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Chapter 14 Ethnic, Racial, and Religious Subcultures

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Chapter 14 Ethnic, Racial, and Religious Subcultures By Michael R. Solomon Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth Edition Opening Vignette: Maria Why does ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 14 Ethnic, Racial, and Religious Subcultures


1
Chapter 14 Ethnic, Racial, and Religious
Subcultures
By Michael R. Solomon
Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth
Edition
2
Opening Vignette Maria
  • Why does Marias mother refuse to use convenience
    products?
  • What would you guess is Marias ethnic
    background?
  • Is the family gathering indicative at all of her
    culture?
  • What activities does she undertake that identify
    her with a culture?

3
Subcultures and Consumer Identity
  • Subcultures
  • Group memberships within society at large
  • Ethnic and Racial Subcultures
  • Ethnic Subculture A self-perpetuating group of
    consumers who are held together by common
    cultural or genetic ties, and is identified both
    by its members and by others as being a
    distinguishable category.
  • Ethnicity and Marketing Strategies
  • High-context Culture Group members tend to be
    tightly knit, and they are likely to infer
    meanings that go beyond the spoken word.

4
Mountain Men
  • Contemporary Mountain Men share a strong sense of
    identity and community.

5
Marketing to Subcultures
6
Ethnic Products
  • Tex-Mex cuisine is popular in Scandinavia. This
    ad appeared in a Swedish magazine.

7
Is Ethnicity a Moving Target?
  • De-ethnicization
  • Refers to the process whereby a product formerly
    associated with a specific ethnic group is
    detached from its roots and marketed to other
    subcultures.
  • The Big Three American Subcultures
  • African Americans
  • Hispanic Americans
  • Asian Americans
  • New Ethnic Groups
  • Ethnic and Racial Stereotypes

8
Tiger Woods
  • Tiger Woods multiracial background illustrates
    the complexity of ethnic identity in the United
    States.

9
De-ethnicization of Bagels
  • Bagels have been de-ethnicized and are now part
    of mainstream culture.

10
Discussion Question
  • Advertisers frequently try to depict the big
    three consuming their products as this ad for
    The Childrens Place clothing does.
  • What are the benefits of using multi-ethnic
    models in advertisements? Does this
    advertisement do a good job reflecting ethnic
    diversity of the target audience?

11
African Americans and Hispanic Americans
  • African Americans
  • 12.3 percent of the U.S. population (2000 Census)
  • Differences between blacks and whites in
    consumption are very subtle
  • Hispanic Americans
  • Hispanic describes people of many backgrounds
  • 60 percent of Hispanic Americans are Mexican
  • Puerto Ricans are the next biggest group at 10

12
African Americans in Advertising
  • Many national brands routinely use African
    American models.

13
Distinguishing Characteristics of the Hispanic
Market
  • Youth
  • Median Age is 23.6 (U.S. average 32)
  • Family Size
  • Average household is 3.5 people (U.S. average
    2.7)
  • Importance of Family
  • Preference to spend time with family affects
    consumption activities
  • Going to the movies is a family event
  • Convenience products are not as important

14
Ethnic Products
  • Hispanic celebrities such as Shakira, Ricky
    Martin, and Gloria Estefan are increasingly
    successful in popular music.

15
Hispanic Web Portals
16
Levels of Acculturation Understanding Hispanic
Identity
  • Acculturation
  • Refers to the process of movement and adaptation
    to one countrys cultural environment by a person
    from another country.
  • Ethnography
  • The study of immigrants as they adapt to life in
    a new country.
  • Acculturation Agents
  • People and institutions that teach the ways of a
    culture.
  • Culture of Origin
  • Culture of Immigration

17
Segmenting Hispanics by Acculturation
18
A Model of Consumer Acculturation
Figure 14.2
19
Processes of Immigrant Adaptation
  • Movement
  • Refers to the factors motivating people to
    physically uproot themselves from one location to
    another.
  • Translation
  • Attempting to master a set of rules for operating
    in the new environment.
  • Adaptation
  • Cultural learning that leads to new consumption
    patterns
  • Assimilation
  • When immigrants adopt products, habits, and
    values that are identified with the mainstream
    culture.
  • Maintenance
  • Resistance
  • Segregation

20
Perspectives on Ethnic Adaptation
  • Ethnic Pluralism
  • Argues that ethnic groups differ from the
    mainstream in varying degrees, and that
    adaptation to the larger society occurs
    selectively.
  • Progressive Learning Model
  • Assumes that people gradually learn a new culture
    as they increasingly come in contact with it.
  • Host Culture

21
Asian Americans
  • Chi
  • An invisible energy current that is believed to
    bring good or bad luck
  • Feng Shui
  • Translated literally as the wind and the water
  • Fastest growing minority group in the U.S.
  • The most affluent, best educated, and most likely
    to hold technology jobs of any ethnic subculture
  • Prosperous Asians tend to be very status
    conscious
  • Advertising featuring celebrities can be very
    effective in reaching this group

22
YesAsia.com
23
Discussion Question
  • Asians are often depicted using high-technology
    products as in this ad for McAfee Security
    software.
  • Why are Asians a good target audience for this
    product? What other products would do well to
    target the Asian segment of the population?

24
Religious Subcultures
  • The Rise of Spirituality
  • Explosion of religion in popular culture
  • Old and New Religions
  • The Impact of Religion on Consumption
  • Not studied extensively in marketing (too
    taboo)
  • Religious affiliation has the potential to be a
    valuable predictor of consumer behavior

25
Megachurches
  • Some U.S. megachurches have more than 20,000
    members.

26
Meeting the Needs of Subcultures
  • Specialized ethnic media, like this magazine for
    Muslim women, are springing up to meet the needs
    of underserved American subcultures.

27
Influence of Religious Groups
  • Religious groups can influence companies
    decisions by encouraging their members to boycott
    products or stage protests.
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