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Chapter 12

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Chapter 12 Early Societies in West Africa 12.2 Geography and Trade The northern border of West Africa is the Sahara Desert The Atlantic Ocean makes up the western ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 12


1
Chapter 12 Early Societies in West Africa
2
12.2 Geography and Trade
  • The northern border of West Africa is the Sahara
    Desert
  • The Atlantic Ocean makes up the western and
    southern borders
  • The eastern edge is made up of mountains.

3
  • The Sahara Desert is about 3.5 million square
    miles and is about the size of the United States
  • It is very dry and not suitable for large
    settlements

4
The sahel (semi-desert) is further to the south-
It has enough water for some grasslands, short
bushes, and a few trees
5
  • The sahel becomes savanna, an area of tall
    grasslands and some scattered trees
  • Long rainy season produces good farmland and
    grazing for cattle

6
  • The savanna becomes forest further to the south
  • Woodland forest provides different kinds of trees
  • Rainforest dominates the southern-most region

7
  • Trade connected the different West African
    regions
  • Rivers were used to trade for highly sought-after
    goods

8
II. Early Communities and Villages
9
  • Earliest farm communities consisted of extended
    families
  • They produced most of their needs
  • Traded with other families for goods they could
    not produce themselves

10
  • Farming communities settled south of the Sahara
    Desert
  • Communities joined together to form larger
    villages

11
  • Development of Towns and Cities
  • - Ironworking and trade fueled the growth of
    cities
  • The Nok tribesmen made iron tools by 500 B.C.E.
  • They used charcoal-fired ovens to melt the steel
  • Blacksmiths shaped it into tools

12
  • Iron tools improved farming techniques, helping
    to create a demand for the tools
  • Better farming from tools led to a food surplus,
    which stimulated trade
  • More trade led to the growth of large towns and
    cities

13
  • City of Jenne-jeno, built in 300 B.C.E., was
    excavated in 1977, proving that cities existed in
    Africa long before the arrival of Europeans
  • 1. Built at the junction of the Bani Niger
    Rivers
  • 2. Good location for fishing, farming,
    trade
  • a. Traded catfish, fish oil, onions, rice
    in exchange for salt, iron, copper, gold

14
  • Craftsmen included potters, metal smiths,
    weavers, leather workers, and bead makers
  • Blacksmiths were most admired, as iron was a
    prized item in West Africa
  • Many blacksmiths were also leaders of their
    community or village

15
  • IV. The Rise of Kingdoms and Empires
  • Rulers of trading centers grew wealthy from
    taxes on traded goods
  • They used the wealth to raise and equip an
    army to conquer other regions
  • They also collected tribute from the conquered
    peoples
  • West African rulers were both political leaders
    and religious leaders
  • They performed religious ceremonies to please the
    gods

16
Between 500 and 1600 C.E. three great kingdoms
arose in West Africa south of the Sahara Desert
- Ghana
- Mali
- Songhai
17
  • The king might send a governor to rule a
    newly-conquered region
  • If they were cooperative, the king might allow
    self-rule

2 pictures of the great Mali King Mansa Musa
18
Advantages and disadvantages of being part of an
empire
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • King provided protection
  • Armies kept trade routes safe
  • Wars between cities came to an end
  • Had to pay tribute to the king
  • Had to serve in the kings army
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