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Chapter 6 Managing a Healthy Weight

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Title: Chapter 6 Managing a Healthy Weight


1
Chapter 6 Managing a Healthy Weight
2
Managing a Healthy Weight
  • What Is Healthy Weight?
  • The Regulation of Body Fat
  • Diets Don't Work
  • Sensible Weight Management
  • The Medical Management of Overweight
  • Weight-Control Fads and Fallacies
  • Body Image
  • Eating Disorders
  • It's In Your Hands

3
Managing a Healthy Weight
  • 68 of the U.S. population is considered
    overweight.
  • This is a major problem because being overweight
    increases the risk for many illnesses including
    heart disease and diabetes.
  • People who are overweight tend to live shorter
    lives than those who are not overweight.

4
Managing a Healthy Weight
Adapted from U.S. Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics
(March, 2011). Adult Obesity Prevalence in
Canada and the United States. NCHS Data Brief
No. 56.
5
Managing a Healthy Weight
6
Managing a Healthy Weight
Adapted from U.S. Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics
(March, 2011). Health, United States, 2010,
Table 71.
7
Managing a Healthy Weight
  • Reasons for increase in overweight
  • Overconsumption of calorie-dense foods in
    relation to energy expenditure
  • Abundance of inexpensive foods that contribute to
    weight gain
  • Increase in portion sizes
  • Reduction in jobs that require physical labor
  • Decrease in leisure-time physical activity
  • Increase in suburban living

8
Managing a Healthy Weight
  • Reasons for increase in overweight
  • Reduction in school physical education and
    after-school physical activities
  • An increase in time spent watching TV, using the
    computer, and playing video games
  • Increase in the pace of life
  • Increase in the stress of life

9
Managing a Healthy Weight
  • What are the things that you have seen that are
    putting Americans at continued risk of being
    overweight?

10
Managing a Healthy Weight
11
What Is Healthy Weight?
  • Concerns about being overweight are most often
    concerns about being over fat.
  • Lean Body Massstructural elements of cells, body
    water, muscles, and bone
  • Body Fat
  • Essential Fat
  • Storage Fat

12
What Is Healthy Weight?
  • Body Fat
  • Essential fatNeeded for normal physiological
    function
  • Men 3-7
  • Women 10-12
  • Storage fat
  • The rest of the 5-25 of body weight of healthy
    weight individuals
  • 1 lb 3,500 calories

13
What Is Healthy Weight?
  • Obesitya person whose body fat exceeds 30 of
    their body weight
  • Body Mass Indexa way of calculating body fatness
  • Body Weight (Kg) / Height (m)2
  • Healthy 19-25
  • Above this recommendation, a person is at
    increased risk for disease.

14
What Is Healthy Weight?
Adapted from Mokdad, A. H., et al. (2003).
Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and
obesity-related health risk factors, 2001.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 289
(1)76-79.
15
What Is Healthy Weight?
  • Waist-Hip Ratio
  • Circumference of waist/circumference of hips
  • Healthy
  • Women below .8
  • Men below .95
  • It is healthier to be pear shaped rather than
    apple shaped it is also healthier not to have a
    beer belly.

16
What Is Healthy Weight?
17
The Regulation of Body Fat
  • Calories in vs. calories out
  • If you take in more than you need, then you will
    gain body fat.
  • Energy balance taking in only what you need so
    that your input equals output
  • Excess calories will be stored there are two
    principal calorie-storing mechanisms
  • Glycogen, the storage form of carbohydrates
  • Triglyceride, the storage form of fat

18
The Regulation of Body Fat
  • The body is designed to store fat easily in case
    you ever have to go without food. Therefore if
    you allow weight gain to stay on for too long, it
    will be very hard to get it off and keep it off
    later.
  • The best weight loss efforts produce a 5-10
    reduction in body weight over the first 6 months
    of trying and no more after that.

19
Diets Don't Work
  • Going on a diet, or restricting calories, doesn't
    work in the long run because the body turns on a
    mechanism that conserves body fat.
  • The focus is on food and not increasing physical
    activity.
  • Dieters become disillusioned and discouraged.
  • Dieters become bored with the same food.
  • Dieters become frustrated not being able to eat
    what and how much they like.

20
Diets Don't Work
Adapted from Dansinger, M. I., et al. (2005).
Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight
Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and
heart disease risk reduction. Journal of the
American Medical Association, 293, 43-53.
21
Diets Don't Work
  • Popular Weight Loss Programs
  • Low-calorie Reduce portion size to limit
    calories consumed
  • Low-carbohydrate Reduce intake of breads, rise,
    pasta, potatoes, sweets, and snacks
  • Low-fat Recommend high complex carbohydrates and
    little fat

22
Sensible Weight Management
  • A wide variety of body sizes, shapes, and
    compositions is considered healthy. Striving for
    unattainable body weight and shape is unhealthy.
  • Calorie-restricting weight-loss programs have not
    proved to be effective.
  • Improved nutrition, regular exercise, and a
    desire to feel good are the ways people lose a
    considerable amount of weight and maintain a
    healthful weight for many years.

23
Sensible Weight Management
  • Sensible weight losers can live healthier lives
    while allowing their body to find its ideal
    weight by
  • Forgetting slim, go for health
  • Setting realistic goals
  • Eating only when hungry and not overeating
  • Eating healthy foods
  • Exercising

24
Sensible Weight Management
  • Sensible weight losers can live healthier lives
    while allowing their body to find its ideal
    weight by
  • Limiting mindless snacking
  • Consuming little or no alcohol
  • Being aware of eating triggers
  • Not feeding their feelings

25
Sensible Weight Management
  • Quick Suggestions
  • Keep a diary of your weight-loss activities.
  • Keep faith with your intention to attain a
    healthful weight.
  • Don't count calories or constantly weigh
    yourself, focus on developing healthy behaviors
    and feeling good.
  • Ignore weight-loss and exercise-machine
    advertising.

26
Medical Management of Overweight
  • Techniques include
  • Counseling and hypnosis
  • Psychological counseling
  • Medications Appetite suppressants are
    medications to produce weight loss they diminish
    the sense of hunger
  • Surgery Small bowel bypass, gastroplasty,
    gastric bypass
  • Liposuction

27
Weight-Control Fads and Fallacies
  • Most claims made for weight-control products and
    plans are exaggerated and misleading.
  • Two major weight-control fads
  • Body wraps
  • Weight lost is water and not fat
  • Chemicals and supplements Natural,
    amphetamines, phenylpropanolamine, benzocaine,
    bulk-producing agents, and hormones

28
Body Image
  • A person's mental picture of her or his own
    body.
  • Body esteem Judgment a person makes about his or
    her body image.
  • Society creates a definition of the perfect
    body, which is unrealistic or unattainable for
    most people.
  • A lean body is associated with success, sexual
    attractiveness, youthfulness, and personal power.

29
Body Image
  • Being overly concerned about body image and
    weight can have adverse health consequences
  • Low body esteem and low self-worth
  • Poor nutrition from extensive dieting
  • Inadequate calcium and iron intake from
    undernutrition
  • Anorexia or bulimia

30
Body Image
  • Being overly concerned about body image and
    weight can have adverse health consequences
  • Musculoskeletal injuries from over-exercising
  • Risks associated with cosmetic surgery
  • Cigarette smoking to reduce body weight

Photographed by Kimberly Potvin.
31
Eating Disorders
  • Slimness is considered a sign of health and
    attractiveness.
  • Three of the most common eating disorders are
    anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and binge eating
    disorder.

32
Eating Disorders
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Voluntary refusal to eat that leads to severe
    underweight and disturbances in metabolism.
  • Characterized by
  • Occurrence usually in young women (but can and
    does occur at all ages and in men)
  • An overprotective family unable to deal with
    interfamilial conflict
  • Disturbances in body image
  • Preoccupation with food
  • Not eating in the presence of others

33
Eating Disorders
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Characterized by
  • Resorting to use of laxatives or self-induced
    vomiting
  • High energy state, bordering on hyperactivity
  • A sense of ineffectiveness, compensated by
    control of eating and body weight as a
    demonstration of control and competence
  • Feelings of powerlessness
  • Stubbornness and irony

34
Eating Disorders
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Possible causes
  • Avoidance of adolescence by trying to remain a
    dependent, asexual child
  • Attempt to establish identity by controlling the
    environment
  • Avoidance of family conflicts

35
Eating Disorders
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Treatment includes
  • Weight gain.
  • Change in attitude toward eating and food.
  • Resolution of personal and family conflicts.
  • Often psychological counseling is necessary and
    helpful.

36
Eating Disorders
  • Bulimia
  • Voluntary restriction of food intake followed by
    extreme overeating and self-induced vomiting or
    use of laxatives.
  • Binge eating disorder is an uncontrollable
    consumption of large quantities of food in a
    short period of time, even if the person is not
    hungry.
  • Possible causes Response to psychological
    stress, manifestation of a drive to become an
    ideal woman.

37
Eating Disorders
  • Bulimia
  • Treatment goals
  • Stop binge-purge cycle.
  • Establish appropriate ways to handle unpleasant
    feelings.
  • Improve self-esteem.
  • Psychological counseling is often necessary and
    helpful.

38
Eating Disorders
  • Binge Eating Disorder
  • Uncontrolled consumption of large quantities of
    food in a short time, even if the person is not
    hungry
  • Binge episode is followed by feelings of disgust,
    depression, and guilt
  • Needs help keeping track of and changing
    unhealthy eating behaviors, identifying social
    factors that contribute to the problem,
    counseling, and medication

39
It's in Your Hands
  • Successful weight control involves reducing
    calorie intake and increasing the level of
    physical activity.
  • What are specific things that you can do right
    now to get to or maintain a healthy lifestyle?
  • Are there things you need to change?
  • How do you eat healthily while on the go and/or
    eating in cafeterias? What are simple things that
    can help?
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