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Chapter 3: Theories of Aging

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Title: Chapter 3: Theories of Aging Author: jimmauk Last modified by: Dr. Molly Hahm Created Date: 6/25/2005 5:44:45 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 3: Theories of Aging


1
Chapter 3 Theories of Aging
2
Learning Objectives
  • Identify the major theories of aging.
  • Compare the similarities and differences between
    biological and psychosocial theories.
  • Describe the process of aging using a biological
    and a psychosocial perspective.

3
Learning Objectives (contd)
  • Analyze the rationale for using multiple theories
    of aging to describe the complex phenomenon of
    aging.
  • Describe a general theoretical framework, taken
    from all of the aging theories, which will assist
    nurses in making clinical decisions in
    gerontology.

4
Psychosocial Theories of Aging
  • Changing roles, relationships, status and
    generational cohort impact the older adults
    ability to adapt. (Table 301, p. 64)
  • Activity Theory
  • Disengagement Theory
  • Subculture
  • Continuity Theory
  • Age Stratification Theory
  • Person-Environment-Fit Theory
  • Gerotranscendence

5
Psychological Theories
  • Explain aging in terms of mental processes,
    emotions, attitudes, motivation, and personality
    development characterized by life stage
    transitions (P.65)
  • Human Needs Theory five basic needs
  • Individualism
  • Stages of Personality Theory
  • Life-Course/Life Span Theory
  • Selective Optimization Theory

6
Psychological Theories
7
Eriksons stages of personality development for a
person that is 76 years old would be
  • a) autonomy versus shame
  • b) integrity versus despair
  • c) generativity versus isolation
  • d) trust versus mistrust

8
Biological Theories of Aging Stochastic Theories
  • Environment and the bodys constant need to
    manufacture energy and fuel metabolic activities
    cause toxic by-products to accumulate.
  • Based on random events that cause cellular
    damage, which accumulates as organism ages.
  • Free Radical Theory end product of metabolism
  • Orgel/Error Theory
  • Wear and Tear Theory
  • Connective Tissue Theory

9
Biological Theories of Aging Nonstochastic
Theories
  • Based on genetically programmed events caused by
    cellular damage that accelerates aging of the
    organism.
  • Programmed Theory
  • Gene/Biological Clock Theory
  • Neuroendocrine Theory
  • Immunological Theory

10
Nursing Theories of Aging
  • Functional Consequences Theory
  • Environmental and biopsychosocial consequences
    impact functioning.
  • Theory of Thriving
  • Failure to thrive caused by discord between the
    individual and environment or relationships.

11
Conclusion
  • For older adults with chronic illnesses,
    stochastic theories of aging help nurses to
    better manage physical illness and conditions
  • Psychosocial aging theories help nurses assist
    older adults and their families recognize that
    their life has been one of integrity and meaning,
    and facilitate peaceful death with dignity.
  • Aging continues to be explained from multiple
    theoretical perspectives, which collectively
    reveal that aging is a complex phenomenon still
    much in need of research.

12
Question
  • When a person who says the body just falls apart
    when it gets old would be said to subscribe to
    which theory of aging?
  • Biologic theory
  • Disengagement theory
  • Continuity theory
  • Developmental theory
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