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Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals Tribal Solid Waste Education and Assistance Program (TSWEAP)

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Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals Tribal Solid Waste Education and Assistance Program (TSWEAP) Source Reduction Strategies for Tribal Solid Waste Programs – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals Tribal Solid Waste Education and Assistance Program (TSWEAP)


1
Institute for Tribal Environmental
ProfessionalsTribal Solid Waste Education and
Assistance Program (TSWEAP)
Source Reduction Strategies for Tribal Solid
Waste Programs
  • Session 3
  • Source Reduction Strategies
  • for Hazardous and Special Wastes

Todd Barnell, ITEP
2
Hazardous Wastes Definition
  • Quick and dirty definition of hazardous waste-
    a waste that exhibits at least one of the
    following characteristics
  • Ignitability able to create fires under certain
    conditions or have a flash point less than 140 F
  • Corrosivity acids or bases capable of corroding
    metal containers
  • Reactivity cause explosions, toxic fumes, gases,
    or vapors when heated, compressed, or mixed with
    water
  • Toxicity harmful or fatal when ingested or
    absorbed
  • Many household cleaners and chemicals are
    hazardous and must be disposed of in special ways

3
Reducing and Managing Hazardous Wastes
  • The Federal law, the Resource Conservation and
    Recovery Act (RCRA), identifies hazardous wastes
    and sets standards for safely managing this waste
    from the moment it is generated, through storage,
    transportation, recycling, treatment, and
    ultimate disposal
  • Federal laws encourage the reduction of hazardous
    wastes
  • Many tribes have developed, or are developing,
    their own ordinances dealing with hazardous waste
    reduction and management
  • Some tribes include language on hazardous waste
    management in their business licenses and
    agreements

4
Reducing and Managing Hazardous Wastes
(Continued)
  • Source reduction includes any practice that
    reduces the quantity and/or toxicity of hazardous
    wastes entering a waste stream prior to
    recycling, treatment, or disposal.
  • Equipment or technology modifications
  • Redesign of products
  • Improvements in work practices, maintenance,
    worker training, and better inventory control
  • Recycling includes the use, reuse and/or
    reclamation of residuals of, or materials in, a
    hazardous waste.
  • A material is "used or reused" if it is used as
    an ingredient in an industrial process to make a
    product or if it is used as an effective
    substitute for a commercial product.
  • A material is "reclaimed" if it is processed to
    recover a usable product, or if it is
    regenerated.

5
Household Hazardous Wastes
  • According to USEPA data, a little over 1 of all
    waste generated in the average American household
    is hazardous
  • The types and percentages of HHW in our waste
    are
  • Household maintenance items (paint, thinners,
    glues) 36.6
  • Household batteries 18.6
  • Personal care products (nail polish, hair spray)
    12.1
  • Cleaners 11.5
  • Automotive-maintenance products (grease, oil)
    10.5
  • Pesticides, pet supplies, and fertilizers 4.1
  • Hobbies/Other (pool chemicals, lighter fluid)
    3.4
  • Pharmaceuticals 3.2

6
Household Hazardous Wastes (Continued)
  • Improperly disposing of household hazardous waste
    down the drain, on the ground, into storm sewers,
    or putting them into the waste stream may
  • Cause physical injury to sanitation workers
  • Contaminate septic tanks or wastewater treatment
    systems
  • Present hazards to children and pets
  • Contaminate drinking water supplies

7
Household Hazardous Wastes (Continued)
  • Community reduction strategies for HHW may
    include
  • Permanent collection or exchange facilities
    that collect HHW year-round. Some may incorporate
    reuse centers (discussed in more detail later).
  • Special collection days setting aside
    designated days for collecting solid waste at a
    central location to ensure safe management and
    disposal.
  • Local business collection sites - drop off
    certain products at local businesses for
    recycling or proper disposal.
  • Public education activities may also focus on
    encouraging community members to use less
    hazardous materials in their homes.

8
E-Waste
  • Electronic waste includes all electronic
    equipment, such as computers, casino machines,
    and lights
  • Any equipment that is still functioning may be
    donated rather than recycled or disposed
  • http//www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste/recycle/ecycl
    ing/donate.htm
  • http//www.computertakeback.com/
  • Many types of e-waste can be recycled, including
    Compact Florescent Lights (CFLs)
  • http//www.epa.gov/bulbrecycling/
  • Some excellent internet resources to look into
    are
  • www.epeat.net/
  • www.erecycle.org
  • www.greendisk.com
  • Excellent case study in your manual from Sault
    Ste Marie tribe

9
Batteries
  • Batteries usually contain various heavy metals
    which can cause serious problems in the
    environment
  • Encouraging the use of rechargeable batteries is
    a good long term source reduction strategy
  • Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe have established a
    battery collection program that
  • Has three 5 gallon buckets, well marked and in
    high profile areas (expanding to ten)
  • Works with housing department to coordinate
    activities during fire prevention week when smoke
    alarm batteries are distributed
  • Expanding this program to include CFLs, used
    motor oil and other wastes
  • A factsheet on battery types and recycling is
    included in your manual

10
Special Wastes Definition
  • Special wastes are defined by the USEPA as
    non-hazardous wastes that are usually not desired
    in a landfill
  • Tires, white goods, construction/demolition
    debris
  • Planning for construction/demolition debris can
    present serious challenges for tribal communities
  • Issue 5 of Tribal Solid Waste Journal focuses on
    this issue
  • It is often difficult to deal with special wastes
    before they enter your waste stream usually you
    have to deal with them after they enter the waste
    stream

11
Special Wastes Tires
  • Tires present serious problems to solid waste
    programs it is nearly impossible to keep them
    out of the waste stream so you will need to
    develop strategies to deal with them
  • Some uses of old tires include
  • Incineration for fuel
  • Shredded and buried in landfills
  • Retreaded for further use
  • Recycled into other products
  • http//www.epa.gov/garbage/tires/science.htm

12
Special Wastes White Goods
  • White goods covers a variety of appliances and
    equipment such as washing machines, dryers,
    refrigerators, stoves, etc)
  • Like tires, these will end up in your waste
    stream and you need to plan to deal with them
  • These items often make up a large proportion of
    waste in illegal dumps
  • Recycling of these objects is possible, but it
    can be expensive, time consuming, and space
    intensive

13
Special Wastes Construction Demolition Debris
  • Changing building habits the way you build and
    the materials you use can greatly affect the
    amount of waste you have at the end
  • Reuse of buildings investigating new uses for
    old facilities can reduce demolition waste
  • Reuse of materials rather than landfilling using
    scrap wood for sheds or fence posts broken
    concrete as paving stones paint and wire for new
    projects, etc.

14
Reuse and Exchange Centers
These are basically stores where everything is
free. People bring in unused cleaners, paints,
varnishes, construction materials, etc. and
others can come in and take what they need. St.
Regis Mohawk Tribe is just one of many tribes
that has established a reuse center in
conjunction with one of their transfer stations.
15
FreeCycle
  • In 2003 a group of concerned individuals in
    Tucson, Arizona established a new, innovative way
    to keep a variety of items out of the waste
    stream
  • The FreeCycle Network has grown into an
    international web-based community in over 75
    countries and throughout the United States.
    Several tribes are now members.
  • Local FreeCycle networks allow individuals,
    communities, and organizations to advertise the
    stuff they want to get rid of so others in their
    community can come pick it up
  • FreeCycle says "Our mission is to build a
    worldwide gifting movement that reduces waste,
    saves precious resources eases the burden on
    our landfills while enabling our members to
    benefit from the strength of a larger community."
  • http//www.freecycle.org

16
Waste Reduction Contacts
  • Earth 911
  • http//earth911.org/
  • Tribal P2 Working Group
  • www.tribalp2.org
  • USEPAs Recycling and P2 Program
  • www.epa.gov/osw/recycle.htm
  • Institute for Local Self Reliance
  • http//www.ilsr.org/recycling/index.html
  • North Carolina P2 Pays
  • http//www.p2pays.org/
  • New Mexico Recycling Coalition
  • www.recyclenewmexico.com
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