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Title: Honesty:


1
Unit 8 Honesty Is it Going out of Style?
College English Book 2
2
Part II Text Listening
  • Part I Background Information

Unit 8
Part III New Words Expressions
Part IV Supplement
3
Part I Background Information
  • Introductory Remarks
  • American education system

4
Introductory Remarks
  • The text is from Senior Scholastic,
  • Oct. 31, 1980
  • Author Stacia Robbins, British writer.
  • In recent years, there are heated discussions in
    China about the issue of cheating in exams. Some
    people hold that cheating only exists in China
    because of the fierce academic competition,
    however, the fact is that cheating is also
    rampant in America. There are reports that some
    universities require the students to show their
    ID card when attending an exam, in order to
    prevent cheating.
  • In the text, the author shows her doubts Is
    honesty going out of style? Or there are some
    other reasons? If the students are given
    sufficient trust, maybe they wont commit
    cheating. Trust may bring back honesty.

5
American Education System
  • Primary school
  • American children start school at the age of five
    years. The first year at school is called
    kindergarten. It is required of all American
    children enrolled in the American education
    system. The second year at school is considered
    the first year of primary school and is referred
    to as first grade.
  • Secondary school
  • Upon completion of fifth grade (the last year of
    primary school), American children enrolled in
    the American education system advance to
    secondary school. Secondary school most commonly
    consists of a total of seven years, referred to
    as sixth through twelfth grades. The ninth
    through twelfth grades are most commonly referred
    to as high school.

6
  • Undergraduate school
  • Students who have completed high school and would
    like to attend college or university must attend
    what is referred to as an undergraduate school.
    These are schools that offer either a two-year
    degree (called an associate degree) or a
    four-year degree (called a bachelors degree) in a
    specific course of study.

Graduate school Students who have obtained a
bachelors degree can continue their education by
pursuing one of two types of degrees. The first
is a masters degree. This is usually a two-year
degree that is highly specialized in a specific
field Certain courses of study are only available
at the graduate school level in America. The most
notable of these are law, dentistry, and
medicine. Students who want to pursue a degree in
one of these fields must first obtain a
bachelors degree.
7
  • In America, there isnt a universal exam for
    enrolling a college or a university, because
    different universities have different
    requirements. In the last year of high school,
    the students have to apply several schools and
    take the exams of each school respectively.

Harvard University
8
(No Transcript)
9
  • It is estimated that 61 of American high school
    students have committed cheating on exams at
    least once, and cheating is also considered to be
    a major problem in colleges and universities.
    Likewise, signs of dishonesty in business and
    government seem much more numerous in recent
    years than before. Does all this go to prove that
    honesty is going out of style in American
    society? Now let's take up this article to see
    how the author looks into this problem.

10
Part II Text Listening
  • Ever thought about cheating on a test? Of course
    not. But some students are not quite so honest
  • Honesty Is It Going Out of
    Style? By Stacia Robbins
  • According to a recent poll, 61 percent of
    American high school students have admitted to
    cheating on exams at least once. It can be argued
    such a response my not mean much. After all, most
    students have been faced with the temptation to
    peek at a neighbor's test paper. And students can
    be hard on themselves in judging such behavior.
    However, there are other indications that high
    school cheating may be on the rise.
  • More and more states are requiring students to
    pass competency tests in order to receive their
    high school diplomas. And many educators fear
    that an increase in the use of state exams will
    lead to a corresponding rise in cheating. A case
    in point is students in New York State who faced
    criminal misdemeanor charges for possessing and
    selling advance copies of state Regents
    examinations.
  • Cheating is considered to be a major problem in
    colleges and universities. Several professors say
    they've dropped the traditional term paper
    requirement because many students buy prewritten
    term papers, and they can't track down all the
    cheaters anymore.
  • Colleges and universities across the nation have
    decided to do more than talk about the rise in
    student cheating. For instance, the Department of
    Psychology at the University of Maryland launched
    a campaign to stop one form of cheating. As 409
    students filed out of their exam, they found all
    but one exit blocked. Proctors asked each student
    to produce an ID card with an attached photo.
    Students who said they'd left theirs in the dorm
    or at home had a mug shot taken. The purpose of
    the campaign was to catch "ringers," students who
    take tests for other students.

11
  • The majority of students at the University of
    Maryland applauded the campaign. The campus
    newspaper editorial said, "Like police arresting
    speeders, the intent is not to catch everyone but
    rather to catch enough to spread the word."
  • We frequently hear about "the good old days",
    when Americans were better, happier, and more
    honest. But were they more honest? Maybe yes, a
    long time ago when life was very different from
    what it is today.
  • School children used to know the story of how
    Abraham Lincoln walked five miles to return a
    penny he'd overcharged a customer. It's the kind
    of story we think of as myth. But in the case of
    Lincoln, the story is true unlike the story of
    George Washington and the cherry tree.
    Washington's first biographer invented the tale
    of little George saying to his father, "I cannot
    tell a lie. I did it with my ax." What is
    important in both stories, however, is that
    honesty was seen as an important part of the
    American character.
  • And these are just two stories out of many.
    Students in the last century usually didn't read
    "fun" stories. They read stories that taught
    moral values. Such stories pointed out quite
    clearly that children who lied, cheated, or stole
    came to bad ends.
  • Parents may have further reinforced those values.
    It's difficult to know. We do know that children
    didn't hear their parents talk of cheating the
    government on income taxes - there weren't any.
  • A clue as to why Americans may have been more
    honest in the past lies in the Abe Lincoln story.
    Lincoln knew his customer. They both lived in a
    small town. Would a check-out person at a large
    supermarket return money a customer? It's less
    likely. On the other hand, would overnight guests
    at an inn run by a husband and wife, steal
    towels? It's less likely.

12
  • Perhaps this tells us that people need to know
    one another to be at their honest best.
  • The vast majority of Americans still believe that
    honesty as an important part of the American
    Character. For that reason, there are numerous
    watch-dog committees at all levels of society.
    Although signs of dishonesty in school, business,
    and government seem much more numerous in recent
    years than in the past, could it be that we are
    getting better at revealing such dishonesty?
  • There is some evidence that dishonesty may ebb
    and flow. When times are hard, incidents of theft
    and cheating usually go up. And when times get
    better such incidents tend to go down.
  • Cheating in school also tends to ebb and flow.
    But it doesn't seem linked to the economy.
  • Many educators feel that as students gain
    confidence in themselves and their abilities,
    they are less likely to cheat. Surprisingly, some
    efforts to prevent cheating may actually
    encourage cheating - a person may feel "they
    don't trust me anyway," and be tempted to "beat
    the system." Distrust can be contagious. But, so
    can trust!

13
  • NEW WORDS
  • Honesty n. freedom from deceit, cheating, etc.
    ??
  • Style n. fashion ??
  • Poll n. survey of public opinion by putting
    questions to a representative selection of
    persons ????
  • Admit v. state or agree to the truth of confess
    ??,??
  • Admission n.
  • Temptation n. the act of tempting or being
    tempted ????
  • Peek vi. look (at sth.) quickly, esp. when one
    should not ??
  • behavio(u)r n. way of behaving ??
    behavev.
  • Indication n. sign or suggestion ??
  • Competency n. ability being competent ????
  • Diploma n. official paper showing that a person
    has successfully finished a course of study or
    passed an examination ??
  • Corresponding a. matching ???
  • Criminal a. of crime
  • misdemeano(u)r n. crime that is less serious
    than, for example, stealing of
    murder ??
  • Charge n. accusation ??
  • possess n. have, own ??,??
  • advance a. made available before the date of
    general publication or release ???

14
  • regent n. member of a governing board (??????)??
  • drop vt. give up discontinue ????
  • traditional a. of or according to tradition ???
  • tradition n.
  • requirement n. sth. required sth. demanded as a
    condition ??????
  • prewritten a. written beforehand written in
    advance
  • psychology n. science of the mind ???
  • psychological a.
  • launch vt. start, set going ????
  • campaign n. series of planned activities for
    some special purpose ??
  • file vi. march or move in a line ??????
  • exit n. way out of a place ??(?)
  • proctor n. ???
  • ID card n. identity card ???
  • dorm n. (short for) dormitory ??
  • mug n. the face or mouth
  • shot n. a single photograph
  • mug shot n. (sl.) photograph of a person's face,
    used for purposes of identification ????
  • ringer n. any person who pretends to be another
    ?????

15
  • editorial n. leading article ??
  • arrest vt. seize (sb.) in the name of the law ??
  • speeder n. person who drives an automobile at a
    higher speed than is lawful ???????
  • intent n. purpose intention
  • frequently ad. at short intervals, often ???
  • overcharge vt. charge too much ?...????
  • customer n. person who buys goods from a shop,
    esp. regularly ??
  • myth n. ??
  • unlike prep. not like, different from
  • cherry n. ??
  • biographer n. person who writes about another
    person's life ????
  • ax(e) n. ??
  • character n. mental or moral qualities that make
    one person, race, etc. different from others
    ??,??
  • moral a. concerning principles of right of wrong
    ???
  • reinforce vt. encourage of strengthen ??
  • tax n. ?,??
  • clue n. sth. that helps to find an answer to a
    question ??
  • check-out n. desk where one pays the bill of the
    goods one has chosen ???
  • supermarket n. large shop where one serves
    oneself with food and goods ????

16
  • vast a. very big
  • numerous a. many
  • watch-dog a. organized or acting as a watchful
    guardian, esp. against unlawful practice ??????
  • dishonesty n. the quality of being dishonest
  • reveal vt. make known ??
  • evidence n. sign or proof ??
  • ebb vi. (of the tide) flow back from the land to
    the sea grow less become weak or faint ????,??
  • flow vi. (of the tide) come in rise run or
    spread smoothly (?)????
  • incident n. event happening ??
  • theft n. (the act of, an instance of) stealing
  • tend vi. have a tendency ??,???
  • link vt. join or connect ????
  • economy n. ??
  • anyway ad. at all in any case ??????
  • tempt vt. attract (sb.) to do sth. wrong or
    foolish ??
  • system n. ????
  • systematic a.
  • distrust n. lack of trust mistrust ???,??
  • contagious a. tending to spread easily from
    person to person ???

17
  • PHEASES EXPRESSIONS
  • out of style no longer fashionable ???,????
  • according to as stated or shown by in a way
    that agrees with ??,??
  • (be) faced with ??
  • be hard on ?...????
  • on the rise increasing steadily ??????
  • a case in point a very good example ?????
  • all but all except ??...?
  • (be) different from unlike, not the same as
    ?...??
  • think of ... as regard as
  • in the case of ?...??,??
  • come to arrive at a particular state or position
    ??(????)
  • lie in exist in ??
  • on the other hand from the opposed point of view
    ????,????
  • at one's best in as good a state as possible
    ??????
  • go up rise increase ????
  • go down fall decrease ????

18
Part III New Words and Expressions
  • 1.out of style in style out of style
    unfashionable
  • Examples
  • a. The skirt has gone out of style.
  • b. Honesty will never be out of style.
  • in style in a grand way
  • a. The rich lady likes to give dinner parties in
    style.
  • b. The millionaire isnt used to live in style.
  • c. She dresses in style.
  • ?

19
  • 2. admit to (formal) confess to not deny
  • Examples
  • --Did the young man admit to taking these
    commodities without paying for them?
  • --Mrs. Cross admits to being easily annoyed.
  • -- Mr. Smith admitted readily to a great
    liking for horror films.

20
  • 3. It can be argued such a response may not mean
    much. Some people may have a good reason to
    say that such a response from high school
    students may not be significant.
  • Similarly
  • --It can be argued (that) money may not bring
    you happiness.
  • -- It can be argued (that) success in exams
    may not mean much.

21
  • be faced with
  • be confronted with meet face to face
  • Examples
  • -- Now we arc all faced with a very difficult
    situation.
  • --Faced with such a rival, he has little
    chance of winning.

22
  • 5. be hard on be stern or strict with be an
    unjust or unlucky burden on
  • Examples
  • --Don't be too hard on the child.
  • --It's hard on John, having to work when the
    rest of us are vacationing.

23
  • 6. behavior
  • (1) way of behaving
  • Examples
  • -- His son won a prize for good behavior at
    school.
  • --I am surprised to witness his rude behavior
    to his mother.
  • (2) the way a machine behaves
  • Example
  • --The new furnace's behavior is satisfactory.

24
  • 7. indication
  • (1) sign or suggestion
  • Examples
  • -- There is not much indication that the
    draught will be over soon.
  • -- The bed showed indications of being slept
    in.
  • (2) pointing to or out
  • Examples
  • -- We use different tones for the indication
    of different meanings.
  • -- The indication of that arrow is that
    visitors should turn left here.

25
  • 8. on the rise increasing
  • Examples
  • -- The number of students in our school is on
    the rise.
  • -- The sales volume of the new products has
    been on the rise since the manager advertised
    them on TV.

26
  • 9. corresponding
  • (1) matching
  • Examples
  • --The peace talk was held between
    corresponding officials in the two governments.
  • --The average temperature in July this year is
    0.5 degree higher that in the corresponding
    period last year.
  • (2) the same
  • Examples
  • -- You win the lottery if you had chosen a
    number corresponding to the one published in the
    newspaper.
  • -- The police found corresponding footprints
    outside the house where the murder took place.

27
  • 10. a case in point a fit example
  • Examples
  • -- An average student can be a top student with
    additional work. Cathy is a case in point.
  • --Nearly all major cities in the US are
    crime-ridden. A case in point is Chicago.

28
  • 11. charge
  • (n.)
  • (1) accusation
  • Examples
  • -- The former football star was arrested
    on a charge of manslaughter,
  • -- The opposition brings a charge of
    corruption against the administration.
  • -- The ex-president now faces charges of
    sexual harassment,
  • (2) price asked for goods or services
  • Examples
  • -- Services charges are not included
    in hotel rates.
  • -- You can dial 1 - 890 numbers free
    of charge.
  • (3) amount of electricity contained in a
    substance
  • Examples
  • -- a negative/positive charge

29
  • Charge
  • (v.)
  • (1) accuse
  • Examples
  • -- His former secretary charged him with
    sexual harassment.
  • -- The boxer was charged with rape.
  • (2) ask as a price
  • Examples
  • --The railway company charges half price
    fox students.
  • -- The hotel charges 2 for washing and
    ironing a shirt.
  • (3) put an amount of electricity into
  • Example
  • -- Batteries for mobile phones need
    charging every eight hours.

30
  • 12. possess have own
  • Examples
  • --He was charged with possessing drugs.
  • -- He lost all he possessed in the fire.
  • -- The witch possessed magic powers.

31
  • 13. requirement sth. needed or demanded
  • Examples
  • -- There is a greater requirement for
    electricity in summer than in any other season.
  • -- We will try our best to meet the
    requirements of our customers.
  • -- Chinese, maths, and English are three
    major requirements in college entrance.
  • --ISO 9000 is a set of quality requirements.

32
  • 14. across the nation throughout the country
  • 15. to do more than talk to do something
    instead of just talking

33
  • 16. ... launched a campaign to stop one form of
    cheating ... start a series of activities for
    stopping one form of cheating...
  • launch
  • (v.)
  • (1) start set going
  • Examples
  • --Truck drivers in France launched a
    strike for earlier retirement.
  • -- The government launched an attack
    against corruption.
  • (2) set a ship afloat
  • Example
  • -- The First Lady was invited to launch
    the new ship.
  • (3) set a rocket, missile, etc. in motion
  • Examples
  • -- launch a satellite /rocket /missile
  • -- It is expensive to launch an
    astronaut into outer space.

34
  • (n.) setting in ,notion
  • Examples
  • -- The world was shocked at the failed launch
    of spaceship "Challenger".
  • -- The launch of a new ship is usually
    celebrated with champagne.
  • campaign
  • (1) series of planned activities for some
    special purpose
  • Examples
  • -- The Democratic Party waged /launched
    /carried on / mounted a fundraising campaign.
  • -- The Parent-Teacher Association
    started a campaign against smoking in school.
  • (2) series of planned military operations
    with a set purpose
  • Examples
  • --The Saratoga Campaign is a turning
    point in American Independence War.
  • -- The soldier was awarded three campaign
    medals for bravery.

35
  • 17. filed out of their exam left the exam hall
    or room in a single file, i.e., one by one
  • 18. had a mug shot taken
  • "Mug " is a slangy word for "face", for
    example
  • -- You have got an ugly mug.
  • "A mug shot" is a photograph of a person's
    face used on the driver's license,
  • university ID card, etc. A mug shot may also
    be taken by police for purposes of identification.

36
  • 19. like police arresting speeders
  • A speeder is one who drives faster than the
    posted speed limit. In the US the speed limit on
    a freeway or highway is 55 miles per hour. It
    varies from 30 to 40 miles per hour on some small
    roads or streets in towns and cities.
  • Generally the police do not arrest speeders they
    are given traffic tickets which require the
    speeding offenders to pay a fine. However, if a
    person were driving in great excess of the speed
    limit, the police might arrest him and put him
    in jail.

37
  • arrest
  • (v.) seize (sb.) in the name of law
  • Examples
  • --The police arrested the drunken driver
    three days after the accident.
  • --My neighbor was arrested on suspicion of
    having sent several mail bombs.
  • (n. ) seizing (sb.) in the name of haw
  • Examples
  • -- In the campaign to clean up the city.
    over 500 arrests were made.
  • --The forger was (placed/put) under
    arrest.

38
  • 20. ... the intent is not to catch everyone
    but rather to catch enough to spread the word
    the intension is not to catch all of the cheats,
    but to catch a sufficient number of them for the
    purpose of giving a warning to other students if
    a few are caught, the other students will hear
    about it and be deterred from cheating.
  • 21. in the case of so far as someone or
    something is concerned
  • Examples
  • --Poverty depressed most people but in the
    case of my father (or in my father's case) it
    only urged him to work harder.
  • --We can't make an exception in the case of
    Mary.

39
  • 22. unlike (prep.) (a,) not like different
    from
  • Examples
  • --Unlike his brother, John is very interested
    in poetry.
  • -- it is unlike her to cry.
  • --The two movies are quite unlike though they
    depict the same period in history.
  • 23. "fun" stories humorous stories read for
    amusement
  • The intent of fun stories is usually to entertain
    rather than to educate.

40
  • 24. moral
  • (a.) concerning principles of right and wrong
  • Examples
  • -- Moral standards change with time.
  • -- A Godparent is supposed to be
    responsible for the Godchild's moral welfare.
  • (n.) that which a story, event, or experience
    teaches
  • Examples
  • -- The moral of this story is that one
    should judge for oneself.
  • -- You may draw your own moral from this
    incident.

41
  • 25. come to a bad end come to some misfortune,
    esp. to an unpleasant death
  • Examples
  • -- You will surely come to a bad end (or
    come to no good end) if you keep driving so
    carelessly.
  • --If you don't give up crime, you'll come to
    a bad end.

42
  • 26. reinforce strengthen
  • Examples
  • -- More troops were sent to reinforce the
    fortress.
  • --Most modern buildings are made of
    reinforced concrete.
  • -- The football team was reinforced by two
    foreign goalkeepers.

43
  • 27. clue sth. that helps to find an answer to a
    question
  • Examples
  • -- Holmes has found some clue to the
    mystery.
  • -- The letter gave a clue as to where the
    treasure had been buried.
  • 28. lie in exist in be found in
  • Examples
  • -- The cure for ignorance lies in education.
  • -- Do you believe that "Happiness lies in
    contentment?
  • --The greatest charm of the bride's costume
    lies in its simplicity.

44
29. overnight
  • (1) for or during the night
  • Examples
  • --The bag contains things I will need
    when staying overnight at a hotel.
  • -- This kind of bamboo can grow 20
    centimeters taller overnight.
  • (2) suddenly
  • Examples
  • -- Those who grow rich overnight are
    eyed with suspicion.
  • -- Public opinion tends to change
    overnight.

45
  • 30. ... people need to know one another to be at
    their honest best. ... people need to know one
    another well if they are to treat one another as
    honestly as possible.
  • Here the phrase "at their honest best" means "at
    their best as far as honesty is concerned".
  • at one's best in one's best condition or state
  • Examples
  • -- He acted in all kinds of plays, but he was
    at his best in comedy.
  • -- To see this part of the countryside at its
    best, you need to come in June.

46
  • 31 vast
  • (1) large in quantity
  • Examples
  • --He inherited a vast sum of money
    from his aunt.
  • -- Look out! A vast swarm of bees
    are coming this way.
  • (2) extensive
  • Examples
  • -- Troops in the Yuan Dynasty
    captured vast expanses of land in the West.
  • -- The vast ocean stretches for
    thousands of miles.
  • 32. numerous many
  • Examples
  • --Numerous village and township enterprises
    have sprung up since 1978.
  • --Numerous stars were horn after the Big
    Bang.

47
  • 33. ... could it be that we are getting better
    at revealing such dishonesty? ...is it because
    we are becoming more skillful in revealing such
    dishonesty?
  • The conjunction "that" is used here to introduce
    an adverbial clause expressing cause.
  • Further examples
  • --I am happy that you have come after all.
  • --I am afraid I have to decline your
    invitation. Not that I am unwilling to come. but
    that I have been very busy these days.

48
  • reveal
  • (1) expose make known
  • Examples
  • --His wife did not reveal to the
    patient his hopeless condition.
  • -- Investigation revealed the women's
    800-meter race champion to be a man in disguise.
  • -- His life was threatened for
    revealing the secret.
  • (2) cause to be seen
  • Examples
  • --Their faces reveal shock and
    disbelief.
  • -- Those pictures reveal to us a
    wonderful world under water.

49
  • 34. evidence sign or proof
  • Examples
  • -- The case was dropped for lack of
    evidence.
  • -- The upturned furniture in the room was
    evidence of a fight.
  • --Scientists must have evidence for their
    statements.

50
  • 35. incident event happening
  • Examples
  • -- In her book she told some interesting
    incidents on her visit to Africa.
  • --Even such an ordinary incident reveals
    greatness in his character.
  • --The Communist Party and the National
    Party agreed to fight against Japanese
    invasion after the Xi'an Incident.

51
  • 36. tend to be apt to have a tendency to
  • Examples
  • -- Farmers tend to use more machinery now.
  • -- Children tend to tike action movies.

52
  • 37. But it doesn't seem linked to the economy.
    There seems to be no connection between cheating
    and the economy.
  • link
  • ( v. ) join or connect
  • Examples
  • -- The two incidents were already linked
    together in the newspapers.
  • -- The Great Lakes link the USA and Canada.
  • -- Scholarships are linked to academic
    performance.

53
  • (n .) one ring or loop of a chain person or
    thing that connects two others
  • Examples
  • -- She kept a link of her mother's hair in
    the locket.
  • -- Researches have established the link
    between smoking and cancer.
  • -- The old calendars are a link with the
    past.
  • economy
  • (1) control and management of the money,
    goods and other resources of a community, society
    or household ()
  • Examples
  • -- The Industrial Revolution wiped out
    cottage economy in Britain. -- The
    development of economy is of utmost importance to
    a country.
  • (2) careful use of money, time, strength,
    etc.
  • Example
  • -- It is never a shame to practise
    economy.

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  • 38. anyway
  • (1) in any case
  • Examples
  • -- It's no use crying over spilt milk,
    anyway.
  • -- Anyway you can try.
  • (2) by any possible means
  • Example
  • -- There must be something wrong with
    my computer. I couldn't get hooked up
    to the internet anyway.
  • 39. tempt
  • (1) persuade (sb.) to do sth. wrong or
    foolish
  • Examples
  • --The serpent tempted Eve to eat the
    forbidden fruit.
  • -- He was tempted into selling top
    military secrets to foreign intelligence agents.
  • (2) attract
  • Examples
  • -- I feel tempted to eat more than
    is good for my health.
  • -- The spring sun tempted us to go
    for a walk.

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  • Phrases Expressions
  • according to based on ??
  • ?????????????????
  • Telephone charges vary according to the time of
    the day.
  • 2. It can be argued such response may not mean
    much.
  • ???????,??????????????
  • It can be argued..?????????????????
  • mean muchbe of importance ??????
  • mean everything ?????

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  • 3. be faced with face ??,??
  • ????????
  • They are faced with a very difficult situation.
  • 4. be hard on be too strict with ?????
  • ???????,?????????
  • Dont be too hard on her she is a child after
    all.

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  • 5. a case in point a very good example
  • ?????,??
  • Nowadays, parents tend to spoil their children
    my neighbor is a case in point.
  • 6. Colleges and universities across the nation
    have decided to do more than talk about the rise
    in student cheating.
  • across throughout ??,??
  • across the nation/ world/ city
  • to do more than talk do sth. instead of just
    talking ???????
  • We must do more than talk. Its time for action.

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  • 7. all but all except ?????
  • ???????,??????????
  • All but three of the members have paid their
    income taxes.
  • 8. be different from differ from, be unlike ???
  • Man is different from other animals in his
    ability to learn and use a language.

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  • 9. think ofas regard or consideras
  • ???,???
  • I think of him as a happy person with lots of
    friends.
  • 10. in the case of as far asbe concerned, as
    to ???,??
  • ?????,????????????
  • In the case of the population.China is the
    largest country in the world.
  • ??in the case of,in case of?in case

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  • in case of for fear that sth. should happen if
    sth should happen ????
  • ???????,?????
  • In case of rain, youd better take an umbrella.
  • in case if, for fear that ??,???
  • ??????,??????
  • In case he comes, let me know.
  • Take your umbrella with you in case it rains.

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  • 11. out of from among ??,??
  • Six out of ten people in town have seen the movie
    Titanic.
  • 12. come to arrive at a particular state ??
    (????)
  • They are disappointed that their efforts have
    come to nothing.(????,???)
  • 13. Its less likely. ???????
  • Its likely that.. ??,???
  • Its very likely that he will come again.
  • Its likely to .. ???
  • Its likely to snow in the evening.

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  • 14. at ones (the) best in a state as good as
    possible ??????
  • ????????????
  • I am never at my best early in the morning.
  • 15. ebb and flow ????,??,??

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Part IV Supplement ----Some English Tests
  • 1)TOFEL Test of English as a Foreign Language

  • ????
  • 2)GRE Graduate Record Examination

  • ?????
  • 3)GMAT Graduate Management Admission Test

  • ???????????
  • 4)IELTS International English Language Testing
    Service

  • ??????(??)
  • 5)PETS Public English Test System

  • ??????????
  • 6)BEC Business English Certificate

  • ??????
  • 7)CET4 College English Test Band 4

  • ????????
  • Proficiency Test ????
    Aptitude Test ????
  • Achievement Test ????
    Diagnose Test ????
  • an oral test ??
    a written test ??

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