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Enhancing Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning and Teaching at Secondary Level

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Enhancing Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning and Teaching at Secondary Level October & November 2012 English Language Education Section Curriculum Development Institute – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Enhancing Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning and Teaching at Secondary Level


1
Enhancing Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning
and Teaching at Secondary Level
  • October November 2012
  • English Language Education Section
  • Curriculum Development Institute
  • Education Bureau

2
Objectives of todays programme
  • To enhance teachers' understanding of effective
    vocabulary learning and teaching
  • To develop and explore strategies for effective
    learning and teaching of vocabulary to promote
    the development of vocabulary building skills
  • To introduce to teachers how to make effective
    use of the resource package Enhancing English
    Vocabulary Learning and Teaching at Secondary
    Level to develop appropriate learning and
    teaching materials to improve the quality of
    vocabulary learning and teaching in the secondary
    English Language classroom.

3
Evaluation on the lesson
Should students be taught mainly meaning and
pronunciation of the vocabulary?
The teaching focuses mainly on meaning (direct
Chinese translation) and the pronunciation of the
target vocabulary.
Reading aloud and being told the Chinese meaning
of the vocabulary may not help students to retain
the vocabulary learnt and retrieve for use it
later.
How can we help students to retain and retrieve
the vocabulary learnt for use?
How can we help students to strengthen their
vocabulary power?
Does covering all vocabulary from the
textbook/vocabulary book mean that we are helping
students to strengthen their vocabulary power?
4
Understanding of effective vocabulary learning
and teaching
5
Why do we teach students vocabulary? Why do
students learn vocabulary?
  • Communicative purposes (tackling texts
    expressing ideas)

Inside Classroom (lesson activities)
Outside Classroom (daily life exposure)
Under teachers control
Under students control
6
How to enhance and strengthen students
vocabulary power?
  • Introducing vocabulary in context.
  • Students learn and apply target vocabulary items
    purposefully and meaningfully.

Purpose of communication
The need to learn what they do not know
The motivation to learn
7
Dimensions of vocabulary knowledge
Spelling
Pronunciation
Meaning
8
Meaning of words
  • Literal meanings (Denotative meanings)
  • Implicit meanings (Connotative meanings)
  • E.g.
  • blue
  • heart

9
Lexical field, Hyponymy
  • Semantical relations
  • E.g.
  • Food vegetables, meat, fruits, drinks, dessert
  • Vegetables lettuce, broccoli, cauliflower,
    tomato
  • Meat pork, beef, lamb
  • Fruits banana, orange, apple, durian, grape

Hyponyms (lexical members, sub-categories)
10
Word formation
  • Affixation (e.g. cybercrime)
  • Blending (e.g. infotainment, email)
  • Clipping (e.g. ad, blog)
  • Giving a new meaning to an existing word (e.g.
    mouse, traffic)
  • Conversion (e.g. google, text)

11
Word combination
  • The patterns the words appear
  • E.g. multi-word units (formulaic expressions,
    idioms) a piece of cake, give me a hand, get
    cold feet
  • The ways words are used
  • E.g. word collocations play badminton, go
    fishing, make my lunch, take up a post

12
The Mental Lexicon
With proper use of vocabulary building skills,
students can organise the words they learnt and
build associative networks in their minds
effectively.
13
Key priorities in vocabulary teaching
  • Promote cognitive elaboration of the
    form-meaning relationship through instructional
    intervention
  • Guide pupils in the development of vocabulary
    building skills
  • Provide multiple exposures to target words using
    vocabulary-focused activities and create
    opportunities for vocabulary use

14
Strategies for effective learning and teaching of
vocabulary
15
Some effective strategies
  • Create associations by
  • Making use of lexical relations
  • Attending to word collocation (multi-word units)
  • Teach word formation (e.g. affixation, blending,
    clipping )
  • Use graphic organizers
  • Create multiple exposure to words taught / learnt

16
Creating Associations
Two Strands
Topic Strand (associative networks)
Collocation Strand (associative networks)
focus on size (breadth)
focus on word combinations (depth)
paradigmatic approach
syntagmatic approach
help students expand the size of the vocabulary
bank
help students understand the usage of the
vocabulary
17
Paradigmatic approach
  • Develops associative networks
  • Associations are based on semantic categories
  • Deliberate organisation of words into hierarchies
  • Associates with receptive vocabulary

18
Paradigmatic approach (cont.)
flat
bedroom
bathroom
kitchen
stove
sink
cupboard
tap
strainer
19
Syntagmatic approach
  • Develops associative networks
  • Associations are based on collocations (word
    combinations)
  • Focuses on
  • multi-word units (e.g. See you later., Have a
    good trip!, keep abreast of )
  • collocations (e.g. go shopping, have a
    shower, play football )
  • Associates with productive vocabulary

20
Some examples and links of graphic organisers for
recording vocabulary
Word Detective
Vocabulary Word Cluster
Adjective Organiser
Synonyms Antonyms
  • http//www.educationoasis.com/curriculum/GO/vocab_
    dev.htm
  • http//wvde.state.wv.us/strategybank/VocabularyGra
    phicOrganizers.html
  • http//freeology.com/graphicorgs/vocabulary-organi
    zer/

21
Can we re-plan the teaching of food items?
Teach the food items in a context (E.g.
introduce the target food items using a
restaurant review)

Teach the food items in discrete items
  • Introduce synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, word
    formation, word collocation
  • Introduce lexical relations to help studetnts
    categorise the words
  • Design a purposeful and meaningful task to allow
    students to apply / use the words learnt

Focus on meaning / pronunciation
22

Multiple exposures to new words
  • Teachers are always puzzled Why do students fail
    to recognise words that have already been
    taught?
  • Far more vocabulary is learned if the same text
    is read 6 to 20 times (Horst Meara 1999)
  • REMEMBER Provide sufficient encounters with the
    target vocabulary

Create ways of RECYCLING previously taught
vocabulary
23
  • Hands-on activities to develop students
    vocabulary building skills

24
Hands-on activities to develop students
vocabulary building skills
Activity 1 Meeting friends for fun- Word pair
race Activity 2 A trip to nature Compound
Uno Activity 3 A leaflet about Ocean Park
25
Situation for Activity 1
  • Four exchange students from the US have recently
    joined an overseas exchange programme in your
    school. You and your classmates are selected as
    the Student Ambassador who are responsible for
    planning various fun activities for them.

26
Activity 1 Meeting friends for fun- Word pair
race
  • In three minutes, brainstorm different fun
    activities that you and your classmates could do
    with them in the coming weekend based on the
    following verbs and nouns/ noun phrases.
  • Write down your answers in the table provided.

NOUNS NOUNS NOUNS NOUNS
lunch a party surfing shopping
sightseeing a drink badminton golf
tennis the cooking swimming gymnastics
VERBS VERBS VERBS
do have make
play go
27
Activity 1 Meeting friends for fun- Word pair
race
do have
do have
do have
do have

go make
go make
go make
go make

play
play
play
28
In what ways can Activity 1 help students to
develop vocabulary building skills?
  • The use of word collocation to help students
    retain the target vocabulary

29
Situation for Activity 2
  • You have joined an English Uno Competition
    organised by English Club of your school and will
    compete with other classmates. Listen carefully
    to the procedures on how it will be conducted.

30
Procedures of conducting Activity 2
  1. Form groups of four and each gets a deck of word
    cards from the facilitator.
  2. Each competitor takes four word cards after
    shuffling. The remaining cards can be put on the
    desk.
  3. Take one card from the deck, turn it over and it
    becomes the starting card.
  4. Decide who is going to start first. The starter
    should try to find if any of the word cards
    matches the starting card. He/ she can put it on
    the left/ right hand side of the starting card to
    form a compound noun. The turn will then go to
    the one on his/ her left who can continue by
    hitting any card to start another matching.

31
Procedures of conducting Activity 2
  • 5. However, if the starter does not have an
    appropriate word card that matches, he/ she has
    to take one word card from the deck.
  • 6. If this happens, it is the next competitors
    turn to match a word card with the previous card
    on the desk.
  • As long as a competitor cannot match the word
    card with another one, he/ she needs to take a
    word card from the deck.
  • During the process of playing, all competitors
    should agree with the matching of the cards.
  • Each competitor can only hit one card in each
    round.
  • 10. The first competitor who gets rid of all the
    word cards is the winner of the competition.

32
In what ways can Activity 2 help students to
develop vocabulary building skills?
  • The use of word formation to help students form
    compound nouns and guess meanings of unfamiliar
    words

33
Situation for Activity 3
  • You work as a summer intern in Hong Kong Tourism
    Board and one of your duties is to improve a
    short description about Ocean Park. Now, read the
    following draft.

34
Activity 3 A leaflet about Ocean Park
Step 1 Underline the repeated ideas/vocabulary
of the draft below.
Lets have fun in Ocean Park! Ocean Park is a must-see for both people in Hong Kong and tourists. Ocean Park is located in the southern part of Hong Kong Island and easily accessible. Ocean Park is an interesting place with lots of interesting things to see and do. For example, there are lots of sea animals such as dolphins, sea lions and seals. These sea animals can do lots of interesting tricks. In addition, there are exciting rides that will surely give you an exciting experience.
35
Activity 3 A leaflet about Ocean Park
  • Repeated ideas/ vocabulary include
  • Subject (Ocean Park)
  • Adjectives describing Ocean Park (interesting
    exciting)
  • Quantifier (lots of)
  • Noun (Sea animals)

36
Activity 3 A leaflet about Ocean Park
  • Step 2 lexical substitution

Lets have fun in Ocean Park! Ocean Park is a must-see for both people in Hong Kong and tourists. Ocean Park is located in the southern part of Hong Kong Island and easily accessible. Ocean Park is an interesting place with lots of interesting things to see and do. For example, there are lots of sea animals such as dolphins, sea lions and seals. These sea animals can do lots of interesting tricks. In addition, there are exciting rides that will surely give you an exciting experience.
37
Activity 3 A leaflet about Ocean Park
  • How to avoid repetition of vocabulary?
  • Lexical substitution
  • e.g. Use of pronouns synonyms
  • Discuss, in groups, how the content of the
    draft could be improved with the application of
    lexical substitution.

38
Activity 3 A leaflet about Ocean Park
  • Step 3 lexical expansion

Lets have fun in Ocean Park! Ocean Park is a must-see for both people in Hong Kong and tourists. It is located in the southern part of Hong Kong Island and easily accessible. The amusement park is an amazing place with lots of interesting things to see and do. For example, there are various sea animals such as dolphins, sea lions and seals. These marine animals can do various funny tricks. In addition, there are exciting rides that will surely give you a thrilling experience.
39
Activity 3 A leaflet about Ocean Park
  • How to further enrich the draft?
  • Lexical expansion
  • Use of ODSACROM- the use of adjectives
    according to the following categories before a
    noun
  • Opinion, Dimension, Shape, Age, Colour, Religion,
    Origin, Material (ODSACROM)
  • Noun

40
Activity 3 A leaflet about Ocean Park
  • e.g. Application of ODSACROM when describing a
    church
  • Opinion- A graceful cathedral
  • Dimension (i.e. size, length, width)- a big
    compound, a 45-metre tall tower, a thin layer
  • Shape- a cross-shaped church
  • Age- a modern/ classic building
  • Colour- a white house
  • Religion- a Catholic church
  • Origin- a Chinese temple
  • Material- wooden windows

41
In what ways can Activity 3 help students to
develop vocabulary building skills?
  • - The application of lexical substitution and
    lexical expansion to enrich the content in
    writing
  • - The use of ODSACROM to expand and enrich the
    vocabulary when writing

42
Vocabulary learning and teaching summary
  • Step 1 Background of vocabulary learning and
    teaching
  • Communicative purposes
  • Teaching in context
  • Inside classroom (daily lessons)
  • Outside classroom (daily life exposure)
  • Step 2 Introducing various vocabulary teaching
    strategies vocabulary learning activities
  • Instructional intervention
  • Retaining of vocabulary
  • Step 3 Retrieval and application of new
    vocabulary learnt by students in the future
  • Teachers role- creating opportunities for
    retrieval of target vocabulary when designing
    tasks/ conducting class activities

43
  • Wordlists for the English Language Curriculum

44
Wordlists for the English Language curriculum
  • A compilation of words with reference to the
    vocabulary content of the English coursebooks on
    the CDC Recommended Textbook List
  • Provides teachers with a general indication as to
    what and how many words students should learn
  • Four stages KS1, KS2, KS3, SS
  • Two categories alphabetical and thematic
  • Teachers are encouraged to design meaningful
    tasks and activities to help students to develop
    their vocabulary knowledge and skills Mechanical
    memorisation not encouraged

45
Wordlists in alphabetical order
Select the required key stage of words and click
Show Wordlist.
46
Wordlists in alphabetical order
Click the letters to select words.
Words with different meanings are shown on the
right column.
47
Wordlists by category
Select the required category/ categories, key
stage(s) and click Show wordlist.
48
Wordlists by category
Words are shown by category.
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