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Industrial Ecology and its application to Sustainable Production and Consumption

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Industrial Ecology and its application to Sustainable Production and Consumption University of Warwick, 19th November 2009 Professor Roland Clift – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Industrial Ecology and its application to Sustainable Production and Consumption


1
Industrial Ecology and its application to
Sustainable Production and Consumption University
of Warwick, 19th November 2009
Professor Roland Clift Centre for Environmental
Strategy University of Surrey President of the
International Society for Industrial Ecology
2
  • Industrial ecology asks us to understand how
    the industrial system works, how it is regulated,
    and its interaction with the biosphere then, on
    the basis of what we know about ecosystems, to
    determine how it could be restructured to make it
    compatible with the way natural ecosystems
    function.

3
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
4
  • Industrial Ecology is an area of applied research
    which brings together
  • Engineering
  • Science
  • Economics
  • Behavioural Sciences
  • etc..etc.

5
THE HUMAN ECONOMY
6
EXAMPLE OF AN ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK
The Kalundborg Eco-Park
7
METABOLISEDUSE OF A MATERIAL
8
INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY FOR PLASTICS
9
ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM ANALYSIS
10
ACCOUNTING METHODOLOGY FOR EACH MATERIAL STOCK IN
MFA
11
STOCKS AND FLOWS (1)
  • A flow variable is one that has a time dimension
    or flows over time (like the flow through a
    stream).
  • A stock variable is one that measures a quantity
    at a point in time (like the water in a lake).
  • Income is a flow wealth is a stock.
  • (adapted from Economics by Samuelson and
    Nordhaus).

12
STOCKS AND FLOWS (2)
Removal from
Addition to
Material Stock
Stock
Stock
If stock gtgt flow x reference time interval then
addition and removal flows may not be equal
13
MATERIAL FLOWS WITH RECOVERY AND RECYCLING
14
SUPPLY CHAIN FOR IRON AND STEEL IN THE UK
15
DISAGGREGATED SYSTEM FABRICATION, GOODS IN USE,
PROMPT SCRAP AND END-OF-LIFE SCRAP
16
UK PRODUCTION OF IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY PRODUCTS
(Geyer et al., 2007)
17
CONSUMPTION OF IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY PRODUCTS
BY UK FABRICATORS AND MANUFACTURERS (Geyer et
al., 2007)
18
IRON AND STEEL CONTAINED IN ALL NEW FINAL GOODS
PRODUCED BY UK MANUFACTURERS (Geyer et al., 2007)

19
IRON AND STEEL IN FINISHED GOODS GOING INTO USE
IN THE UK BETWEEN 1975 AND 2000
20
MODELLED ARISINGS OF END-OF-LIFE SCRAP AND ACTUAL
RECOVERY (YEAR 2001)
21
ALUMINIUM IN FINISHED GOODS GOING INTO USE IN THE
UK BETWEEN 1978 AND 2001
22
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
23
LCA and EIA
24
FOREGROUND SYSTEM Set of processes whose
selection or mode of operation is affected
directly by decisions based on the
study. BACKGROUND SYSTEM All other processes
which interact directly with the foreground
system, usually by supplying material or energy
to the foreground or receiving material energy
from it. A sufficient (but not necessary)
condition for a process or group of processes to
be in the background is that the exchange with
the foreground takes place through a
homogeneous market.
25
(No Transcript)
26
ASSUME - other products from Foreground are
used in Background - other Functional
Outputs from Background unchanged THEREFORE -
other products from Foreground displace
activities in Background and so avoid some
burdens
TOTAL INVENTORY is then DIRECT BURDENS from
Foreground plus INDIRECT BURDENS from
Background, due to inputs to
Foreground minus AVOIDED BURDENS from
Background displaced by outputs from
Foreground
27
WEEE
  • 2 million tonnes per annum (UK)
  • Target to recycle 4kg/head/year (across EU)
  • In UK producers pay according to their current
    market share in a collective scheme
  • Recycle what? (How?) / Reuse?

28
The WEEE man
29
POLICY RESPONSE LONG TERM
  • Move to sustainable materials and energy
  • Pressure from
  • - Legislation /fiscal measures
  • - Customers
  • - Scarcity(?)

30
POLICY RESPONSE SHORT/MED TERM
  • (Extended) Producer Responsibility
  • Initially concentrating on waste management
  • Integrated Product Policy
  • Will cover whole life cycle including use phase

31
EXTENDED PRODUCER RESPONSIBILITY (EPR)
  • an environmental policy approach in which a
    producers responsibility for a product is
    extended to the post consumer stage of the
    products life cycle. (OECD)

32
WHAT EPR AIMS TO DO
  • Increase reuse and recycling to reduce waste to
    landfill
  • Effect up-stream actions to combat down-stream
    problems
  • Make producers financially responsible for
    their waste

33
End-of-life management of a manufactured product
Undifferentiated
Use
scrap
User
Manufacturer
Service
Used
hardware
Refurbishment
Assembly
upgrading
Waste
Components
Disassembly
Manufacturer
Supplier
Scrap material
Alternative
Materials
Materials
Component
production
manufacture
Material uses
Feedstock
34
Must globalisation of trade mean globalisation of
waste?
Should others suffer from the excrescences of our
consumption?
35
Stylized representation of the distinction
between absolute and relative decoupling
Source UNEP Decoupling assessment report (Zero
draft, 19 May 2009)
36
FIRST USE
Manufacturing
Distribution
Use
Material and Energy Extraction
Waste Management
EARTH
37
A COMMON ECO-METRIC
  • Environmental impact
  • Economic value or price
  • e.g. GWP (CO2 equiv) per of
    added value or (consumer) spending

38
Definition of added value
Ancillary materials
Energy
Material
PROCESS
Material
outputs
inputs
ADDED VALUE Sales price of outputs costs
of (inputs ancillaries energy)
NB Not labour or capital hence return to
capital in some economics texts
39
OVERALL BUSINESS IMPACT ASSESSMENT
  • - Unilever and CES reciprocal advocated by
    Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and World
    Business Council for Sustainable Development
    (WBCSD)

Normalisation for Analysis of Supply Chain or
Business (Øij) Contribution to Impact
Category/Added Value Total Human
Impact/Global Economic Activity
40
FIRST SCAN OF BUSINESS AREAS
41
ACCUMULATION OF ECONOMIC VALUE AND ENVIRONMENTAL
IMPACT ALONG THE SUPPLY CHAIN MANUFACTURED
PRODUCTS
ENVIRONMENTAL
IMPACT
4
3
2
1
1 Resource extraction 2 Processing
Refining 3 Manufacturing 4 Retail and
distribution
0
ADDED VALUE or
CONTRIBUTION TO
GDP
42
FIRST USE VS. RECOVERY AND RECYCLING
1 Resource extraction 2. Processing
Refining 3 Manufacturing 4 Retail and
distribution 5 Recovery 6 Dismantling 7
Remanufacturing
43
CO2 emissions allocated to high level functional
uses for an average UK household (2004)
Commuting, 9
Communications, 1
Space heating, 15
Education, 2
Household, 12
Recreation Leisure, 26
Food catering, 15
Health Hygiene, 8
Clothing footwear, 11
Reference Druckman, A. and T. Jackson (2009).
The carbon footprint of UK households 1990-2004
a socio-economically disaggregated,
quasi-multiregional input-output model.
Ecological Economics (in press).
44
Where does this point?
  • A redefinition of quality or luxury
  • EQUITY includes
  • Equity along the supply chain
  • Equity of access to environmental services
    between affluent and poor
  • This requires consumption in affluent societies
    to have low environmental impact per dollar spent
    and to provide social and economic benefits along
    the supply chain
  • The Fair Trade principle and beyond

45
  • Gucci is good for the earth
  • and
  • Angels wear Prada

46
  • And the devil shops at IKEA

47
WHEREAS OTHERS MAKE DO WITH THE CAST-OFFS
48
AND THAT APPLIES NOT JUST TO CLOTHES
49
A Sustainable Retirement?
50
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
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