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Supporting a Child's First and Most Influential Teachers

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Supporting a Child's First and Most Influential Teachers NAEHCY Conference Preconference Institute October 27, 2012 Albuquerque, NM Family Engagement and – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Supporting a Child's First and Most Influential Teachers


1
Supporting a Child's First and Most Influential
Teachers
NAEHCY Conference Preconference
Institute October 27, 2012 Albuquerque, NM
  • Family Engagement and
  • Parental Involvement

2
Welcome!
  • Tim Stahlke
  • Senior Program Coordinator
  • Phone 512/ 475-9709
  • Fax 512/ 471-6193
  • tstahlke_at_austin.utexas.edu
  • www.utdanacenter.org/theo

TEXAS HOMELESS EDUCATION OFFICE
3
Todays Agenda
  • Introduction
  • What is Family Engagement/Parental Involvement?
  • Statutory Requirements for Family
    Engagement/Parental Involvement
  • Benefits of Family Engagement/Parental
    Involvement
  • Barriers to Family Engagement/Parental
    Involvement
  • Major Components of Family Engagement/Parental
    Involvement Programs
  • Principles for Effective Family
    Engagement/Parental Involvement Programs
  • Best Practices/Successful Strategies for
    Implementing Effective Parental Involvement
    Programs
  • Wrap Up

4
A Moment of Reflection and Sharing
NAEHCY Preconference Institute Supporting a
Child's First and Most Influential
Teachers
  • Opening Reflection Activity

5
Introduction
What is?
  • What is family engagement and
  • parental involvement?

6
Introduction
What is?
  • How do you establish expectations regarding
    parental involvement for your families?
  • What is your primary means of communication with
    parents?

7
History of Parent Involvement
What is?
  • Post WWI (1945 - 1950s)
  • Participation in parent conferences
  • Homework monitoring
  • Report card review sign report card
  • PTA meetings
  • Fundraising events
  • Mother-focused - room mothers
  • SourceMilbrey McLaughlin, Educational
    Researcher, (December 1990)

8
History of Parent Involvement
What is?
  • 1960s
  • In the mid-1960s educators and policy-makers
    focused on parent involvement as a promising way
    to improve educational outcomes for poor and
    underachieving students, and they developed a
    variety of models and strategies to promote such
    involvement.
  • Source Milbrey McLaughlin and Patrick Shields,
    Phi Delta Kappan (October 1987)

9
History of Parent Involvement
What is?
  • 1960s 1970s
  • Parent involvement mandates Title 1/War on
    Poverty Programs, Title VII (Bilingual Education)
  • Headstart model involvement of parents as
    paraprofessionals
  • Movements for community control of education
    integration and education of African American and
    Latino Children
  • Focus on compliance of mandates versus
  • partnering with parents

10
History of Parent Involvement
What is?
  • 1979 1980s
  • Research completed on federal mandatesrelated to
    parent involvement
  • Increase in parent involvement did not translate
    to decision-making and Governances
  • Reagan administration withdrew federal Mandates
  • Best practices and models to support involvement
    developed

11
History of Parent Involvement
What is?
  • Parent Involvement from 1945 to 1985 included
    traditional school organizations and support
    (PTAs and volunteerism among middle class
    parents) by some school districts in response to
    federal mandates to involve low-income parents in
    policymaking in compensatory education and other
    federally funded programs.
  • Source New Directions in Parent
    Involvement/Academy for Educational Development,
    Inc (1992)

12
History of Parent Involvement
What is?
  • 1990s to Today
  • Parent involvement mandates No Child Left
    Behind, School Accountability Teams
  • Movements for community control of education
    education of low-income children, special
    education students, and English Language Learners
  • Focus on implementing strategies to promote
    parent, family, and community involvement

13
Parent Involvement Model
What is?
  • Community Impact model by Ira Gordon
  • (1979) includes six roles for parents
  • Parents as Teachers
  • Parents as Volunteers
  • Parents as Paraprofessionals
  • Parents as Adult Learners
  • Parents as Adult Educators
  • Parents as Decision-Makers

14
Framework for Parent Involvement
What is?
  • Conceptual Framework for Parent Involvement by B.
    Cervone and K. OLeary (1982) includes four forms
    of parent activity
  • Reporting progress (exchange of information)
  • Special Events
  • Parent Education
  • Parent teaching in school and at home

15
Home-School Partnerships
What is?
  • In 1982, research conducted by Oliver Moles
    identified key program characteristics related
  • to parent involvement
  • Educational resources/strategies to assist
    parents in helping their children at home
  • Parent education, referral, and support services
    to help parents improve their children's learning
  • Channels for home-school communication
  • Opportunities for parent-teacher contact to
    improve student learnings

16
National Standards for Family-School Partnerships
(National PTA)
What is?
  • Families are active participants in the life of
    the school
  • Families and school staff will engage in regular,
    two-way, meaningful communication about student
    learning
  • Families and school staff continuously
    collaborate to support student learning
  • Families are empowered to be advocates for
    children

17
National Standards for Family-School Partnerships
(National PTA)
What is?
  • Families and school staff are equal partners in
    decisions that affect children and families
  • Families and school staff collaborate with
    community members to connect to expanded learning
    opportunities, community services, and civic
    participation

18
Requirements
NAEHCY Preconference Institute Supporting a
Child's First and Most Influential
Teachers
  • NCLB accountability

19
NCLB Definition of Parental Involvement
Requirements
  • The statute defines parental involvement as the
    participation of parents in regular, two-way, and
    meaningful communication involving student
    academic learning and other school activities,
    including ensuring
  • that parents play an integral role in assisting
    their childs learning
  • that parents are encouraged to be actively
    involved in their childs education at school
  • that parents are full partners in their childs
    education and are included, as appropriate, in
    decision-making and on advisory committees to
    assist in the education of their child and
  • that other activities are carried out, such as
    those described in section 1118 of the ESEA
    (Parental Involvement). Section 9101(32), ESEA.

20
NCLB Accountability
Requirements
  • The primary theme of No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
    is holding schools accountable for improving
    student performance, and parents are viewed as
    integral players in that process.
  • Throughout the school improvement process, the
    state, district, or school must communicate with
    the parents of each child attending the school.

21
NCLB Accountability
Requirements
  • The regulations require State Education Agencies
    (SEA), Local Education Agencies (LEA), and
    schools to provide accountability information to
    parents directly.
  • The regulations also emphasize that all
    communications must respect the privacy of
    students and their families.

22
NCLB Accountability
Requirements
  • Perhaps the key mechanism for parental input is
    the annual school review for determining adequate
    yearly progress (AYP). The results of this review
    must be communicated by the LEA to parents,
    teachers, principals and the community at large.
  • If a school is found to be In Need of
    Improvement, the school must develop a school
    plan, and parents must be given an opportunity
    for input. In fact, any LEA may condition
    approval of the schools improvement plan on
    community and parental support.

23
AYP and Parental Influence
Requirements
  • Two of most powerful vehicles through which
    parents can exert their influence are school
    choice and the selection of supplemental
    educational services. The implementation of these
    provisions by LEAs requires significant
    communication with parents to let parents know of
    their options, assess parents preferences, and
    initiate the school choice or supplemental
    educational services.

24
AYP and Parental Influence
Requirements
  • A comparably high level of involvement is
    required at each succeeding stage of school
    improvement, as a persistently failing school
    moves through corrective action to restructuring.

25
NCLB Accountability
Requirements
  • NCLB requires that school districts and campuses
  • notify parents about student progress, school
    report cards and AYP, school improvement where
  • applicable, highly qualified staff, and annual
    meetings.
  • NCLB also requires that parents be consulted in
    the development of the schoolwide plan, parental
  • involvement policy and compact, and at the time
    of the consolidated application.

26
Building Capacity for Parental Involvement and
NCLB Parental Involvement Requirements
Requirements
  • NCLB Handout

27
Parental Involvement
What is?
  • In many contexts, a broader definition of family
    engagement or parental involvement emerges
  • it recognizes a wide array of behaviors as
    engagement and involvement
  • and does not focus on parents compliance with
    commonly accepted requests for involvement.

28
Parental Involvement
What is?
  • There are a number of key stakeholders in a
  • schools success and student achievement
  • administrators, teachers, and community
  • members
  • but parents are paramount.

29
A Moment of Reflection and Sharing
NAEHCY Preconference Institute Supporting a
Child's First and Most Influential
Teachers
  • What are the benefits of
  • family engagement /
  • parental involvement?

30
Benefits of Parental Involvement
Benefits
  • One of the major innovations in the 1994 law was
    a mandate for school-parent compacts. These
    compacts set out the respective responsibilities
    of the school staff, parents and students in
    striving to raise student achievement and explain
    how an effective home-school partnership will be
  • developed.

31
Higher Student Achievement
Benefits
  • Students achieve more, regardless of
    socio-economic status, ethnic/racial background,
    or the parents education level
  • Students have higher test grades and test scores,
    better attendance, and complete homework more
    consistently
  • Students have higher graduation rates and greater
    enrollment rates in postsecondary education
  • Student achievement for disadvantaged students
  • improves dramatically, reaching levels that are
    standard for middle-class children

32
Improved Student Behavior
Benefits
  • Students exhibit more positive attitude and
    behavior
  • Students have more self-confidence and feel
    school is more important
  • Student behaviors such as alcohol use, violence,
    and other antisocial behaviors decrease

33
Bridging the Cultural Gap
Benefits
  • Children from diverse cultural backgrounds tend
    to do better when parents and professionals work
    together to bridge the cultural gap between home
    and school
  • The schools practices to inform and involve
    parents are stronger determinants of whether
    inner-city parents will be involved in their
    childrens education than are parent education,
    family size, and marital status

34
Bridging the Cultural Gap
Benefits
  • Successful schools engage families from diverse
    backgrounds, build trust and collaboration,
    recognize, respect and address family needs, and
    develop a partnership where power and
    responsibility is shared
  • For low-income families, programs offered in the
    community or at church or through home visits are
    more successful than programs requiring parents
    to come to the school

35
Students of All Ages Benefit
Benefits
  • Parental involvement clearly benefits students in
    the early years, but continued parental
    involvement shows significant gains at all ages
    and all grade levels
  • Junior and senior high school students make
    better transitions, maintain the quality of their
    work, and develop realistic plans for the future

36
School Quality
Benefits
  • Schools with parent-teacher groups have higher
    student achievement
  • School experience improved teacher morale and
    higher ratings of teachers by parents
  • When schools are held accountable, school
    districts make positive changes that include
    securing resources and funding to improve the
    curriculum and provide after school and family
    support programs
  • Schools have more support from families and
    better reputations in the community

37
Lifelong Benefits
Benefits
  • When schools work together with families to
    support learning, children tend to succeed not
    just in school, but throughout life.
  • Source The Parent Institute Henderson and
    Burla, 1997

38
Benefits of Parent Involvement
Benefits
  • Research indicates that the most accurate
    predictor of a students achievement in school is
    not income or social status, but the extent the
    students family is able to
  • Create a home environment that encourages
    learning.
  • Express high and realistic expectations for their
    childrens achievement and future careers.
  • Become involved in their childrens education at
    school and in the community.
  • Source Anne Henderson, A New Generation of
    Evidence

39
Benefits of Parent Involvement
Benefits
  • Family practices of involvement are as or more
    important than family background variables in
    determining whether and how students progress and
    succeed in school.
  • Source Joyce Epstein, 1996

40
Benefits of Parent Involvement
Benefits
  • The Triple As
  • Student Achievement
  • Student Attendance
  • Student Attachment

41
A Moment of Reflection and Sharing
NAEHCY Preconference Institute Supporting a
Child's First and Most Influential
Teachers
  • What are the barriers to family engagement /
  • parental involvement?

42
Barriers to Parental Involvement
Barriers
  • Prior concepts of the parents sense of place in
    their children's education. The traditional
    approach to family involvement in schools assume
    that parents know they played a key role in their
    childrens education and that they are welcome
    and needed in the schools. This approach
    sometimes does not work well with families who
    may be unfamiliar with this concept.
  • Lack of information on the importance of parental
    involvement.
  • Feelings of lack of ability to help their
    children.
  • Transportation issues can prevent them from being
    able to travel to the school.

43
Barriers to Parental Involvement
Barriers
  • Presence of younger children at home who require
    child care.
  • The perception that they are not needed and that
    someone else can do the job better.
  • Unfamiliarity with the concept of volunteering
    because there are no systems in place for this in
    their culture can lead to skepticism about
    institutions which promote this.
  • Perceptions by many cultures that the mainstream
    volunteer management model is too rigid and
    organization-driven may create a barrier to
    participation.

44
Barriers to Parental Involvement
Barriers
  • Written communication text dependent
    communications of all kinds
  • Limited access to technology, limited technology
    skills (survival is a great teacher of skills)
  • Reliance on a select group of volunteers
  • Single-track recruiting strategies
  • Limited multicultural/subcultural outlook and
    resources
  • Teachers want to involve parents in schools but
    need guidance and support in promoting this
    union.

45
Barriers to Parental Involvement
Barriers
  • Community organizations and groups, many of which
    are already engaged in helping children and their
    families outside schools, often have weak links
    with schools.
  • School structures are more complicated at the
    middle and high school levels.
  • Many parents are preoccupied with survival
    strategies.

46
Barriers to Parental Involvement
Barriers
  • Fear
  • Isolation
  • Assumptions
  • Values

47
Family Engagement / Parental Involvement Programs
NAEHCY Preconference Institute Supporting a
Child's First and Most Influential
Teachers
  • Major Program Components

48
Type of Family Engagement / Parental Involvement
Program
Components
  • Research does not show certain types of parental
    involvement activities to be more strongly
    associated with improving student outcomes than
    others research in this field does not yet
    strongly endorse one strategy over another.
  • Studies do show that programs resembling true
    partnershipsfamily involvement is not limited to
    certain activities but rather integral to all
    aspects of school life, including
    decision-makingare the most successful in
    raising student outcomes.

49
Type of Family Engagement / Parental Involvement
Program
Components
  • Programs that offer a wide variety of
    opportunities for involvement increase the
    chances of tapping different parent skills and
    accommodating varied parent schedules.
  • Researchers repeatedly emphasize, however, that
    the care with which strategies are planned and
    implemented is more significant than the specific
    form the involvement takes.
  • (Eccles Harold,1996 Henderson Berla, 1997)

50
Six Types of School-Family-Community Involvement
Components
  • Joyce Epstein (Center on School, Family and
    Community
  • Partnerships at John Hopkins University) has
    identified six
  • important types of cooperation between families,
  • schools, and other community organizations.
  • Parenting
  • Communicating
  • Volunteering
  • Learning at Home
  • Decision-making
  • Collaboration with the Community

51
Six Types of School-Family-Community Involvement
Components
  • Parenting
  • Supporting stable family routines, parental
    support and encouragement about schoolwork,
    discussion of ideas and events, high parental
    aspirations and standards for childrens
    achievement, nutrition/health, quiet places to
    study, emphasis on family literacy, monitoring of
    after-school activities, tapping of community
    resources as needed, modeling of positive
    behaviors, and knowledge of school experiences
  • Promoting strong family values

52
Six Types of School-Family-Community Involvement
Components
  • Communicating
  • Key here is developing effective home-school
    communication -- the more frequent and positive
    the messages parents receive from teachers, the
    more involved they are likely to become in their
    children's education.
  • A variety of techniques must be used,
    capitalizing on technology, that make information
    intelligible.
  • Strategies should include helping students gain
    awareness of their own academic progress.

53
Six Types of School-Family-Community Involvement
Components
  • Volunteering
  • Schools enhance their connection to families by
    encouraging them to volunteer in school
    activities and attend school events. Families who
    volunteer grow more familiar and comfortable with
    their children's schools and teachers.
  • Volunteering efforts that tap parental talents
    enrich school programs and, particularly in upper
    grades, facilitate individualized learning.
  • Goal is to enhance students' skills in
    communicating with adults (parent centers).

54
Six Types of School-Family-Community Involvement
Components
  • Learning at Home
  • Most parental participation in children's
    education occurs in the home. Schools must
    capitalize upon what parents are already doing by
    helping them to assist and interact with their
    children on home learning activities that
    reinforce what is being taught in school.
  • Schools should aim to increase parents'
    understanding of the curriculum and the skills
    their children need to develop at each stage in
    their schooling.

55
Six Types of School-Family-Community Involvement
Components
  • Home learning activities help bridge the gap
    between cultural or class disconnects between
    home and school.
  • The parent parent-child relationship must be
    recognized as distinct from the teacher-child
    relationship. What works at school will not
    always work at home. Parents should be equipped
    and relied upon as supporters and monitors of the
    learning process so that their children can
    become effective independent learners.

56
Six Types of School-Family-Community Involvement
Components
  • Decision-making
  • Involving parents in governance, decision-making,
    and advocacy roles strengthens links between
    schools and parents.
  • Parent and community involvement in
    decision-making also helps make schools more
    accountable to the community.
  • Parents are expected to develop opportunities for
    input, feelings of ownership, an understanding of
    policies, and a sense of connection with other
    families. Parents become advocates for children.

57
Six Types of School-Family-Community Involvement
Components
  • Collaboration with the Community
  • Student outcomes are greatest when families,
    schools, and community organizations and leaders
    work together.
  • Children are provided with more opportunities for
    learning and for linking school knowledge with
    real world opportunities. They associate with
    individuals, other than their parents and
    teachers, who reinforce the importance of
    learning.
  • Activities include increased skills and talents
    for students participating in extra-curricular
    programs.

58
Family Engagement / Parental Involvement Programs
NAEHCY Preconference Institute Supporting a
Child's First and Most Influential
Teachers
  • Principles for Building an Effective Program

59
School and Teacher Practices Matter Most
Principles
  • The quality of links between teachers and
    families and between communities and schools
    influences children's academic success.
  • The best predictor of parental involvement is
    what the school does to promote it.
  • "The data are clear that the schools' practices
    to inform and involve parents are more important
    than parent education, family size, marital
    status, and even grade-level in determining
    whether inner-city parents stay involved with
    their children through middle school" (Dauber
    Epstein, 1993).

60
School and Teacher Practices Matter Most
Principles
  • Single parents, parents living in poor
    communities, and parents of adolescents will not
    be among the least involved if schools implement
    appropriate practices to engage them.
  • Even the most difficult-to reach parents can be
    reached through the appropriate school and
    teacher practices.
  • It is in the person of the classroom teacher that
    students experience the power of a welcoming and
    helping community.

61
School and Teacher Practices Matter Most
Principles
  • You need one person to believe in you in your
    entire life, just one. And that one person
    willbring hope and love and encouragement.
  • Often, that person is a teacher.
  • - Maureen Look-Ainsworth, Wisconsin 2011 Teacher
    of the Year

62
You Get One Chance to Make a Good First
Impression
Principles
  • Prepare for families as you would for a guest.
  • Make family engagement what we can do for you
    and not so much what you can do for us.
  • Make back to school back to school!
  • Promote a culture of openness, acceptance, and
    value for all.
  • Appreciate the culture of your community.

63
What WE Can do that I Cant Do
Principles
  • Social capital those relationship between the
    school and the families that enhance the
    development of a child.
  • Social capital exists in the relationships
    between persons in the school/district/community.
  • A culture than engages families must make
    relationships the central theme in the process.
  • Social capital closes the gap between schools and
    families.
  • Relationships are not optional relationships in
    this community are simply something that happens.

64
Culture Eats Change for Lunch
Principles
  • The culture of a school dictates the values,
    beliefs, assumptions, and norms that drive the
    organization.
  • You shape it or it shapes you.
  • Initiatives die, but cultures survive. (Peter
    Senge)
  • You cant just nibble at the edges of
    engagement! (Constantino)
  • But, theres always hope -!
  • Mans mind, once stretched by a new idea, never
    regains its original dimensions.
  • - Oliver Wendell Holmes

65
Job Descriptions / Expectations
Principles
  • Parents dont have adequate job descriptions for
    their role as a parent or for their role of
    support in school and especially not one
    designed that is age-appropriate (elementary,
    middle, high school).
  • Dont take expectations for granted. When things
    get busy or difficult, people stop communicating
    unless its about failing to meet expectations.
  • Learn a lesson from the Olympians optimum
    performance means optimum coaching.
  • When people know better, they do better. Oprah

66
Expect all Kids to Learn
Principles
  • Students experiencing homelessness and
    generational poverty repeatedly report that
    teachers do not believe in them.
  • Failure is not an option for any student.

67
Motivation
Principles
  • Motivation differs among social classes,
    cultures, genders.
  • Many people we serve have never had a meaningful
    relationship with anyone who has benefited from
    the educational system.
  • For many, education means STRESS.
  • Motivation is most easily achieved when a person
    can relate education to their values I want to
    help my family.
  • Grades/formal assessments may not be good
    indicators of motivation, or the lack thereof.

68
Motivation
Principles
  • Constructive criticism is a middle-class
    concept many take it personally and can damage
    RELATIONSHIPS and self-esteem perhaps even
    communicating a message that they do not belong
    in school and that school is not for people like
    them.
  • Students in homeless situations, in poverty, get
    their information verbally, through RELATIONSHIP.

69
Relationships Change Lives
Principles
  • Relationships change lives for students
    experiencing homeless or high poverty.
  • Adults in their lives are most effective when
    they expose students to possibilities and
    opportunities.
  • Teachers, administrators need to suspend judgment
    and assumptions about families and/or behavior
    search for the WHY behind situations to promote
    education success.
  • Insure low turnover rates in teachers so that
    relationships can develop.

70
Expectations for Staff
Principles
  • Professional development and learning groups
    should promote a consciousness of poverty and
    homelessness.
  • Regular evaluation and assessments of teachers
    and administrators should include criteria such
    as effectiveness in building relationships with
    students, meeting and accepting students where
    they are, etc.

71
Expectations for Staff
Principles
  • People dont care how much you know until they
    know how much you care.
  • - John Maxwell

72
Entertainment
Principles
  • Curriculum and activities should include
    entertainment.
  • Entertainment is often used as a way to escape
    the harsh world of poverty and homelessness (or
    any world!)
  • Spotlighting the kids most at risk as much as
    possible in positive ways can increase parental
    involvement and engagement with the school.
  • Schools can use the expertise of families and
    students to create opportunities for positive
    school experiences.

73
Characteristics of Oral Culture
Principles
  • Common in generational poverty/homelessness
  • Relationships are at the heart of everything
    and are first priority
  • Spontaneous Strong desire for variety, great
    abilities to go with the flow or jump from
    subject to subject with ease
  • Repetitive Storytelling and repeating the same
    thing over and over are important for maintaining
    the knowledge
  • Holistic Focus on the BIG picture, tendency to
    take in everything that is going on around them

74
Characteristics of Oral Culture
Principles
  • Comfort with emotions Shows emotion readily in
    most any situation
  • Present oriented Highly in-tune with the here
    and now

75
Characteristics of Print Culture
Principles
  • Not very common in generational
    poverty/homelessness
  • Linear organizes thoughts and actions by first
    this, then this process
  • Time Is at the heart of everything and has high
    priority in daily activities
  • Analytic/Abstract Knowledge is outside of self,
    ability to step back from a situation and
    separate and disconnect self from what is going
    on
  • Self-disciplined/Focus Strong ability to shut
    out sense data and focus on one idea at a time

76
Characteristics of Print Culture
Principles
  • Ability to delay gratification Strong
    understanding of relationships between parts
    ability to strategize, plan ahead, set goals,
    focus on the future ability to break things into
    parts promotes abilities to connect small efforts
    to achieve desired end results

77
Family Engagement / Parental Involvement Programs
NAEHCY Preconference Institute Supporting a
Child's First and Most Influential
Teachers
  • Implementing an Effective Program Group Activity

78
A Moment of Reflection
NAEHCY Preconference Institute Supporting a
Child's First and Most Influential
Teachers
  • Closing Reflection Activity

79
Wrap-Up
NAEHCY Preconference Institute Supporting a
Child's First and Most Influential
Teachers
  • Whether you think you can or think you cant,
    youre right. Henry Ford

80
Resources
  • Build a Multicultural PTO, Evelyn Beck, PTO
    Today, 2010. http//www.ptotoday.com/planning-ando
    rganization/article/57-build-a-multicultural-pto
  • Connect with Immigrant Parents, Patty Catalano,
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81
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