Professional Development Programme on Assessment for Learning: An Advanced In-service Teacher Development Course on Task-based Language Learning, Teaching and Assessment for Secondary School English Teachers - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Professional Development Programme on Assessment for Learning: An Advanced In-service Teacher Development Course on Task-based Language Learning, Teaching and Assessment for Secondary School English Teachers

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Title: Professional Development Programme on Assessment for Learning: An Advanced In-service Teacher Development Course on Task-based Language Learning, Teaching and Assessment for Secondary School English Teachers


1
Professional Development Programme on Assessment
for LearningAn Advanced In-service Teacher
Development Course on Task-based Language
Learning, Teaching and Assessment for Secondary
School English Teachers
  • Jointly organised by the
  • English Language Education Section,
  • Curriculum Development Institute,
  • Education and Manpower Bureau,
  • and the
  • Language Center, Hong Kong University of Science
    and Technology
  • SESSION 1

2
What does Task-based Language Learning, Teaching
and Assessment mean to you?
  • Tell the person sitting in front of or behind
    you.
  • How similar or different are your ideas, feelings
    and experiences?

3
English development as part of healthy whole
person development
  • Our overarching principle is to help students
    Learn to Learn, which involves developing their
    independent learning capabilities leading to
    whole-person development and life-long learning
  • All students can learn
  • Learning to Learn The Way Forward in Curriculum
    Development (CDC, 2001 p. 10)

4
English development as part of healthy whole
person development
  • The English Language Education Key Learning Area
    is an integral part of the school curriculum that
    provides students with a wide range of learning
    experiences to enhance their
  • English language proficiency
  • personal and intellectual development, and social
    skills
  • cultural understanding and
  • global competitiveness.
  • (Curriculum Guide, CDC, 2002 Key
    messages)

5
English development as part of healthy whole
person development
  • To offer every student the right to a second
    language which provides further opportunities for
    extending knowledge and the experience of the
    cultures of other people, including opportunities
    for further studies, pleasure and work in the
    English medium and
  • to enable every student living in the 21st
    century to be prepared for the changing
    socio-economic demands resulting from advancement
    in information technology
    (Syllabus, CDC, 1999 p.2)

6
Subject Target
  • for learners to develop an ever-improving
    capability to use English
  • to think and communicate
  • to acquire, develop and apply knowledge
  • to respond and give expression to experience
  • and within these contexts, to develop and apply
    an ever-increasing understanding of how language
    is organised, used and learned.
  • (Curriculum Guide, CDC, 2002 p.18)

7
Strand/Dimension Targets
  • Interpersonal
  • To develop an ever-improving capability to use
    English
  • to establish and maintain relationships
  • to exchange ideas and information and
  • to get things done.

8
Strand/Dimension Targets
  • Knowledge
  • To develop an ever-improving capability to use
    English
  • to provide or find out, interpret and use
  • information
  • to explore, express and apply ideas and
  • to solve problems

9
Strand/Dimension Targets
  • Experience
  • To develop an ever-improving capability to use
    English
  • to respond and give expression to real and
  • imaginative experience.

10
Creating a language-rich environment
  • Schools are encouraged to create a language-rich
    environment by
  • providing greater opportunities for learners to
    use English for purposeful communication both
    inside and outside the classroom
  • making use of learner-centerd instruction to
    promote learner independence
  • making use of literary and imaginative texts to
    promote critical thinking and encourage free
    expression and creativity

11
Creating a language-rich environment
  • assigning quality homework to provide language
    practice in meaningful contexts and discouraging
    meaningless mechanical drills
  • facilitating the development of a reading to
    learn culture through encouraging learners to
    read a wide range of materials with different
    subject content and text-types, and designing
    appropriate tasks for learners to appreciate the
    value of reading and

12
Creating a language-rich environment
  • promoting the development of strategies, values
    and attitudes that are conducive to effective,
    independent and lifelong learning.
  • (Curriculum Guide, CDC, 2002 Key messages)

13
School-based Curriculum Development
  • The term curriculum is defined as the set of
    total learning experiences through which students
    learn.
  • Overview of the Curriculum Reform - Reflecting on
    Strengths and Getting Ready for Action, Booklet 1
    of the Basic Education Guide, CDC, 2002 p.8. 

14
(No Transcript)
15
School-based Curriculum Development
  • Curriculum A set of activities and content
    planned at the societal level, the school level,
    the classroom level, and the individual level to
    foster teachers teaching and students
    learning.
  • (Cheng, 1994)

16
School-based Curriculum Development
  • A curriculum plan is like a blueprint for a
    building which may never be constructed, may not
    be constructed as planned, or if constructed may
    not serve its intended functions.
  • (Cornbleth, 1990)

17
School-based Curriculum Development
  • Because of its flexibility, this framework allows
    schools much space and scope for innovative
    curriculum practices. Schools are strongly
    encouraged to capitalize on it and develop their
    own school-based curriculum based on the general
    direction provided in the central curriculum,
    taking into account factors such as students
    needs, interests and abilities, teachers
    readiness and the school context.
  • (Curriculum
    Guide, CDC, 2002 p. 79)

18
School-based Curriculum Development
  • In developing the school-based curriculum,
    schools are encouraged to consider the following
    possible modes of curriculum planning
  • Developing modules of learning
  • Integrating classroom learning and independent
    learning
  • Integrating formal and informal curricula
  • Cross-curricular planning
  • Flexible grouping
  • (Curriculum
    Guide, CDC, 2002 pp. 79-82)

19
Task-based Learning,Teaching and Assessment
  • The task-based approach aims at providing
    opportunities for learners to experiment with and
    explore both spoken and written language through
    learning activities which are designed to engage
    learners in the authentic, practical and
    functional use of language for meaningful
    purposes.
  • (Syllabus, CDC, 1999 p.41)

20
Task-based Learning,Teaching and Assessment
  • Language is learnt by communicating,
    conceptualising, inquiring, reasoning and
    problem-solving through language.
  • (Five fundamental intertwining ways of
    learning and using knowledge)

21
Task-based Learning,Teaching and Assessment
  • Learners learn best through purposeful and
    contextualized learning tasks. Effective tasks
    enable learners to seek and process information,
    formulate questions and responses, and make
    connections. They also provide meaningful and
    purposeful contexts in which learners learn and
    apply target grammar items and structures.
  • (Curriculum Guide, CDC, 2002 p. 95)

22
A Task
  • A task should have a purpose.
  • A task should have a context from which the
    purpose for using language emerges.
  • A task should involve learners in a mode of
    thinking and doing.
  • A task should require learners to draw upon their
    framework of knowledge and skills.
  • A task should engage learners in carrying out a
    purposeful activity leading towards a product.
  • (Syllabus, CDC, 1999 p.43)

23
What else do they gain from being involved in
tasks?
  • Language Development Strategies include study
    skills and ways to plan, manage and evaluate
    ones own learning. All of these enable learners
    to become more motivated, independent and
    responsible for their own learning.

24
What else do they gain from being involved in
tasks?
  • Altogether, nine types of generic skills have
    been identified
  •        collaboration skills
  •        communication skills
  •        creativity
  •        critical thinking skills
  •        information technology skills
  •        numeracy skills
  •        problem-solving skills
  •        self-management skills and
  •      study skills.

25
What else do they gain from being involved in
tasks?
  • Among the nine generic skills, the English
    Language Education KLA provides greater
    opportunities for the development of
    collaboration skills, communication skills,
    creativity, critical thinking skills,
    problem-solving skills and study skills.
  •  
  • (Curriculum Guide, CDC, 2002 p. 22)

26
What else do they gain from being involved in
tasks?
  • Opportunities for the development of positive
    values and attitudes are provided through
    learning tasks.
  • Examples of positive values include self-esteem,
    perseverance, interdependence and tolerance.
  • Instances of positive attitudes are
    responsibility, open-mindedness, confidence in
    using English and respect for the different
    cultures of the English-speaking world.

27
The Lesson
  • Positives
  • There is some interaction between the students.
  • There is some integration of language skills
  • A range of abilities are catered for, and there
    are opportunities for peer evaluation and
    feedback

28
The Lesson
  • Negatives
  • The grammar item is not presented to students in
    a meaningful way.
  • The exercise is rather mechanical (not much
    thinking is required).
  • There is no genuine communication involved.
  • There are no contextualised tasks for students to
    practise/use the language meaningfully.
  • The exercise does not lead towards a real
    product.

29
Differences Between Tasks and Exercises
Exercises Tasks
Form-based focus put on the manipulation of spoken and written forms Meaning-based emphasis placed upon creating meaning
Are completed to achieve a linguistic objective that is, showing an understanding of, or acquiring, a grammar structure Are completed to achieve both linguistic and non-linguistic objectives and involve genuine communication in a more authentic and meaningful context
Consist mainly of discrete items In context
30
Differences Between Tasks and Exercises
Exercises Tasks
Often involve individual work not a lot of communication with other students Offer opportunities for genuine communication with other students
Non-productive Productive leading to a product
31
Relationships Between Exercises and Tasks
  • Pre-task
  • The teacher selects language items that the
    learners will need in order to do the task
  • While-task
  • Language exercises might facilitate work on the
    task if learners are experiencing difficulties
  • Post-task
  • The teacher should cover those language items
    which learners were having difficulties with
    during the task

32
Relationships Between Exercises and Tasks
  • We have to be aware of the fact that it is not
    the amount of exercises that determines the
    success of a task. Sometimes too many exercises
    will in fact loosen the procedure and structure
    of a task and learners will not be able to
    perceive the connections between different steps
    clearly. Therefore, there should be clear
    objectives for devising each exercise to support
    tasks.
  • (Tong, forthcoming)

33
Criteria for Good Learning Tasks
  • Good learning tasks should
  • allow learners to practise, in class,
    communicative skills they will need in the real
    world
  • require learners to draw on their framework of
    knowledge and skills
  • be suitable for mixed ability groups
  • involve learners in thinking and doing
  • have a context from which the purpose for using
    language emerges
  • be based on authentic source material
  •  
  • 1.     

34
Criteria for Good Learning Tasks
  • 7. require the use of more than one of the four
    language skills namely, listening, speaking,
    reading and writing
  • 8. provide a purpose for using language
  • 9. promote skills in learning how to learn
  • 10. lead towards a product
  • 11. have built into them a means of evaluating
    the success of the task
  • 12. lend themselves to becoming part of an
    extended learning process
  • (Based on Nunan, 1989)
  •  
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