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EGGS!

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What we re doing today folks! History Etiology Health Dissecting the egg Good Egg, Bad Egg Cooking Background History 300 mya- eggs laying in the ocean 100 mya ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: EGGS!


1
  • EGGS!

1
2
What were doing today folks!
  • History
  • Etiology
  • Health
  • Dissecting the egg
  • Good Egg, Bad Egg
  • Cooking

2
3
Background History
  • 300 mya- eggs laying in the ocean
  • 100 mya- mineralized egg shell
  • 8 mya- Gallus genus formed
  • 3-4 mya- Gallus gallus chicken species formed
  • 7500 BCE domestication SE Asia

3
4
Background History
  • Egg Sperm Fertilization -gt
  • Egg no sperm

4
5
Health - Allergies
  • Cause from ovalbumin NOT the yolk
  • Ovalbumin mounts an attack and human immune
    system over attacks.

5
6
Health- Salmonella enteritidis Symptoms
  • 6-72 hrs
  • Gastrointestinal Illness
  • 110,000 eggs w/ Salmonella
  • Hugging the toilet

6
7
Health- Salmonella Most Susceptible
  • Young Old WHY???
  • How does it spread???
  • SO
  • Buy Refrigerated
  • Cook completely
  • 140ºF 5 min
  • 160ºF 1 min.

7
8
Health- Salmonella Safe Alternative
  • Pasteurized _at_ 130-140ºF
  • Liquid eggs
  • Dried whites

8
9
Health - Cholesterol
  • 1970s-1980s PHOBIA

9
10
Health Cholesterol Misconception
  • 1 Lg egg 215 mg meat 50 mg
  • Blood cholesterol Heart Risk
  • Blood cholesterol influenced by Saturated fats.
    HOWEVER most egg yolks are unsaturated fats.

10
11
Health Cholesterol Substitutes
  • REAL egg whites
  • Imitation yolk Veggie Oil
  • Milk Solids
  • Gums

11
12
Dissecting The Egg
  • Cuticle
  • Shell
  • Whites
  • Yolk
  • 5. Chalaza

12
13
Dissecting the Egg- Cuticle/Color
  • Color due to proteinaceous cuticle
  • Cuticle plugs the pores
  • Color has no relation to Taste or nutritional
    value
  • Color relates literally
  • Ex. Araucana hens lay blue eggs

13
14
Dissecting the Egg Shell
  • Derived from Hens uterine lining cells
  • Shell composed of Calcium Carbonate
  • 10K
  • Air pockets

14
15
Dissecting the Egg Chalaza
  • 2 chords that anchor the yolk
  • Will rotate while suspended in the middle of the
    egg
  • Function Provides stability cushioning

15
16
Dissecting the Egg Yolk
  • YOLK Fuel ¾ calories, iron, thiamin, vitamin
    A
  • Pigment Plant xanthophlls (from what hen ate) fat
    protein synthesized in the hens liver
  • White Yolk Yellow Yolk

16
17
Dissecting the Egg Whites
  • Thick Thin Whites
  • Function
  • defense against Infection
  • protection
  • nourishment

17
18
Whites Nourishment
  • Contains
  • Trace minerals
  • Fatty materials
  • Vitamin (riboflavin)
  • Glucose
  • Water - 90
  • Proteins - 10

18
19
Whites Defenses
  • Acts as the primary defense against infection
    predators
  • Protein that blocks digestive enzymes
  • Protein binds to iron vitamins so NOT useful to
    other species
  • Protein inhibits virus reproduction
  • Protein that digests bacteria cell wall

19
20
Whites The Proteins (4 total)
  • Ovotransferrin (1st to coagulate)
  • Carries iron to developing chick
  • Prevents bacteria from using iron

20
21
Whites The Proteins (4 total)
  • Ovalbumin (most plentiful - approximately 70)
  • Reactive sulfur groups
  • Ovomucin and Ovomucoid (less than 2)
  • Jelly-like consistency
  • Pulls together soupy proteins into organized
    structure

21
22
Whites Other Proteins
  • Globulins lysozyme
  • Avidin large quantities can cause biotin
    deficiency

22
23
Whites Thick Thin Albumen
  • Adds THICK layers to the membrane whites
    (albumen) in 4 layers for THICK THIN albumen
    for consistency
  • Secreted by Oviduct from protein secreting cells.

23
24
Eggcelent Facts
  • Commercial chicken can lay 250-290 eggs
  • Raw eggs in shell keep for 3-5 weeks in
    refrigerator
  • Egg consumption has declined from 320 eggs per
    person in 1967 to 235 in 1990 and has increased
    to 254 in 2003.
  • Weight - 15 to 30 oz.
  • ¼ hens energy goes in to egg making
  • ½ for a duck

24
25
Good Egg Badddd Egg
25
26
Good Egg Baddd Egg
Grades Thick Whites Firm Round Yolks
AA YES YES
A Less Thick Weaker
B Fast spreading Easily Breaks
26
27
Good Egg Baddd Egg
  • Characteristics of a Good Egg
  • Intact
  • Uncontaminated egg
  • Strong Shell
  • Firm Yolk
  • Thick White
  • HOW DO YOU KNOW W/O BREAKING THE EGG?
  • Bad eggs Normally when Hen lays eggs at the end
    of the laying year

27
28
Good Egg Bad Egg CANDLING
  • Spots cracks
  • Large air cells
  • Meat spots
  • Brown in whites
  • Tissue slough off from oviduct wall
  • Blood spots on yolk
  • Burst capillaries in hen ovary/yolk sac

28
29
Eggs A Hot Potato?
  • Eggs quickly gathered
  • Immediately Cooled
  • (USA) Wash in warm water
  • Sold 2 days after
  • Deterioration 1 Day Room Temp 4 Days in Fridge

29
30
Why?
  • Whites Yolks more alkaline (dec. Acid)
  • Moisture decreases
  • Calcium Carbonate dissolves

pH Then pH Later
Whites 6.0 pH 6.6 pH
Yolk 7.7 pH 9.2 pH
30
31
Storage
  • FREEZING Air tight container
  • Separate from shell
  • Whites
  • Yolks

31
32
Egg Versatility!
  • Fry
  • Boil
  • Deep Fried
  • Baked
  • Roasted
  • Pickled
  • Fermented

32
33
Coagulation
  • Egg proteins folded chains of Amino Acids
  • ADD Heat and chains UNFOLD
  • Unfolding and chains bond to each other for a
    continuous meshwork

1.
2.
3.
33
34
Coagulation cont
  • Egg white coagulation starts at 144ºF and sets at
    150ºF
  • Yolk thickens at 150F and sets at 158ºF
  • Yolk and white mixed set at 165ºF

34
35
Eggs Ingredients Coagulation?
  • Liquid - raises thickening temp
  • Sugar - raises thickening temp
  • Acid and salt - thickening and coagulation at
    lower temps
  • Proteins do not have chance to unfold completely

35
36
Foam
  • Egg white filled with air
  • Proteins unfold and bond together (whisking
    causes protein to unfold)
  • 4 stages
  • foamy
  • soft peak
  • stiff peak
  • dry

36
37
Foam cont.
  • Other ingredients
  • Salt - increases whipping time/decreases foam
    stability
  • Sugar - delays foaming/reduces volume and
    lightness BUT improves stability
  • Egg yolk, oil/fat - interfere with foam

Ex. Mousses, soufflés, angle food cake, and
meringues. Foams help LIGHTEN a dish
37
38
Custards
  • West custards are milk or cream
  • Fruit Veggies can cause curdling

EX. Crème Brûlée, Cheesecake, flan, Quiche
38
39
Green Eggs and Ham
  • Green yolks are
  • harmless
  • Ferrous sulfide

39
40
Power Point Author
  • Shauna Henley
  • The University of Vermont
  • Foods and Nutrition
  • Basic Concepts of Food
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