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Enhancing Digital Images: Some Basics


Enhancing Digital Images: Some Basics STEM Earth Central August, 2005 Mort Sternheim, Holly Hargraves Adobe Photoshop Elements 3.0 Many, many features Windows and Mac ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Enhancing Digital Images: Some Basics

Enhancing Digital Images Some Basics
  • STEM Earth Central
  • August, 2005
  • Mort Sternheim, Holly Hargraves

Adobe Photoshop Elements 3.0
  • Many, many features
  • Windows and Mac versions (some differences)
  • Academic price about 53 (100 list)
    (govconnection.com, 800-998-0009)
  • Simpler, easier to use, cheaper than Adobe
    Photoshop (600 list )
  • Free 30 day trial download from adobe.com

References and Help
  • Photoshop Elements 3.0 for Dummies
  • Excellent
  • 21.99 list, 15.39 from Amazon.com
  • Elements manual lt Help
  • Help has search options, tutorials
  • How to palette in program

  • Basics
  • Adjusting brightness, contrast (Levels)
  • Adjust color
  • Quick Fix
  • Cropping
  • Redeye
  • Reducing file sizes for PowerPoint, web, email
  • Using Layers to make labels

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Elements components
  • View and organize photos
  • Tags, collections, search by date .
  • Quickly fix photos (Quick Fix)
  • Automated, menus
  • Edit and enhance photos (Standard Edit)
  • More control, options, tools, .
  • Make photo creation
  • Web gallery, Slide show, Card, postcard,
    calendar, VCD,

Getting Started
  • Double click on the Photoshop Elements icon to
    start the program
  • On the Welcome Screen, select Edit and Enhance
  • Use File ? Open, go to the Desktop, and then to
  • Double click on Alan.jpg to open that file.
  • On the menu bar (top of screen), click on Window,
    and then on Undo History. This lets you track and
    undo changes

Adjusting Brightness and Contrast
  • Useful for nearly every photo!
  • On the menu bar select
    Enhance ? Adjust Lighting ?
  • You will get a screen with a levels histogram and
    three sliders just below it.
  • Drag the rightmost slider to the left until it is
    under the end of the graph. (Brighter whites)
  • Drag the leftmost slider a bit to the right.
    (Darker grays.)
  • Drag the center slider to the right or left to
    choose the best midtones. Click OK.

Levels Histogram for Alan.jpg
Levels, cont.
  • Use the Undo History palette to undo/redo Levels
  • Try this exercise with Ilka.jpg
  • To see a major improvement with Levels, try
  • Try Levels on underexposed photos such as
    Kathy.jpg or Oval Window.jpg

Adjusting Color
  • Try Enhance ? Adjust Color ? Color Variations
    with one of these images.
  • Experiment with some other Adjust Color options.

Quick Fix
  • Fast, easy, somewhat limited
  • Open Ilka1.jpg
  • Select Quick fix. Note the Undo and Redo buttons
    that let you retrace your steps.
  • Note menu options for General Fixes, Lighting,
    Color. These are not as powerful as the
    equivalent individual menu options, but easy to
    use and experiment with.

  • Trim off unwanted stuff zoom in on birds, etc.
  • Easiest way is with the Crop Tool.
  • Open gps.jpg
  • On Toolbox, click on Crop Tool
  • Click at one corner of area you want to keep,
    drag to opposite corner, release.
  • When you are satisfied, hit click on the check
    mark (commit) on the right side of the Options
    bar. Or, to start over, click on the cancel icon.

Adjusting crop boundaries
  • You can drag any handle to modify that part of
    the boundary. Shift-drag on a corner handle
    constrains the proportions.
  • If you position the cursor inside the box, you
    can drag the whole box to a new location.
  • If you position the cursor outside the box, you
    can drag and rotate the box.

Cropping to specific sizes, resolutions
  • Handy for preserving aspect rations, and for
    cropping and resizing to desired print formats.
  • In the Options bar, note the Width, Height,
    Resolution boxes. Enter 6, 4, 300. (More on
    resolution later.)
  • Click on a corner of the desired box and drag.
    The resulting box will be have 6/4 proportions.
  • When you click on the check, the image will have
    6 x 4 dimensions, and 300 pixels per inch.

Fixing Red Eye
Fixing Redeye
  • Open smile.jpg
  • Use the Zoom Tool to enlarge her eyes.
  • Select the Red Eye Brush in the Toolbox.
    Click in the red area of an eye. This should
    remove the red eye,
  • (If you want to adjust the effect, vary the pupil
    size and darken amount in the Options bar. This
    is seldom needed.)
  • Open redeyegirls.jpg and fix their redeye

Pixels and Displays
  • Screen images are made up of tiny squares called
    pixels (picture element).
  • Pixels are usually 1/72 inch across.
  • Today most people use 800 x 600 or 1024 x 768
    pixel displays, or lt 1 million pixels
  • How large a given image appears depends on the
    screen settings! An image 800 pixels by 600 will
    fill the 800 x 600 display but not the 1024 x 768

Downsizing Images
  • Most people have displays with less than 1
    Megapixel and cant see a larger image all at
  • Downsize pictures for PowerPoint, the web, or
    email, usually to 0.5 Megapixels or less.
  • This makes it faster to load (or download)
  • Exception You expect someone to make large
    prints from the image.

Why buy a 4 or 8 Megapixel camera?
  • You cant see all those pixels at once on a
  • But, you can make use of them for zooming,
  • You can also make larger, better prints with more

Checking Image Sizes
  • Open Brie.jpg in Standard Edit or Quick Fix
  • Select Image ? Resize ? Image Size
  • You will see the following screen

Image size data
Width 2272 pixels (7.573 inches )
Height 1704 pixels (5.68 inches)
Channels 3 (RGB)
Resolution 300 pixels/inch
  • Numbers in inches (7.573, 5.68) define the size
    if the photo is printed.
  • The width and height in pixels (2272 x 1704)
    define how it will fit on a screen
  • The resolution (pixels per inch or ppi) ? how
    good the print will be it means nothing for
    onscreen viewing.
  • Channels (RGB) ? color, not grayscale

Changing Image Size for Screen Use
  • Select Image ? Resize ? Image Size
  • Make sure Constrained Proportions is checked
  • For Width, enter 800
  • Height should automatically change to 600.
  • Note the file size is now 1.37M (was 11.1M)
  • Click on OK
  • Note You can resize a batch of files all at once
    using File ? Process Multiple Files

Saving the Image File
  • Select File ? Save As. For File name, enter
    Brie1.jpg to avoid overwriting the original
    image. (.jpg format is the best image format for
    photos in most cases. It compresses the file
    while preserving nearly all the details.)
  • Click on Save. In the next screen, select High
    Quality and then OK. (Note the image size is now
    87k. The original Brie.jpg file size was 844k.)

Resolution and Printing
  • For good ink jet photos, you need at least 150
    pixels per inch (ppi)
  • 200-300 ppi is better
  • For 8 x 10.66 print,150 x 150 x 8 x 10.66 1.9
  • Thus an 8 x 10 requires a 2 Megapixel image or
    better for good results.
  • Set print size with Image ? Resize ? Image Size,
    changing Document Size Width, Height
  • Or, use File ? Print or File ? Print Multiple
    Photos. (Picture packages, contact sheets )

  • Like sheets of transparent plastic on an overhead
  • Work more easily on one element of image edit
    one layer at a time
  • Combine, copy images
  • Create text layers with labels, etc.

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Adding labels with text layers
  • Open 1ibis.jpg
  • Click on Window and on Layers to display the
    Layers palette
  • Right click on the Text tool in the
  • Select horizontal type
  • Position the cursor somewhere near its head
  • Type the word head

Changing the appearance of text
  • Use the move tool to position the label
  • Click on the Text tool again
  • Change the font, font size, and color of head
    using boxes in the option bar
  • Use the icon next to the color option to warp the
  • Click the last icon to change the text

More labels
  • Click on the Text tool. Put you cursor near a leg
    and type leg
  • Again, play with this label move it, format it,
  • You can select the active layer by clicking on
    the appropriate layer in the layers palette. The
    active layer is indicated by a paintbrush in the
    second column and a blue field to the right.
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