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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) 28 July 2011 WHO Training on Life Cycle Assessment Ministry of Health, Ulaanbaatar Anne Riederer ScD (Riederer.Anne_at_epa ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)


1
Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
28 July 2011 WHO Training on Life Cycle
Assessment Ministry of Health, Ulaanbaatar
Anne Riederer ScD (Riederer.Anne_at_epa.gov)
American Association for the Advancement of
Science (AAAS) Fellow, Office of Research and
Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
2
Who am I?
  • Environmental health scientist (ScD)
  • I research human exposures to environmental
    contaminants
  • 2004-2010 Assistant Professor, Emory University
    (Atlanta, USA)
  • 2010-2012 2-year fellowship at EPA sponsored by
    American Association for the Advancement of
    Science (AAAS)
  • I am not a direct employee of EPA and cannot
    speak officially for EPA

3
What is the U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection
Agency)?
  • Clean Air Act
  • Clean Water Act
  • Safe Drinking Water Act
  • Toxic Substances Control Act
  • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
  • Comprehensive Emergency Response and Control of
    Liability Act

4
(No Transcript)
5
Urinary cadmium in the 1999 2008 U.S. National
Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Anne M.
Riederer,1 B.J. George,2 Paul T. Anastas3
1American Association for the Advancement of
Science, Science and Technology Policy Fellow
hosted by the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (U.S. EPA), Washington, DC USA 2Office of
Research and Development, U.S. EPA, Research
Triangle Park, NC USA 3Office of Research and
Development, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC
USA Abstract Chronic low-level exposure to
cadmium has been linked to kidney and
cardiovascular disease, increased fractures, and
cancer in studies controlling for smoking,
occupation and other risk factors. Diet and
tobacco smoke are the primary sources of exposure
in the general population, with additional
sources
6
What is Life Cycle Assessment?
Life Cycle Assessment Basics and 101
Training Webinar Series (www.epa.gov)
  • Mary Ann Curran, PhD
  • EPA/ORD/NRMRL, Systems Analysis Branch
  • Sustainable Technologies Division
  • Cincinnati, Ohio, USA (Curran.MaryAnn_at_EPA.gov)

7
What is Life Cycle Assessment?
An industrial environmental management approach
to look holistically at products, processes, and
activities.
Raw Material Acquisition
End-of-Life Management
Reuse Recycling
Production
Use/Maintenance
7
7
Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
8
Source as cited in Hecht, A. LCA_at_EPA,
presentation to EPA/ORD, February 23, 2011.
9
In a life cycle assessment, we
  • Identify and quantify natural resource use
    (energy, water, land, materials) and releases to
    the environment across all stages of life cycle
  • Assess potential environmental impacts of these
    material uses and releases
  • Identify opportunities to reduce environmental
    burdens and improve processes

Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
10
Brief History of LCA
  • Coca Cola Company study in 1969 (not made public)
    is first known application of an LCA-like
    approach
  • Early studies called Resource and Environmental
    Profile Analysis (REPA) in USA, Ecobalance in
    Europe
  • 1970s gasoline crises stimulated interest in life
    cycle energy use
  • Garbage crisis, Diaper Wars late 1980s renewed
    interest in life cycle concept
  • Computers and spreadsheets made working with lots
    of data easier
  • In 1991, inappropriate marketing claims and
    pressure from environmental organizations
    prompted development of LCA standards under the
    International Standards Organization (ISO)

10
Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
11
From Sustainable Innovation Products, Len
Sauers, PhD Vice President, Global
Sustainability, Procter Gamble
Recent Example
Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
12
Cold-Water Wash Savings
  • According to Procter Gambles calculations, if
    every U.S. household used cold water for laundry,
    the energy savings would be 70-90 billion
    kilowatt hours per year (this is 3 of total
    household energy consumption in USA)
  • These savings would translate into 34 million
    tons of carbon dioxide per year not released into
    the environment, which is nearly 8 percent of
    U.S. Kyoto target

Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
13
What is EPA using LCA for?
Promoting design of greener/safer products -
Design for Environment (DfE)
DfE LCA reports www.epa.gov/dfe
  • Computer displays (desktop monitors)
  • Tin-lead, lead-free solders in electronics
  • Lithium-ion Batteries

Life cycle thinking in green electronics
labeling
www.epeat.net
  • Electronic Products Environmental Assessment Tool
  • for institutional purchasers to evaluate,
    compare, select desktop computers, laptops,
    displays based on environmental attributes

Other product/process evaluations
Nano-silver socks
Carbon nano-tubes
Spray polyurethane foam weatherization
Source EPA/ORD/NRMRL LCA 101 series (various
presentations), 2010-2011
14
Biofuels
How environmentally friendly are plant-based
products on a life-cycle basis?
Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
14
15
(No Transcript)
16
Suggested Reading
  • Curran, M.A. (ed.) (1996) Environmental Life
    Cycle Assessment, McGraw-Hill, ISBN
    0-07-015063-X.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA (2006).
    Life Cycle Assessment Principles and Practice,
    EPA/600/R-06/060, available on-line,
    www.epa.gov/ORD/NRMRL/lcaccess.
  • Horne R, Grant T, and Verghese K. (2009). Life
    Cycle Assessment Principles, Practice and
    Prospects. ISBN 9780643094529 160PP CSIRO
    Publishing, Australia.
  • Guinee, J., Ed. (2001). Life Cycle Assessment An
    Operational Guide to the ISO Standards.
  • Society of Environmental Toxicology and
    Chemistry, SETAC (1990). A Technical Framework
    for Life Cycle Assessments. J Fava, R Denison, B
    Jones, MA Curran, B Vigon, S Sulke, and J Barnum
    (eds), 152 pages.
  • Curran, M. A. (2008). Human Ecology Life Cycle
    Assessment. 8 PP Encyclopedia of Ecology,
    Five-Volume Set, ISBN-13 978-0-444-52033-3
    ISBN-10 0-444-52033-3 Elsevier.
  • ISO 14040 (2006). Environmental Management LCA
    Principles and Framework. International
    Standards Organization, Geneve, Switzerland.

16
Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
17
Life Cycle Assessment Yavya!
18
An Effective LCA
  • Examines system-wide effects (cradle-to-grave)
  • Analyzes multi-media (air, water, waste, etc.)
  • Analyzes multi-attributes (all impacts)
  • Helps identify trade-offs among alternatives
  • Identifies opportunities for improvement
  • Supports environmental decision making

LCA is difficult but not impossible!
18
18
Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
19
ISO LCA Standards
ISO has standardized methods for conducting
multi-media, cradle-to-grave environmental
assessments
  • ISO 14040 Life Cycle Assessment Principles and
    Framework 1997
  • ISO 14044 Life Cycle Assessment Requirements
    and Guidelines 2006

Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
19
20
ISO 14040 Life Cycle Assessment Principles and
Framework 1997
21
Goal and Scope Definition
An LCA can be used for many purposes, for example
  • Product comparison (ISO requires Comparative
    Assertion to undergo peer review)
  • Develop baseline of environmental and human
    health impacts associated with a product or
    process
  • Identify opportunities for system-wide
    improvement
  • Provide evidence for eco-labeling
  • Others

Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
Improvement. Policy Development (Private and
Public Policy).
22
Goal and Scope Definition
  • A clearly defined goal
  • Determines the scope of the study
  • Sets the boundaries and scale
  • Identifies the product or process function
  • Sets the Functional Unit (important for comparing
    equivalent systems)
  • Defines the level of data detail quality

Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
Functional Unit home heating example Heat one
family home for one year
22
22
23
Claims and conclusions must reflect stated scope
of study
Natural Resources
Air Emissions Water Effluents Solid Waste
Recycling
Study Boundary
Reuse
23
23
Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
24
ISO 14040 Life Cycle Assessment Principles and
Framework
25
Life Cycle Inventory (LCI)
  • Should account for all material and natural
    resource inputs and outputs to the environment,
    for each process
  • A manufacturer may have process-specific data but
    also need the upstream and downstream data
  • LCI data usually presented as aggregated averages
    to represent an industrial average
  • Assumptions, exclusion rules must be transparent

25
Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
26
Flow Diagram
Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
27
LCAs View Systems at 30,000 Feet
For example, plastic bottles from polyethylene
terphthalate (PET)...
Life Cycle Inventory data are aggregated rolled
up data
Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
28
are made using different processes, pollutant
controls, etc.
Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
29
Flow Diagram
Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
30
Life Cycle Inventory Spreadsheets
30
30
Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
31
Air Emissions Summary (lbs)
31
31
Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
32
Life Cycle Inventory Data Sources
  • National LCI databases
  • US LCI Database (www.nrel.gov/lci)
  • ecoinvent (www.ecoinvent.org )
  • Practitioners databases, e.g., SimaPro and GaBi
  • Proprietary company data through surveys
  • Published research by labs, universities
  • Public data, e.g., EPAs Toxics Release Inventory
    (TRI)
  • Modeled or estimated data
  • Best engineering judgment

Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
32
33
Source Michael Deru, DOE/NREL
34
LCA Software/Consultants
  • SimaPro
  • Franklin
  • Euklid
  • LCAid
  • LISA
  • SPINE
  • TEAM
  • Umberto
  • VITO
  • eiolca.net
  • ECOit
  • EDIP
  • eVerdEE
  • FEFCO
  • GaBi
  • KCL-Eco
  • LCAPix
  • PEMS
  • APME
  • APC
  • Athena
  • BEES
  • Boustead
  • CMLCA
  • Eco-Indicator 99
  • Ecointensys
  • ecoinvent

Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
34
35
Available LCI Databases - Details
  • Public Databases (free)
  • North American LCI Database (U.S. DOE NREL) 200
    processes/industries www.nrel.gov/lci
  • European Reference Life Cycle Database (ELCD)
    300 http//lca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/lcainfohub/data
    setArea.vm
  • Proprietary (must pay for)
  • ecoinvent Swiss database (2000)
  • PE GaBi 4.0 (2000 up to 5000 special order)
  • Boustead (claims 13,000 in 41 regions ? 300)

Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
36
Using Economic Input/Output (I/O) Data to Create
LCI
U.S. Department of Commerce's has input-output
model of economic flows (M) across 500
industrial sectors
Carnegie Mellon University (USA) has a free
EIO-LCA model of the 2002 U.S. economy
www.eiolca.net
Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
37
Economic I/O-LCA Model of Chinese Economy
38
(No Transcript)
39
ISO 14040 Life Cycle Assessment Principles and
Framework
40
Life Cycle Impact Assessment
Select and define impact categories
Goal and Scope Definition
Assign LCI results (classification)
Modeling category indicators (characterization)
Inventory
Normalize (Optional)
Impact Assessment
Weight Across Impact Categories (Optional)
Source Jane Bare, EPA/ORD/NRMRL, LCA 101 Life
Cycle Impact Assessment
41
Bare, J.C., G.A. Norris, D.W. Pennington, and T.
McKone, TRACI The Tool for the Reduction and
Assessment of Chemical and other environmental
Impacts, Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 6,
No. 3, 2003.
42
Uncertainty of TRACI Impact Categories
Acidification
Eutrophication
Human Health Criteria Pollutants
Smog Formation
Global Climate Change
Ozone Depletion
Human Health Cancer
TRACI
Fossil Fuel Use
Land Use
Human Health Non Cancer
Water Use
Ecotoxicity
Increasing uncertainty
Source Jane Bare, EPA/ORD/NRMRL, LCA 101 Life
Cycle Impact Assessment
43
Midpoints versus Endpoints
Midpoint analysis allows maximum
comprehensiveness, scientific defensibility, and
minimal value choices or modeling assumptions.
Source Jane Bare, EPA/ORD/NRMRL, LCA 101 Life
Cycle Impact Assessment
44
Global warming potential (GWP), ozone depleting
potential (ODP)
Bare, J.C., P. Hofstetter, D.W. Pennington, and
H.A. Udo de Haes, Life Cycle Impact Assessment
Midpoints vs. Endpoints the Sacrifices and the
Benefits, International Journal of Life Cycle
Assessment, Vol. 5, No. 6, 2000.
45
Simple Emissions-Based Impact Assessment (global
warming, ozone depletion) Calculations
X Y Z Units
GWP 1 1400 kg CO2 equivalent (eq) / kg substance
ODP 1.1 0.6 kg CFC-11 equivalent / kg substance
X 2100 kg
Y 0.5 kg
Z 0.3 kg
X
GWP 2800 kg CO2 eq
ODP 0.73 kg CFC-11 eq

Modified from Hertwich, E. G., Pennington, D.
W., Bare, J. C. (2002) Introduction, In H. A.
Udo de Haes, et al, ed., Life Cycle Impact
Assessment Striving Towards Best Available
Practice Pensacola, FL, USA, SETAC
Source Jane Bare, EPA/ORD/NRMRL, LCA 101 Life
Cycle Impact Assessment
46
Sample TRACI Results
Land Use
Acidification
Ecotoxicity
Smog Formation
Human Toxicity
Ozone Depletion
Eutrophication
Fossil Fuel Depletion
Global Warming
Option A
Option B
46
Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
47
Weighting
  • where
  • W the weighted score for all aggregated impact
    categories,
  • ai the value-based weighting factor for the
    individual impact category (i)
  • Di the quantified potential impacts for the
    case study for individual impact category (i)
  • NVi the normalization value for each
    individual impact category (i)

Bare, J.C., Life Cycle Impact Assessment
Research Developments and Needs, Clean
Technology and Environmental Policy, accepted
Nov. 9, 2009.
48
Building for Environmental and Economic
Sustainability (BEES) 4.0
  • You can download BEES from http//www.bfrl.nist.g
    ov/oae/software/bees/

Source Jane Bare, EPA/ORD/NRMRL, LCA 101 Life
Cycle Impact Assessment
49
ISO 14040 Life Cycle Assessment Principles and
Framework
Interpretation
  • Describe data quality and uncertainty
  • Perform sensitivity analysis
  • Analyze tradeoffs
  • Identify largest impact areas and greatest
    opportunities for improvement
  • Report results
  • Initiate efforts to get higher quality data where
    it matters most

50
Uncertainty and variability in model inputs
affect model outputs
Parameter variability natural variation of input
parameters
Parameter uncertainty random, systematic,
measurement errors
Source Jane Bare, EPA/ORD/NRMRL, LCA 101 Life
Cycle Impact Assessment
51
Parameter Uncertainty and Variability Analysis
Hertwich, E., et al, Parameter uncertainty and
variability in evaluative fate and exposure
models. Risk Analysis, 1999. 19.
Probabilistic research within CALTOX showed that
for the majority of substances chemical data
(e.g., toxicity and half life) had the biggest
contribution to data variability/uncertainty
Source Jane Bare, EPA/ORD/NRMRL, LCA 101 Life
Cycle Impact Assessment
52
LCA Heating with Wood in Old vs. New Stoves
53
(No Transcript)
54
(No Transcript)
55
(No Transcript)
56
(No Transcript)
57
(No Transcript)
58
LCA Including Social and Economic Impacts
59
(No Transcript)
60
(No Transcript)
61
(No Transcript)
62
Summary of LCA Pros and Cons
Source Dr. M.A. Curran, Life Cycle Assessment
Basics and 101 Training Webinar Series
63
Group Exercises (this afternoon)
  1. Life cycle thinking
  2. Setting the functional unit
  3. Setting the system boundaries
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