-development
    links
  • Develop integrated institutional systems and
    associated capacities
  • Establish key indicators and criteria and
    accountability mechanisms to facilitate
    monitoring and continuous improvement

16
Challenges to MEAs mainstreaming
  • The prevailing development paradigm which treats
    environment as an institutional and economic
    externality.
  • Lack of data, information, skills and
    institutional capacity to address
    environment-development linkage
  • Inadequate precedent in environmental
    mainstreaming to guide policy development
  • Limited political will to go the extra mile in
    the development pathway

17
Overcoming sector barriers
  • Developing a green low carbon
  • Improving country resilience
  • Securing environmental foundations for
    development
  • Improving cross sector environmental benefits and
    reducing costs
  • Focusing on a hybrid outcome, not a one way
    environment into development outcome
  • Reversing the downward spiral of environment and
    poverty
  • Integrating poor peoples environmental needs
    and
  • Policies for better environmental governance

18
Drivers of environmental mainstreaming
  • Increasing stakeholders awareness and demands
  • National policies and legislation
  • Values of progressive organizations
  • Donor conditions and initiatives
  • International commitments
  • Major environmental events, such as disasters

19
Some mainstreaming examples in Africa
  • Promoting effective environmental mainstreaming
    through national learning groups in Tanzania and
    Zambia
  • Effective mainstreaming using strategic
    environmental assessment greening poverty
    reduction strategies in Benin
  • Effective mainstreaming at municipal level Open
    space planning and integrated metropolitan
    environmental policy Durban, and Cape Town
    South Africa respectively
  • Promoting mainstreaming through overarching
    policy instruments in Malawi Environment,
    natural resources and climate change made policy
    priorities in the Malawi Growth and Development
    Strategy Malawis PRSP equivalent

20
Environmental mainstreaming outcomes
  • Government departments, sector departments and
    aid agencies assume environmental
    responsibilities and routinely address
    environmental issues, by factoring them into
    their decisions
  • Environmental departments/agencies focus on
    coordination, advisory and monitoring functions
  • There are a number of specific outcomes to be
    promoted they include

21
Mainstreaming outcomes
  • Participation and democratic process outcomes,
    expanding space for stakeholder participation and
    understanding of the importance of environment to
    the development process incorporating MEAs such
    as Principle 10 of Agenda 21 and related
  • Policy and political outcomes specifying
    macro-economic, fiscal, social and development
    policy, constitutions, and statements of national
    visions incorporate environmental considerations
    incorporating MDGs and MEAs such as UNFCCC, CBD

22
Mainstreaming outcomes
  • Planning outcomes including environment
    development linkages in national development and
    poverty reduction strategies sector and
    implementation strategies taking into account
    MEAs such as UNFCCC (NAPAs), CBD (NBSAPs) NEAPs
    and NSSD from UNCED
  • Budget outcomes environment and development
    linkages reflected in national and sector
    budgets and fiscal instruments informed by
    environment-development linkages incorporating
    UNFCCC (carbon taxation), Vienna Convention on
    the Ozone Layer (phase out ozone depleting
    substances)

23
Mainstreaming outcomes
  • Institutional and capacity outcomes
  • Skills, mandates and resources available for
    mainstreaming
  • Finance, planning and environment departments
    have capacity to integrate environment-development
    linkages in budget decision making
  • Systemic links between institutions to facilitate
    flow of information and ideas
  • Environment-development criteria are recognized
    as cross cutting norms for planning and
    monitoring purposes
  • Agenda 21, UNFCCC,

24
Investment Outcomes
  • Investment outcomes including improved domestic
    and international resource mobilization for
    environment-development investment and a
    coherent set of incentives and disincentives to
    facilitate behavioural change Agenda 21, CBD
  • Behavioural outcomes environment is considered a
    normal, accepted and expected part of doing
    business on part of individuals, institutions and
    society both in private and public sectors
    processes of production, consumption and waste
    management are informed by environmental
    considerations and the media and public interest
    bodies regularly address environmental issues
    Agenda 21, Basle, Bamako and Stockholm
    Conventions Montreal Protocol on Ozone Layer
    etc and
  • Overall developmental outcomes improved
    productivity and sustainability of use of
    environmental assets better management of
    environmental hazards better access to
    environmental and natural resources UNFCCC, CBD
    and its Nagoya and Cartagena protocols
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