This document is contained within the Fire Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other related resources found in this toolbox may be of interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting the following URL: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – This document is contained within the Fire Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other related resources found in this toolbox may be of interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting the following URL: PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 4d77bb-OWZkM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

This document is contained within the Fire Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other related resources found in this toolbox may be of interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting the following URL:

Description:

This document is contained within the Fire Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other related resources found in this toolbox may be of interest, you can visit ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:98
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 84
Provided by: FSDe121
Learn more at: http://www.wilderness.net
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: This document is contained within the Fire Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other related resources found in this toolbox may be of interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting the following URL:


1
  • This document is contained within the Fire
    Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other
    related resources found in this toolbox may be of
    interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting
    the following URL http//www.wilderness.net/index
    .cfm?fusetoolboxessecfire. All toolboxes are
    products of the Arthur Carhart National
    Wilderness Training Center.

2
(No Transcript)
3
(No Transcript)
4
Wilderness Considerations for Fire Resource
Advisors
Rocky Mountain Region Wilderness Managers
Winter Meeting January 21-24, 2003
Wilderness Fire Resource Advisor Training 2007
5
Objectives
  1. Become familiar with wilderness law and policy
    and the role of fire management in wilderness .
  2. Understand the wilderness resource and how
    decisions are made related to fire management in
    wilderness.
  3. Examine the wilderness challenges for the Fire
    Resource Advisor task.
  4. Provide tools to be used in wilderness fire
    management.

6
The Wilderness Act of 1964 P.L. 88-577
  • After 8 years of debate in Congress
  • 66 different rewrites of the bill
  • 18 public hearings that generated over 6,000
    pages of testimony

7
Signed by President Johnson on September 3, 1964
8
The Wilderness Act
  • Establishes a National Wilderness Preservation
    System made up of federal lands.
  • Identifies a process for areas to be added
    through subsequent legislation.
  • Provides overall definition of what wilderness
    is.
  • Provides general direction and identifies
    responsibility for management of wilderness.
  • Identifies special provisions for non-conforming
    uses

For more information on The Wilderness Act of
1964 visit http//www.wilderness.net/
9
Currently there are 702 areas containing
approximately 107 million acres
10
National Wilderness Preservation System -
Percentage by Agency
5
19.8
33.2
42
11
The Wilderness Act
  • Title
  • Section 1 - short title
  • Section 2 - policy and definition
  • Section 3 - extent of system
  • Section 4 - use of wilderness areas
  • Section 5 - state and private lands
  • Section 6 - gifts and contributions
  • Section 7 - annual reports

12
The Wilderness Act Purpose of Wilderness Section
2 (a)
it is hereby declared to be the policy of the
Congress to secure for the American people of
present and future generations the benefits of an
enduring resource of wilderness.
13
Benefits of an Enduring ResourceSocial,
Biophysical, Cultural
14
Definition of WildernessSection 2(c)
  • man is a visitor
  • retaining its primeval character and
    influence
  • without permanent habitation
  • managed to preserve natural conditions

15
Definition of WildernessSection 2(c)
  • affected primarily by the forces of nature
  • mans work substantially unnoticeable
  • outstanding opportunities for solitude or
    primitive recreation

Photo by Stephen Peel
16
Wilderness Stewardship means
  • Manage for ecological health and integrity
  • Provide opportunities for a wilderness experience
  • Minimize human caused impacts
  • Provide education and information about the
    wilderness resource, values, and benefits

17
Wilderness Management Direction Section 2 (a)
  • ... shall be administered in such a manner as
    will leave them unimpaired for future use and
    enjoyment as wilderness
  • provide for the protection of these areas, the
    preservation of their wilderness character.

18
Wilderness Management Agency Responsibility
Section 4 (b)
  • each agency shall be responsible for
    preserving the wilderness character of the area
    and shall so administer such area for such other
    purposes for which it may have been established
    as also to preserve its wilderness character.
  • The managing agencies must preserve wilderness
    character.
  • It is the over-riding criteria for all decisions,
    including those involving fire management.

19
The Four Statutory Qualities of Wilderness
Character
  • Undeveloped
  • Untrammeled
  • Natural
  • Outstanding opportunities for solitude or a
    primitive and unconfined type of recreation
  • A National Framework for Monitoring Wilderness
    Character, 2006
  • http//www.wilderness.net/index.cfm?fuseWC

20
Four Statutory Qualities of Wilderness
Characterfor Fire Management
  • Undeveloped
  • Untrammeled
  • Natural
  • Outstanding opportunities for solitude or a
    primitive and unconfined type of recreation

21
Untrammeled UnhinderedNot being subject to
human controls and manipulations that hamper the
free play of natural forces.
-Howard Zahniser Principal author of The
Wilderness Act
22
FOUR STATUTORY QUALITIES OF WILDERNESS CHARACTER
  • Untrammeled

Wilderness is generally unhindered and free from
intentional modern human control or manipulation
Threats to this setting Suppression and
prescribed fire
Wilderness setting
23
EXAMPLES OF MANIPULATION TO RESTORE NATURAL
CONDITIONS IN WILDERNESS
Reducing fuels to restore natural fire regimes
and fire effects
24
FOUR STATUTORY QUALITIES OF WILDERNESS CHARACTER
  • Natural

Wilderness ecological systems are substantially
free from the unintentional effects of modern
civilization
Threats to this setting Suppression and
suppression activities
Wilderness setting
25
Fire Control vs. Fire Management
26
Fire and Wilderness
This used to be called a disaster.
27
Wilderness Fire Damage or Natural Event?
  • Catastrophic Fire
  • Stand Replacing Fire
  • Ground Fire
  • High Intensity
  • Low Intensity

A natural part of the ecological process and
wilderness
28
Wilderness Natural Appearing or Wild ?
  • Long-term fire suppression is an example of
    large-scale manipulation of natural conditions.
  • Fire use creates, for some visitors, a less
    appealing and less natural appearing landscape

29
Fire and Wilderness Natural role
The fire and the effects of the fire
Erosion-sedimentation
Smoke-air quality
30
The Wilderness Act Agency Responsibility
Section 4 (d)
  • such measures may be taken as may be necessary
    in the control of fire subject to such
    conditions as the Secretary deems desirable.
  • The managing agencies have discretion for how
    fire in wilderness is managed
  • The National Fire Policy and agency fire and
    wilderness management policy describe
    implementation

31
The Wilderness ActAgency Responsibility Section
4 (c)
  • no temporary road
  • no use of motor vehicles, motorized equipment or
    motorboats
  • no landing of aircraft
  • no form of mechanical transport
  • no structure or installation

EXCEPT
32
The Wilderness ActAgency Responsibility Section
4 (c)
  • except as necessary to meet the minimum
    requirements for the administration of the area
    for the purpose of this Act
  • The minimum requirements and minimum tool
    provision of the Act.

33
Determining the Minimum Requirement
  • The minimum requirement analysis is a two step
    process

34
Determining the Minimum Requirement
  • The minimum requirement analysis is a two step
    process

Step 1 Is administrative action needed?
  • Do you really need to do something?
  • Could another strategy avoid the need for
    unnecessary effects to wilderness?

35
Determining the Minimum Tool
  • Step 2 What is the minimum necessary management
    action?
  • If it is necessary to take action
  • what is the minimum necessary tool or method that
    will have the least impact on wilderness
    resources and values?

36
Wilderness Fire ManagementDetermining the
Minimum Requirement
  • 1) Determining if any action is necessary
  • 2) Selecting the method, tool, or tactic which
    represents the minimum necessary administrative
    action.

37
Determining the Minimum Requirement
  • The minimum requirement analysis is a two step
    process

The Minimum Requirements Decision
Guide http//www.wilderness.net/mrdg/
38
Wilderness Fire ManagementDetermining the
Minimum Requirement for Fire Management
  • A lengthy analysis is not always possible or
    desirable in fire emergency situations.
  • The Minimum Requirements Decision Guide (MRDG) is
    not designed for use in emergency situations

39
Wilderness Fire ManagementDetermining the
Minimum Requirement
  1. Incorporate wilderness management objectives and
    the minimum requirements decision process into
    programmatic fire management planning
  2. Develop GO/NO GO checklists and decision trees
    that will aid in the emergency decision making
    situations that arise.
  3. Make use of the proper authority (who in the
    agency can make the decision).
  4. Document the rationale and the decision to track
    the process and improve future decision making.

Fire Management Toolbox at http//www.wilderness.
net/toolboxes/
40
Wilderness ManagementDetermining the Minimum
Requirement
  • Example - Method of transport

41
Preferences for Limiting ImpactsLong term
impacts vs. short term disturbances
  • Aircraft use (if necessary)
  • Preferred
  • Helicopter flights
  • Helicopter landings and/or sling loads in natural
    openings
  • Least acceptable
  • New constructed helispots

42
Wilderness ManagementDetermining the Minimum
Requirement
  • Example - Suppression activities

43
Preferences for Limiting ImpactsLong term
impacts vs. short term disturbances
  • Suppression activities (if necessary)
  • Preferred
  • Natural fuel breaks
  • Cold trailing
  • Burnouts and backfires
  • Wetlines and pumps
  • Least acceptable
  • Constructed fireline

44
Wilderness ManagementDetermining the Minimum
Requirement
  • Example - Spike and coyote camps

45
Determining the Minimum Requirement Long term
impacts vs. short term disturbances
  • Example - Restoration

46
Wilderness Fire ManagementDetermining the
Minimum Requirement
Example - Restoration
47
Wilderness ManagementDetermining the Minimum
Requirement
Example - Restoration
48
The Minimum Tool vs. the Minimum RequirementWhat
really matters?
49
Other Concerns for Wilderness Fire Management
Subdivisions on the Wilderness boundary
Threats from Natural Events Challenges for Fire
Use
50
Subsequent Wilderness LegislationEndangered
American Wilderness Act of 1978
  • Added 17 new wilderness areas, 1.3 million
    acres.
  • These were areas that had been originally
    excluded because they were within sight and
    sound of cities.
  • Congress recognized value of urban wilderness

51
Wilderness Fire Management Information and
Education
52
Wilderness and Fire
  • The effects of fire in wilderness should be
    considered neither good nor bad.
  • In fire dependent ecosystems, fire is a
    critically important part of the natural process.

53
Wilderness and Fire
  • Unnecessary, negative impacts from suppression
    are not part of the natural condition.
  • Always ask, is this action really necessary?
  • Manage fire in wilderness using only the minimum
    necessary actions, tools, and methods.

54
Use information and education to
  • Explain why the use of MIST are needed based on
    wilderness resource issues explain the reasons
    why it matters based on actual effects (The
    Authority of the Resource)
  • MIST Most Intelligent Sensible Tactics
  • Capitalize on a teachable moment for
    wilderness
  • Provide feasible alternatives to meet both
    wilderness and fire goals

55
Remember that the essential principle of fire
management is always the top priority in
wilderness too Do not compromise firefighter or
public safety
56
Wilderness Law and Policy - Key Points
  • The National Wilderness Preservation System was
    established in response to a concern over growing
    population and development.
  • The diversity of the system creates challenges to
    fire management because of size, shape and fuel
    types.
  • Subsequent legislation provides specific
    direction that needs to be considered along with
    the 1964 Wilderness Act.
  • Sections of the 1964 Wilderness Act and agency
    policy apply to fire management and the resource
    advisor role.

57
  • Wilderness Resource Advisor Tips
  • Know your role with the IMT, Agency
    Administrator, and others.
  • Be prepared to stand up and present your case for
    wilderness.
  • Understand the effects of fire and fire
    management activities in wilderness.
  • Allow and assist fire managers to do what they
    should, not what they could.
  • Be a credible wilderness advocate, not a zealot.

58
Thousands of tired, nerve-shaken, over-civilized
people are beginning to find out that going to
the mountains is going home that wilderness is a
necessity that mountain parks and reservations
are useful not only as fountains of timber and
irrigating rivers, but as fountains of life.
-John Muir
59
(No Transcript)
60
Agency Policy Fire Management in Wilderness
 
Fire Management Toolbox at http//www.wilderness.
net/toolboxes/
61
BLM Policy 8560.35 A
  • Fire suppression measures and techniques must be
    used which achieve the wilderness management
    objectives with the minimum adverse impact on the
    wilderness resource.
  • Methods and equipment which least alter the
    landscape or disturb the land surface are best.

62
FWS Policy 6 RM 8.8b C.
  • While an aggressive approach to wildfire control
    on certain wilderness areas may be in order, the
    methods utilized should be the minimum tool.

63
Forest Service Policy 2320
  • Conduct all fire management activities within
    wilderness in a manner compatible with overall
    wilderness management objectives.
  • Give preference to using methods and
    equipment that cause the least
  1. Alteration of the wilderness landscape.
  2. Disturbance of the land surface.
  3. Disturbance to visitor solitude.
  4. Reduction of visibility during periods of visitor
    use.
  5. Adverse effect on other air quality related
    values.

64
Forest Service Policy 2320
  • Locate fire camps, helispots, and other temporary
    facilities or improvements outside of the
    wilderness boundary whenever feasible.
  • Rehabilitate disturbed areas caused by
    suppression activities within wilderness to as
    natural an appearance as possible.

 
65
NPS General Mgmt. Policy
  • Fire management or suppression activities
    conducted within wilderness, including the
    categories of designated, recommended, potential,
    proposed, and eligible areas, will be consistent
    with the minimum requirement concept identified
    in Chapter 6 (of the General Management Policies)
    and Directors Order 41 Wilderness Preservation
    and Management.

66
NPS Policy - Directors Order 41
  • The park's fire management and wilderness
    management plans must identify and reconcile the
    natural and historic roles of fire in the
    wilderness, and will provide a prescription for
    response, if any, to natural and human-caused
    wildlfires.

67
Agency PolicyApplication to Fire
  • Whenever possible, scrutinize the use of motor
    vehicles, motorized equipment, mechanical
    transport, and aircraft in support of suppression
    activities.

68
Agency Policy Application to Fire
  • Whenever possible, scrutinize the use of motor
    vehicles, motorized equipment, mechanical
    transport and aircraft in support of suppression
    activities.
  • Activities that may have longer-term impacts,
    such as retardant drops, line construction, and
    dozer lines should be minimized.

69
Federal Wildland Fire Policy Application to
Wilderness
Fire Management Toolbox at http//www.wilderness.
net/toolboxes/
70
Continuing to suppress natural fires, causes a
significant alteration to natural conditions.
Federal Wildland Fire Policy Application to
Wilderness
71
Suppression actions can have a significant impact
to the resource.
Federal Wildland Fire Policy Application to
Wilderness
72
Federal Wildland Fire Policy Application to
Wilderness
  • Fire Management Plans (FMP)
  • Utilize the Wilderness Checklist for Fire
  • Management Plans
  • Provide wilderness input to help address the
    opportunities for natural fire in wilderness.
  • Ensure that wilderness law and policy is included
    in planning and implementation.

Fire Management Toolbox at http//www.wilderness.
net/toolboxes/
73
(No Transcript)
74
The Authority of the Resource
  • The Authority of the Resource is a communication
    technique that allows the message to be delivered
    as the right thing to do for the wilderness
    resource.
  • The communication is not focused on law and
    policy as the primary reason for strategy or
    tactics.

Education Planning Toolbox at
http//www.wilderness.net/toolboxes/
75
Example WRA task Need to locate the helispot in
the opening ¼ mile west of the timbered ridge top
location shown on the map
  • ART technique
  • Why? Because taking advantage of the natural
    opening will eliminate the need to fell 20 trees.
    Its the minimum necessary action to insure that
    when we leave here there will be no lasting
    impacts from our activities.
  • Non-ART technique
  • Why? Because Im the wilderness resource
    advisor and I have a delegation of authority that
    empowers me to make these decisions.

76
Use of the Authority of the Resource technique
allows the Resource Advisor to
  • Explain why the use of MIST are needed based on
    wilderness resource issues explain the reasons
    why it matters based on actual effects
  • MIST Most Intelligent Sensible Tactics
  • Capitalize on a teachable moment for
    wilderness
  • Provide feasible alternatives to meet both
    wilderness and fire goals

77
Resource of wilderness
Physical
Emotional
78
Values
79
Examples of Subsequent Legislation Designating
Additional Wilderness Areas
  • Central Idaho Wilderness Act of 1980
  • Endangered American Wilderness Act of 1978

80
Central Idaho Wilderness Act of 1980
  • Established the Frank Church River of No
    Return Wilderness.
  • Provided specific direction (in addition to
    direction in 1964 Act) for managing that area,
    for example

81
Allowed continued operation of airstrips
Recognized private inholdings
82
The Wilderness Act Special Provisions Section 4
(d)
  • Activities that would not normally be allowed
    in Wilderness but are allowed under certain
    circumstances, for instance
  • Water conservation works, power projects,
    transmission lines, other facilities needed in
    the public interest
  • Grazing of livestock
  • Commercial services (outfitter guides)
  • Administrative sites

83
Wilderness ManagementDetermining the Minimum
Requirement
  • Special Provisions
About PowerShow.com