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Classroom Instruction that Works: Effective Instructional Strategies Session 2

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Title: Classroom Instruction that Works: Effective Instructional Strategies Session 2


1
Classroom Instruction that Works Effective
Instructional Strategies Session 2
BISD Investigates

2
Categories of Instructional Strategies that
Affect Student Achievement
Category Avg. Effect size Percentile gain
Identifying similarities differences 1.61 45
Summarizing and note taking 1.00 34
Reinforcing effort providing recognition .80 29
Homework and Practice .77 28
Nonlinguistic representations .75 27
Cooperative learning .73 27
Setting objectives and providing feedback .61 23
Generating testing hypothesis .61 23
Questions, cues, and advance organizers .59 22
3
What is Structured Cooperative Learning?
  • A structure is a content-free way of organizing
    the interaction of students
  • Structures describe the social interaction
    patterns of students
  • Structures can be used repeatedly with a variety
    of content materials at various points in the
    lesson and across grade levels
  • The most efficient way to reach all objectives in
    a lesson is a multi-structural lesson

4
Structure

Content
Activity
5
Grouping
  • Organizing groups based on ability levels should
    be done sparingly.
  • Cooperative groups should be kept small in size
    3 4 students is optimal.
  • Cooperative learning should be applied
    consistently and systematically, but not
    overused.

6
Grouping Patterns
  • Informal
  • Ad hoc groups for structures that will last less
    than a class period
  • Clarify expectations, focus attention, provide
    processing time
  • Formal
  • Last several days
  • Designed to give student sufficient time to
    thoroughly complete an assignment
  • Base Groups
  • Long term groups created to provide students with
    social support throughout an academic term

7
Round Robin Question

Question Die Discussion Students roll and respond
to the group in orderanswering the question on
the top of the die
8
Round Robin
  • Divide students into groups of four.
  • Assign each group member a number.
  • Give the group a question/task.
  • Give the students think time.
  • Students respond aloud to their group within a
    limited time.

9
Basic Principles of Cooperative Learning
  • Positive Interdependence
  • Individual Accountability
  • Equal Participation
  • Simultaneous Interaction

10
Positive Interdependence
  • My gain is your gain, your gain is my gain.
  • Gains of individuals or teams are positively
    correlated

11
Individual Accountability
  • Each person must be responsible for his part in
    the structure
  • Assess individual effort
  • No group grades
  • Eliminates the free-rider and the workhorse
    student roles

12
Equal Participation
  • How equal is the participation?
  • May be created by turn allocation and division of
    labor
  • Students who participate are more likely to enjoy
    the process and learn

13
Simultaneous Interaction
  • What percentage of the class is actively engaged
    with the information/content at any given point?
  • PDAS emphasis
  • The more students interact with the material the
    more likely they are to learn it.

14
Line Up
  • Teacher poses a question or situation.
  • Students line up on a continuum based on their
    response to the teachers question.
  • Fold the line so that the students are face to
    face with another student.
  • Teacher asks students to justify their opinion or
    judgment to another student.

15
What are the PIES for round robin and line up?
16
Categories of Instructional Strategies that
Affect Student Achievement
Category Avg. Effect size Percentile gain
Identifying similarities differences 1.61 45
Summarizing and note taking 1.00 34
Reinforcing effort providing recognition .80 29
Homework and Practice .77 28
Nonlinguistic representations .75 27
Cooperative learning .73 27
Setting objectives and providing feedback .61 23
Generating testing hypothesis .61 23
Questions, cues, and advance organizers .59 22
17
How Effective is Homework?
  • Select the sign which corresponds with your
    answer selection and go stand by the sign
  • Primary students
  • Intermediate students
  • Middle School students
  • High School students

18
Research SaysThe amount of homework should
differ from elementary to middle to high school
  • Homework for elementary students shows little to
    no effect on student achievement measured by
    standardized tests however, purposeful homework
    builds study habits, fosters positive attitudes
    toward school, and communicates the idea that
    learning takes work at home and school
  • No clear data on the amount per night however,
    beginning around 2nd grade students should be
    asked to do some homework
  • Lower grade levels should do less work than upper
    grade levels
  • Research indicates that homework does impact
    grade point average in secondary classrooms

19
Is Homework Effective?
  • Grades 4- 6
  • Effect size .15
  • Percentile Gain 6 points
  • Grades 7 9
  • Effect Size .31
  • Percentile Gain 12 points
  • Grades 10 12
  • Effect Size .64
  • Percentile Gain 24 points

Cooper Meta-Analysis 1989a
20
Homework Rule of Thumb
  • All daily homework assignments combined should
    take about as long to complete as 10 minutes
    multiplied by the students grade level. If
    assignments require reading, the rule might be
    increased to 15 minutes times the grade level.
  • Cooper 2007

21
Parent Involvement in Homework should be Kept to
a Minimum
  • Parents should be informed
  • Parents should help facilitate by asking
    clarifying questions and monitoring understanding
  • Parents should contact the teacher when their
    children are experiencing difficulty
  • Parents should not solve the content problems for
    students

22
The Purpose of Homework should be Identified and
Articulated
  • Two Common Purposes for Homework
  • Practice
  • Should be structured around content with which
    students are highly familiar
  • Preparation or Elaboration
  • It is not necessary that students have an
    in-depth understanding of the content to
    accomplish the work
  • Students must know the purpose of the homework up
    front.

23
Sample Homework Assignment Sheet
  • Subject_____________ Date Due______
  • What I have to do tonight _______________________
    __________________________________________________
    _________________________________________
  • Purpose of the assignment _______________________
    __________________________________________________
    ___
  • What I need to know or be able to do to complete
    this assignment _________________________________
    ___________________________________________

24
If Homework is Assigned, It should be Commented
On.
  • Effect Size increases with direct teacher
    feedback
  • Assigned, but not graded or commented upon .28
  • Grading Effect Size .78
  • Written Comments .83 (Percentile gain 30 pts.)
  • If youre going to give it, provide feedback!

25
Examine Some Samples
  • Each group should read through one of the policy
    samples
  • Highlight evidence of the research in the sample
  • Be prepared to answer this question, Is this
    policy effective according to the research? Why
    or why not?

26
Additional Research on Practice
  • Mastering a skill requires a fair amount of
    practice
  • Learning new content does not happen quickly
    practice must be spread out over time
  • Speed and accuracy improve with increased
    practice
  • While practicing, students should adapt and shape
    what they have learned
  • Conceptual learning takes place during the
    shaping phase
  • Shaping phase few examples in-depth
    instruction

27
Focused Practice
  • Use with multi-step processes or skills
  • Practice assignments help students target one
    step of the process based on readiness
  • For example Working on transitions during
    focused practice improves overall writing

28
Designing a Practice Session
  • How long should it last? Duration
  • How much at one time? Amount
  • How often? Frequency
  • How well? Quality

29
ALT Work Session
30
ALT Work Session
  • Work together to incorporate these strategies
    into specific units of instruction
  • Cooperative Learning strategies
  • Design of effective homework
  • Note If your principal would like you give input
    to a campus wide or department homework policy
    based around this research, take this opportunity
    to work on your recommendation

31
Product Focus for Session 3
  • Bring the lesson(s) which incorporated these
    instructional strategies
  • Bring any data that you collect to demonstrate
    the effectiveness of these strategies over time
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