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assessment for learning: use of eportfolios in teacher education programs

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Title: assessment for learning: use of eportfolios in teacher education programs


1
assessment for learning use of eportfolios in
teacher education programs
  • Assoc Prof Glenn Finger

celebrating teachingseminar09
2
The presentation...
  • Celebrate the central importance of teaching
  • Supporting data
  • 11 of CSP in Australian Universities are
    studying in Faculties of Education.
  • The other 89 were taught by those prepared in
    Faculties of Education.
  • Prof Sue Willis, President, ACDE, 2009
  • Share some thoughts about ePortfolio
    possibilities

celebrating teachingseminar09
3
Our Griffith University vision...
  • In our teaching, we will offer our students a
    high-quality learning experience.
  • We will equip them to be the global citizens of
    the future, to challenge orthodoxies
  • and create new solutions to shape our global
    community positively. We will do this by
  • providing curriculum that engages with global
    issues and perspectives, and by providing
  • opportunities to integrate learning with work or
    engagement with our communities.

celebrating teachingseminar09
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Our guiding principles...
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Our L T Strategic Plan...
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Something about me...
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Inside the actors studio
  • Originated by Bernard Pivot , the ten questions
    Lipton asks are
  • What is your favorite word?
  • What is your least favorite word?
  • What turns you on creatively, spiritually or
    emotionally?
  • What turns you off creatively, spiritually or
    emotionally?
  • What sound or noise do you love?
  • What sound or noise do you hate?
  • What is your favorite curse word?
  • What profession other than your own would you
    like to attempt?
  • What profession would you not like to do?
  • If Heaven exists, what would you like to hear God
    say when you arrive at the Pearly Gates?

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What turns me on?
  • human purpose of learning
  • - making connections, relationships
  • making a difference, which implies some
  • change or transformation
  • storytelling
  • - powerful, reflective stories of learning that
    inspire
  • - the road less traveled by (Robert Frost)
  • creativedesignprocess especially dreaming,
    students as designers

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9
The teaching technologies...
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What I tell my students...
  • ICT are the digital lubricants of globalisation
  • There are no future possibilities that can be
    imagined which cannot be designed using ICT now
  • Given the range of technologies available, there
    has never been a better time to teach than now
  • No technology has ever been beneficial
    Acknowledgements to Ian Lowe
  • Adopt a technochoice perspective determine the
    relative advantage of the technologies you choose
    for particular purposes and contexts whats the
    educational rationale? Acknowledgements to
    Sachs, Russell Chataway, and to Roblyer

You must be the change - Ghandi
Sometimes it falls upon a generation to be great.
You can be that generation - Mandela
celebrating teachingseminar09
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Teacher education...
  • Shulman (1986, 1987, 1992) - Model of Pedagogical
    Reasoning - a cycle of several activities that a
    teacher should complete for good teaching -
    comprehension, transformation, instruction,
    evaluation, reflection, and new comprehension.
  • Transformation. The key to distinguishing the
    knowledge base of teaching lies at the
    intersection of content and pedagogy in the
    teachers capacity to transform content knowledge
    into forms that are pedagogically powerful and
    yet adaptive to the variety of student abilities
    and backgrounds.
  • Requires
  • Preparation which includes the process of
    critical interpretation, including multimedia and
    hypermedia
  • Representation of the ideas in the form of new
    analogies and metaphors 
  • Instructional selections  from among an array of
    teaching methods and models and technologies
  • Adaptation of student materials, technologies and
    activities to reflect the characteristics of
    student learning styles
  • Tailoring the adaptations to the specific
    students in the classroom

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12
TPACK (formerly TPCK)
AACTE Committee on Innovation and Technology,
2008
Mishra Koehler, 2006
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Our students? 2003 audit
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Our students? 2003 audit
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School-home difference
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Queensland College of Teachers
  • Professional standards for teachers...some
    examples
  • Note This course 1074EPS - relates
    specifically to all of the following standards.
    The specific indicators are included to
    demonstrate this. The standards which it most
    relates to are Standards One, Two, Three, Four,
    and Ten.
  • Standard One - Design and implement engaging and
    flexible learning experiences for individuals and
    groups
  • P1.5 identify and use teaching, learning and
    assessment strategies and resources in which ICT
    is embedded
  • K1.8 ways of identifying, evaluating and
    selecting teaching, learning and assessment
    strategies, resources and technology
  • K1.9 effective teaching, learning and
    assessment strategies and resources where ICT is
    embedded
  • Standard Two - Design and implement learning
    experiences that develop language, literacy and
    numeracy
  • P2.4 identify, select and use teaching and
    learning strategies and resources that build on
    and support the development of students
    language, literacy and numeracy skills.
  • K2.11 how ICT supports, enhances, enables and
    transforms language, literacy and numeracy
    expectations and development
  • Standard Three - Design and implement
    intellectually challenging learning experiences
  • P3.4 plan and implement learning experiences in
    which students actively use ICT to access,
    organise, research, interpret, analyse, create,
    communicate and represent knowledge.
  • K3.8 teaching and learning strategies that
    incorporate the purposeful use of ICT by teacher
    and student
  • Standard Four - Design and implement learning
    experiences that value diversity
  • P4.6 apply ICT to empower students with diverse
    backgrounds, characteristics and abilities and
    enable their learning.
  • K4.7 how to use ICT to increase opportunities for
    learning and address the individual learning
    needs of students
  • Standard Ten - Commit to reflective practice and
    ongoing professional renewal
  • P10.4 identify and access learning communities
    and professional networks
  • K10.6 how to access educational research,
    contribute to learning communities and
    professional networks, including through the use
    ICT, to support professional learning,
    self-assessment and development

celebrating teachingseminar09
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1074EPS Learning with ICT
  • The major assessment
  • the design and creation of an ePortfolio which
    has webpages organised according to
  • Professional Knowledge,
  • Professional Practice,
  • Professional Values, and
  • Professional Relationships.
  • This provides the framework for students to
    collect, select, reflect, direct and publish
    evidence related to the QCT professional
    standards throughout their program, as well as
    the potential for using this as the basis for
    demonstrating evidence for acquiring Education
    Queenslands ICT Certificate. The ePortfolio
    requires students to demonstrate their ICT
    capabilities in relation to ICT Knowledge,
    skills, and more importantly the curriculum,
    pedagogy and assessment application possibilities.

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ePortfolios and assessment
  • ePortfolios for assessment purposes
  • what kind of assessment do we require?
    (Barrett, 2006)
  • assessment for learning and assessment of
    learning are different not dichotomous (Matters,
    2006)

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ICT enhanced ePortfolio Process
  • The major assessment

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ePortfolios
  • Purpose and process

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ePortfolio possibilities...
  • Institutional ePortfolios

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ePortfolio possibilities...
  • Learner Centred ePortfolios

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ePortfolio Possibilities...
  • Web 1.0 tended to be characterised by the webpage
    with hyperlinks
  • Web 2.0 technologies
  • - enable linking and exchanging information, data
    and communication over the web
  • - involves connections and collaborations between
    people, and connections between ideas and
    hypermedia.
  • - design the social aspect of the application
    into the architecture (Kelly, 2007)
  • - unlike economic theory where the increasing use
    of a resource results in a depreciation of its
    value, the more that a resource is used in the
    Web 2.0 environment, the greater the value it
    aggregates (Brickin, 2001, cited in Kelly).
  • - can take advantage of and cultivate collective
    knowledge (Kelly, 2007, p. 2).
  • Connectivism attempts to account for learning in
    a digital age, where knowledge is growing
    exponentially, where new information is being
    acquired and reconstituted or remixed, and where
    know-how and know-what is being supplemented by
    know-where (Siemens, 2004).
  • Thomas Friedman in his revised version of The
    World is Flat, changed his fourth flattener
    from Open-Sourcing (Self-Organizing
    Collaborative Communities) to Uploading (Online
    Communities, Open Source, Blogging, Wikipedia and
    social networks) (Barrett, 2006, p. 5).

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ePortfolios 2.0
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ePortfolios 2.0
  • ePortfolio 2.0, used within a paradigm of
    assessment for learning, has the potential for
    enabling students to perceive their ePortfolios
    as an academic MySpace (Barrett, 2006, p. 8).
  • With Web 2.0 tools, student work can be posted
    and feedback invited (e.g. through blogging),
    collaboration invited (e.g. through wikis and
    Google.docs) and, if necessary, authorship can be
    tracked, for accountability.
  • While commercial learning environment systems
    such as Blackboard and Open Source such as
    Moodle provide discussion forums, blogs and wiki
    support, a key criticism is that those tools are
    limited to the students, instructor and teaching
    assistants, and collaborative content needs to be
    able to connect to course materials and
    ePortfolio systems in the online, networked
    digital world of the student outside formal
    education (Zhang et al., 2007).

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an alternative model...LPWS
  • rather than limit people to the e-portfolio
    model, why not develop a model providing a
    personal Web space for everyone, for their
    lifetimes and beyond? (Cohn Hibbits, 2004, p.
    1).
  • They refer to this as the Lifetime Personal Web
    Space (LPWS)
  • Could store searchable content (personal,
    business, social, and educational) that was
    important in a users past and will be accessible
    for future use, as well as for use in current
    projects.
  • The virtual structure of the LPWS could consist
    of multiple cells with flexible entry points,
    allowing internal cells and connections to
    external web based courses, mentors, per
    reviewers and libraries.
  • The primary user of the LPWS would decide what
    sections were public or private, and it would be
    available anywhere, anytime.

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a Universal ePortfolio...
  • Tolley (2008) proposes the Universal ePortfolio
    and identifies the prime directives for any
    ePortfolio must be
  • Portable. It cannot be located in any one
    institution or embedded within a proprietary
    Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)
  • Personal. It is owned by the user and is
    customisable to the users age, stage and style
  • Generic. It is not modelled on any particular
    curriculum delivery system nor content
  • Web 2.0. It should be compliant with all generic
    formats within the application
  • MIS-free. It is not hard-wired to any
    institutions MIS infrastructure
  • Light. It is not a permanent repository of all
    of a users files, rather a transit camp
  • Lifelong. Ownership must be maintainable as a
    continuity, ages 5-95 Glenn 5-95 is
    insufficient why not from -100 to the 22nd
    Century?
  • Lifewide. It is capable of being used by all ages
    and abilities through a wide range of assistive
    templates
  • Accessible. It must recognise common standards of
    accessibility in terms of both outputs and
    inputs
  • Credible. Evidence of any summative assessment
    must be linked to a secure repository i.e. the
    awarding body or a central MIAP/Minerva archive.
    (Tolley, 2008, pp. 5-6)

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ePortfolios and TPCK
  • I think a lot of the problem with the
    implementation of electronic portfolios is that
    they are being implemented without TPCK. There
    isn't a lot of knowledge about the pedagogical
    content of using portfolios for learning
  • (Helen Barrett, Feb 2007)
  • Glenns cautions
  • Hoops and hurdles just another form of
    assessment
  • Focus on select and reflect
  • Avoid designing to a formula what do I have to
    do to pass the course? consider digital
    timelines

celebrating teachingseminar09
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Some reflections...
  • Drawing upon my research on ePortfolios, this
    innovation
  • transformed the assessment from being
    traditional print-based to multimedia and
    hypermedia,
  • enabled a richer presentation of evidence of
    students deep learning
  • Positions students to achieve TPCK, QCT
    standards...
  • Student evaluations highlighted
  • the intellectual challenge ePortfolios created,
    and
  • many students presented powerful comments about
    becoming inspired to teach from their learning
    experiences.

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Some reflections...
  • For me, this course has been an absolute
    treasure, I started off thinking, they are
    kidding right design a website! After cursing
    and grumbling, we started we made mistakes we
    grumbled some more we continued the final
    design is ready nowthe road I have travelled to
    get to where I am with my web design has been the
    most stimulating, educational experience I have
    had since starting my degree. thanks for the
    challenge and the learning experience, this is
    precisely why I want to teach, to offer
    challenge, stimulation and excitement which you
    clearly set out to do and have attained with me.
    (Student Comment)

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Australian ePortfolio Project
  • Recommendation 6
  • It is recommended that academic policy in higher
    education institutions recognises the value of
    ePortfolio practice as a component of different
    pedagogies that enhance the quality of learning
    and teaching across the institution.
  • Recommendation 10
  • It is recommended that the Australian Learning
    and Teaching Council adopt a leading role to
    foster and support further research into the
    educational benefits of ePortfolio practice.

Compared with many other countries such as the
United Kingdom, United States of America and the
Netherlands, Australia is in the early stages of
ePortfolio practice and research..
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The hypothetical question...
  • If Heaven exists, what would you like to hear God
    say when you arrive at the Pearly Gates?
  • You have taught thousands to enable them to
    improve their life prospects and the life
    prospects of others. They are creating a better
    world...

celebrating teachingseminar09
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