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Microinsurance Risk Management Strategy What risks do poor people face and how do they protect themselves? What is micro-insurance? Basic insurance principles – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Microinsurance

Microinsurance Risk Management Strategy
  • What risks do poor people face and how do they
    protect themselves?
  • What is micro-insurance?
  • Basic insurance principles
  • What are the difficulties in providing insurance
    to poor people?
  • Microinsurance legislation in India
  • What are some micro-insurance delivery models?

Examples of Risks and Crises
Category Examples
Natural Risks Heavy rainfall, landslides, earthquakes, floods, drought
Health Risks Illness, injury, accidents, disability, epidemics
Life-cycle risks Birth, maternity, old age, family break, death
Economic Risks Unemployment, business failure, technological or trade related shocks
Social Risks Crime, domestic violence, riots
Environmental Risks Pollution, deforestation, land degradation

Classification of Risks and Crises
  • Idiosyncratic Risks
  • - Risky events that are individual or household
  • - Narrow geographical or social spread
  • Covariate Risks
  • - Risky events that affect many households
  • - larger geographical or social spread

How Do Poor People Protect Themselves from Risk?
Prevention and Avoidance
  • Careful sanitation
  • Identifying business opportunities
  • Saving
  • Accumulating assets (i.e., livestock)
  • Buying insurance

  • Taking emergency loans
  • Depleting savings
  • Selling productive assets
  • Defaulting on loans
  • Reducing spending

Different Financial Services for Different Risks
  • Two variables for classifying the risks
  • - the degree of uncertainty (time and frequency)
  • - the relative size of the loss (one time or
  • Efficacy of savings, credit and insurance as risk
    management tool based on the typology of risks
    classified by these two variables

What is microinsurance
  • insurance refers to a financial service that
    uses risk-pooling to provide compensation to
    individuals or groups that are adversely affected
    by a specified risk or event.
  • Risk-pooling involves collecting large groups (or
    pools) of individuals or groups to share the
    losses resulting from the occurrence of a risky
  • Persons affected by a negative event benefit from
    the contributions of the many others that are not
    affected and, as a result, they receive
    compensation that is greater than the amount they
    have invested in the insurance policy.
  • Thus, products that allow an affected individual
    to receive only up to the amount they have
    contributed are considered as savings products,
    not insurance.

What is microinsurance
  • The micro- portion of the definition refers to
    the subset of insurance products that are
  • designed to be beneficial to and affordable for
    low-income individuals or groups

Basic Insurance Principles
Large number of similar units are exposed to the
risk (risk pooling)
Policyholder control over the insured event is
limited (minimize moral hazard and adverse
Insurable interest exists
Losses are determinable and measurable
Losses should not be covariant (catastrophic)
Chance of loss is calculable
Premiums are economically affordable
What Are Some of the Difficulties in Providing
Insurance to Poor People?
  • Requires specialized capacity, which is
    complicated by the lack of reliable data
    characteristic of low-income, informal markets
  • Technical Specialization

Marketing and Sales
Most poor people do not understand insurance or
may be biased against it
Requires a distribution system that can handle
small financial transactions efficiently in
convenient locations, and engender trust
Distribution Channels
Micro-insurance Legislation in India
  • Regulated by Insurance Regulatory and Development
    Authority (IRDA) India
  • Obligations of Insurers to Rural Social Sectors
  • - A quota system, which compels insurers to sell
    a percentage of their policies to low income and
    rural clients

Micro-insurance Legislation in India
  • Quota for Rural clients
  • - Life insurers must sell 7 of total policies
    by number (not value) in the first year with
    increasing amounts up to 16 in year 5.
  • - With general insurance, 2 of gross premium
    income must come from rural areas in the first
    year, 3 in year 2, and 5 thereafter.

Activities Involved in Offering Insurance
Product Sales Marketing, education, signature of
Product Manufacturing Design issues such as
pricing, claims procedures, level of coverage
Policy Holders
Product Servicing Premium collection, payment of
Examples of Microinsurance Delivery
  • Partner-Agent Model
  • Insurers utilize MFIs delivery mechanism to
    provide sales and basic services to clients
  • There is no risk and limited administrative
    burden for MFIs
  • Full-Service Model
  • The provider is responsible for all aspects of
    product manufacturing, sales, servicing, and
    claims assessment
  • The insurers are responsible for all
    insurance-related costs and losses and they
    retain all profits
  • Community-Based Model
  • The policyholders own and manage the insurance
    program, and negotiate with external health care
  • Provider Model
  • The service provider and the insurer are the
    same, i.e., hospitals or doctors offer policies
    to individuals or groups

Partner Agent Model
  • Agents act as intermediaries between an insurance
    company and its market.
  • The MFI acts as the agent, marketing and selling
    the product to its existing clientele through the
    distribution network it has already established
    for its other financial services.
  • The insurance provider acts as the partner,
    providing the actuarial, financial, and
    claims-processing expertise, as well as the
    capital required for initial investments and
    reserves as required by law.

Partner-Agent Model

Product Sales
Policy holder
Product Manufacturing
Product Servicing
Service Provider
Partner Agent Model - Benefits for MFI
  • Limited Initial Capital Investment and Low
    Variable Costs.
  • Compliance with Legal and Regulatory
  • Potential for Stable Revenue Stream
  • Learning the Business

Partner Agent Model - Benefits to Insurance
  • Access to New Markets
  • Access to Clientele with Strong Financial
  • Lower Transaction Costs for Serving a New Market.
  • Regulatory Compliance.
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