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Study on violence against children in Albania, Bosnia

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Study on violence against children in Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia and Turkey: Objectives, findings and lessons learned from the data collection process ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Study on violence against children in Albania, Bosnia


1
Study on violence against children in
Albania, Bosnia Herzegovina, Serbia and Turkey
Objectives, findings and lessons learned from
the data collection process Where do we go from
here?
  • Angelique Jenney, Lead Researcher, PhD, RSW
  • Strengthening Child Protection Systems in Their
    Response to Violence Against Children Turning
    Evidence into Policy and Results
  • Sarajevo, Bosnia Herzegovina, September 18th,
    2012

2
Rationale for the Study
  • The purpose of this study was to develop a better
    understanding of where the systems and service
    providers experience challenges in identifying,
    reporting and responding to violence against
    children (VAC). The study aimed to obtain clear
    recommendations on how to improve the system and
    identify the opportunities for on-going efforts
    to reform and strengthen systems of child
    protection within all four countries in the
    region.

3
Research Questions 3 Areas
  • IDENTIFICATION, RECORDING AND REPORTING OF CASES
    OF VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN
  • REFERRALS OF CASES OF VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN
  • AND SERVICE TRAJECTORIES
  • SYSTEMIC MECHANISMS FOR ACTION AND CHANGE
  • Supervision, Monitoring, Evaluation and
    Best Practices
  •  

4
Methods Qualitative and Quantitative
  • Desk Review
  • Content analysis of national legislation,
    policy/regulatory documents, guidelines/protocols,
    services and programs and official data related
    to VAC/Child protection
  • Field data/Interviews
  • Interviews conducted with key informants and
    service providers with first-hand knowledge and
    involvement with the system representing
    different sectors (i.e., health care, social
    welfare, child protection, education, and
    interior/justice) as well as both urban and rural
    contexts.
  • To ensure wide participation of country level
    participants and local audiences in the study, a
    Survey/questionnaire was administered to a
    cross-sectional sample of technical level
    practitioners that come in contact with children
    on a daily basis and have technical expertise in
    the field of child protection, and are in a
    position to identify, report, respond to cases of
    violence against children.

5
Sample and Recruitment
  • For designing the sampling, the selection of the
    main sectors dealing with the protection of
    childrens rights was considered, together with
    the respondents role in identifying, reporting
    and referring VAC cases, with the sectors
    selected being police/justice, child protection,
    health, education, social welfare, and local
    administration.
  • While it was not the intention of the study to
    establish a representative sample of service
    providers in each country, efforts were made to
    include participants from the range of services
    that come into contact with children on a regular
    basis. The sample of service providers included
    those working in both urban and rural settings as
    well as private and public service providers.

6
Limitations
  • collection of official statistical data on VAC
    cases (baseline indicators).
  • not all countries were successful in obtaining
    official approvals from respective ministries -
    participation lower in some sectors. Therefore
    this report is only able to reflect the views of
    the sectors involved in the research and does
    offer a full analysis of the situation
  • a representative sample was not intended and
    results are not generalizable - considered
    exploratory only
  • small sample sizes, particularly for some
    sectors, prevented many analytical approaches
  • use of multiple languages in the translation of
    research instruments, qualitative data and final
    reports has been a challenge
  • focus of study was the service system itself and
    may have been enhanced by the exploration of
    issues for users of the system

7
Common Background Issues
  • historical issues (e.g. conflict) that has led to
    political and economic uncertainties that
    translate into limited government resources to
    support initiatives targeting violence against
    children
  • cultural beliefs that frame family violence as a
    private issue, and the use of force as an
    acceptable form of child discipline/rearing
  • growing awareness of the phenomenon of VAC and
    the implementation of national policies and legal
    and institutional frameworks (such as National
    Action Plans) and the need for services for
    addressing it.
  • Child rights have been guaranteed within all four
    countries through a number of international/nation
    al documents based on the Universal Declaration
    of Human Rights and others, documents such as
    Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

8
Sectors Involved in Child Protection and Targeted
for Study
  • Social Services/Social Protection
  • Education
  • Health
  • Interior/Policing
  • Justice/Judiciary (includes prosecutors)
  • NGOs
  • Monitoring (Human Rights Presidency in Turkey)

9
1 Identification, Recording and Reporting of
Cases of VAC
  • What is the level of understanding of violence
    against children among different service
    providers?
  • What seem to be the main reasons for strong/weak
    identification, recording/reporting of cases of
    violence against children?

10
Identification of Violence Against Children
  • Both policy makers and practitioners, in all four
    countries defined violence similarly,
    particularly from a child/human rights
    perspective and recognized the multiple forms it
    may present itself in
  • any use of physical force, or any misuse of
    power which results in physical or emotional
    harm. (Serbia)
  • Violence is any form of psychological, physical,
    economic and sexual suffering or threat of some
    actions, failing to provide attention to the
    child, or limitation of the childs rights.
    (BiH)
  • Our definition of violence would not conform
    with international standards. Emotional violence
    would not be considered as violence in our
    society. (Turkey)

11
Shared Issues in Identification
  • Social acceptance
  • Depending on the culture, the perception as well
    as the educational tradition, different types of
    violence (especially physical and emotional) are
    perceived in different ways. For example the
    isolation of children within the house as a
    punishment for a mistake the child has done is
    known as a method of education rather than
    psycho-emotional violence against the child.
    (Albania)
  • Subjectivity in identification
  • Purpose of violence is important. Slapping etc.
    may be justified as long as it is with good faith
    and for educational purposes. (Turkey)

12
Shared Issues in Identification
  • DOMESTIC VIOLENCE (WOMAN ABUSE) as VAC
  • There was a common opinion that violence against
    children is not often related to the occurrence
    of violence against women but that the linkages
    between the two are important.
  • The violence within the family is not visible so
    we rarely recognize it and it is harder to prove
    it if children dont want to acknowledge it.
    (BiH)

13
Perceptions of Abuse
Perceived Seriousness, Assessment of Abuse and Referral Response by Form of Violence, N 583 Perceived Seriousness, Assessment of Abuse and Referral Response by Form of Violence, N 583 Perceived Seriousness, Assessment of Abuse and Referral Response by Form of Violence, N 583 Perceived Seriousness, Assessment of Abuse and Referral Response by Form of Violence, N 583 Perceived Seriousness, Assessment of Abuse and Referral Response by Form of Violence, N 583 Perceived Seriousness, Assessment of Abuse and Referral Response by Form of Violence, N 583 Perceived Seriousness, Assessment of Abuse and Referral Response by Form of Violence, N 583
Physical Abuse-Home Physical Abuse-School Sexual Abuse Child Exploitation Neglect Emotional/ Psych. Abuse
Assessment /reponse to vignette
Incident is serious 96 91 99 99 99 99
Incident is "abuse" or "neglect" 93 87 99 99 97 96
Would refer for services 68 54 81 80 N/A N/A
Would refer but no service 18 15 13 15 N/A N/A

14
Beliefs About Interventions
Ranking of Importance for Possible Interventions Ranking of Importance for Possible Interventions Ranking of Importance for Possible Interventions Ranking of Importance for Possible Interventions Ranking of Importance for Possible Interventions Ranking of Importance for Possible Interventions Ranking of Importance for Possible Interventions Ranking of Importance for Possible Interventions Ranking of Importance for Possible Interventions
Most Important Most Important 2nd Most Important 2nd Most Important 3rd Most Important 3rd Most Important Least Important Least Important
Intervention
Educationa 191 34 182 33 82 15 100 18
Counsellingb 239 43 231 42 61 11 24 4
Punishment of Perpetratorc 35 6 76 14 227 41 216 39
Removal of Childd 116 21 67 12 169 30 205 37
a Based on a sample of 555 due to missing data a Based on a sample of 555 due to missing data a Based on a sample of 555 due to missing data a Based on a sample of 555 due to missing data a Based on a sample of 555 due to missing data a Based on a sample of 555 due to missing data a Based on a sample of 555 due to missing data a Based on a sample of 555 due to missing data a Based on a sample of 555 due to missing data
b Based on a sample of 555 due to missing data b Based on a sample of 555 due to missing data b Based on a sample of 555 due to missing data b Based on a sample of 555 due to missing data b Based on a sample of 555 due to missing data b Based on a sample of 555 due to missing data b Based on a sample of 555 due to missing data b Based on a sample of 555 due to missing data b Based on a sample of 555 due to missing data
b Based on a sample of 554 due to missing data b Based on a sample of 554 due to missing data b Based on a sample of 554 due to missing data b Based on a sample of 554 due to missing data b Based on a sample of 554 due to missing data b Based on a sample of 554 due to missing data b Based on a sample of 554 due to missing data b Based on a sample of 554 due to missing data b Based on a sample of 554 due to missing data
d Based on a sample of 557 due to missing data d Based on a sample of 557 due to missing data d Based on a sample of 557 due to missing data d Based on a sample of 557 due to missing data d Based on a sample of 557 due to missing data d Based on a sample of 557 due to missing data d Based on a sample of 557 due to missing data d Based on a sample of 557 due to missing data d Based on a sample of 557 due to missing data

15
Recording and Reporting of VAC Cases
16
Legislation and Reporting
Table 5
Duty to Report Legislation (Required Reporting of Suspected VAC to Authorities), N 570 Duty to Report Legislation (Required Reporting of Suspected VAC to Authorities), N 570 Duty to Report Legislation (Required Reporting of Suspected VAC to Authorities), N 570 Duty to Report Legislation (Required Reporting of Suspected VAC to Authorities), N 570 Duty to Report Legislation (Required Reporting of Suspected VAC to Authorities), N 570  
Albania Bosnia Serbia Turkey Total
(N148) (N108) (N170) (N144) (N570)
Legislated reporting of VAC
No 20 3 8 5 9
Yes 70 90 82 88 82
Don't Know 11 7 9 7 9
Total 100 100 100 100 100
N 570 due to missing data
17
Documentation and Management
Documentation and Management of VAC Cases, N 572 Documentation and Management of VAC Cases, N 572        
Albania Bosnia Serbia Turkey Total
Documentation and management practices (N148) (N108) (N169) (N151) (N572)
and protocols
VAC cases formally documented
Yes 76 73 79 82 78
No 16 18 14 7 13
Don't know 8 9 7 12 9
Protocols in place for managing VAC cases
Yes 62 54 81 58 65
No 27 30 16 20 23
Don't know 12 16 4 22 13
Note Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding
N 572 due to missing data

18
Reporting
Respondents' Understanding of Required Reporting, and Likelihood of Reporting, by Sector and Type of Violence, N 583 Respondents' Understanding of Required Reporting, and Likelihood of Reporting, by Sector and Type of Violence, N 583 Respondents' Understanding of Required Reporting, and Likelihood of Reporting, by Sector and Type of Violence, N 583 Respondents' Understanding of Required Reporting, and Likelihood of Reporting, by Sector and Type of Violence, N 583 Respondents' Understanding of Required Reporting, and Likelihood of Reporting, by Sector and Type of Violence, N 583 Respondents' Understanding of Required Reporting, and Likelihood of Reporting, by Sector and Type of Violence, N 583 Respondents' Understanding of Required Reporting, and Likelihood of Reporting, by Sector and Type of Violence, N 583 Respondents' Understanding of Required Reporting, and Likelihood of Reporting, by Sector and Type of Violence, N 583 Respondents' Understanding of Required Reporting, and Likelihood of Reporting, by Sector and Type of Violence, N 583 Respondents' Understanding of Required Reporting, and Likelihood of Reporting, by Sector and Type of Violence, N 583 Respondents' Understanding of Required Reporting, and Likelihood of Reporting, by Sector and Type of Violence, N 583 Respondents' Understanding of Required Reporting, and Likelihood of Reporting, by Sector and Type of Violence, N 583 Respondents' Understanding of Required Reporting, and Likelihood of Reporting, by Sector and Type of Violence, N 583
Physical Abuse-Home Physical Abuse-Home Physical Abuse-School Physical Abuse-School Sexual Abuse Sexual Abuse Child Exploitation Child Exploitation Neglect Neglect Emotional / Psych. Abuse Emotional / Psych. Abuse
Sector
Monitoring (n 2)
Required to Report 100 100 50 50 50 50 100 100 50 50 50 50
Likely to Report 100 100 50 50 100 100 100 100 50 50 100 100
Education (n 83)
Required to Report 59 59 65 65 84 84 74 74 68 68 69 69
Likely to Report 69 69 71 71 96 96 77 77 89 89 87 87
Health Care (n 82)
Required to Report 67 67 63 63 84 84 84 84 85 85 74 74
Likely to Report 70 70 77 77 88 88 85 85 89 89 83 83
Social Welfare/Protection (n 200)
Required to Report 65 65 68 68 97 97 97 97 96 96 89 89
Likely to Report 73 73 75 75 98 98 97 97 97 97 94 94
Interior (Police) (n 53)
Required to Report 85 85 85 85 100 100 100 100 98 98 91 91
Likely to Report 87 87 91 91 98 98 100 100 100 100 94 94
Judiciary (n 34)
Required to Report 68 68 68 68 91 91 88 88 85 85 71 71
Likely to Report 71 71 71 71 91 91 94 94 91 91 79 79
Prosector (n 25)
Required to Report 76 76 83 83 96 96 96 96 87 87 92 92
Likely to Report 84 84 96 96 100 100 100 100 100 100 96 96
NGO (n 75)
Required to Report 68 68 71 71 93 93 93 93 91 91 89 89
Likely to Report 81 81 87 87 97 97 97 97 97 97 93 93
Justice (Social Worker) (n 21)
Required to Report 67 67 86 86 100 100 100 100 91 91 100 100
Likely to Report 71 71 81 81 100 100 100 100 95 95 100 100
Forensic Medecine (n 8)
Required to Report 63 63 63 63 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Likely to Report 63 63 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
All sectors combined (n 583)
Required to Report 67 67 70 70 93 93 91 91 89 89 84 84
Likely to Report 75 75 79 79 96 96 93 93 95 95 91 91


19
Perceived Helpfulness of Reporting
20
Reporting
  • People are often aware of physical violence but
    are reluctant to report it, whereas sexual
    violence often goes undetected, but when
    uncovered, people are eager to report.  
  • Physical violence even though it is recognized,
    is not being reported often in order to avoid
    conflict with parties involved. It is considered
    to be someone elses business and private
    business and is often taboo, especially if it is
    related to sexual abuse. (BiH)
  • However, there is also evidence that suggests
    that this legal norm may not be well enforced, as
    community willingness to report violence is still
    largely based on voluntary individual actions
  • norms are one thing, reality another(Serbia)

21
Referrals
  • We dont have standard referral procedures. Its
    based on personal knowledge and relations.
    (Turkey)
  • There are no standards regarding information
    sharing. Sometimes unnecessary information got
    shared, sometimes we cannot get the information
    we need.(Turkey)
  • A major problem is the absence of the hosting
    centres/shelters for children victims of
    violence.when you have a case you do not know
    where to bring the child. The system overall is
    not sustainable. (Albania)

22
Cooperation and Coordination
  • We cannot talk about an effective coordination.
    Some agencies do not take the issue seriously,
    some do not have the necessary knowledge. So, the
    functioning of the system depends on us.
    (Turkey)
  • \
  • We lack personnel we have insufficient number
    of professionals, psychologists, one social
    worker so it is very hard to explain how we
    manage cases of violence against children. We
    cooperate with Police, but the cooperation is
    weakest with the judiciary. (BiH)

23
Cooperation/Coordination
24
Follow-Up Practices
25
Cooperation and follow up
  • We lack a body of experts that will work with
    victims after the legal case, and we dont know
    what is happening with victims later. (BiH)
  • Cooperation between services is sadly low, that
    there are maybe 15-20 of municipalities where
    the mechanisms are in place. (Serbia)

26
Complaint Mechanisms
Internal and External Complaint Mechanisms, N 583 Internal and External Complaint Mechanisms, N 583        
Albania Bosnia Serbia Turkey Total
(N150) (N110) (N172) (N152) (N583)
Existence and effectiveness
Internal Complaint Mechanisms
Yes-Internal Complaint Mechanisma 71 88 80 74 78
Yes-Effectiveb 92 75 76 66 77
External Complaint Mechanismsa
Yes-External Complaint Mechanism 43 85 67 36 56
Yes-Effectivec 62 75 74 75 72
a Percentages calculated as a proportion of the total sample for each country a Percentages calculated as a proportion of the total sample for each country a Percentages calculated as a proportion of the total sample for each country a Percentages calculated as a proportion of the total sample for each country a Percentages calculated as a proportion of the total sample for each country a Percentages calculated as a proportion of the total sample for each country
b Percentages calculated as a proportion of all responses of yes-internal complaint mechanism in existence for each country, (N106, Albania N97, Bosnia N138, Serbia N113, Turkey, N454, full sample) b Percentages calculated as a proportion of all responses of yes-internal complaint mechanism in existence for each country, (N106, Albania N97, Bosnia N138, Serbia N113, Turkey, N454, full sample) b Percentages calculated as a proportion of all responses of yes-internal complaint mechanism in existence for each country, (N106, Albania N97, Bosnia N138, Serbia N113, Turkey, N454, full sample) b Percentages calculated as a proportion of all responses of yes-internal complaint mechanism in existence for each country, (N106, Albania N97, Bosnia N138, Serbia N113, Turkey, N454, full sample) b Percentages calculated as a proportion of all responses of yes-internal complaint mechanism in existence for each country, (N106, Albania N97, Bosnia N138, Serbia N113, Turkey, N454, full sample) b Percentages calculated as a proportion of all responses of yes-internal complaint mechanism in existence for each country, (N106, Albania N97, Bosnia N138, Serbia N113, Turkey, N454, full sample)
c Percentages calculated as a proportion of all responses of yes-external complaint mechanism in existence for each country (N65, Albania N93, Bosnia N115, Serbia N55, Turkey, N328, full sample) c Percentages calculated as a proportion of all responses of yes-external complaint mechanism in existence for each country (N65, Albania N93, Bosnia N115, Serbia N55, Turkey, N328, full sample) c Percentages calculated as a proportion of all responses of yes-external complaint mechanism in existence for each country (N65, Albania N93, Bosnia N115, Serbia N55, Turkey, N328, full sample) c Percentages calculated as a proportion of all responses of yes-external complaint mechanism in existence for each country (N65, Albania N93, Bosnia N115, Serbia N55, Turkey, N328, full sample) c Percentages calculated as a proportion of all responses of yes-external complaint mechanism in existence for each country (N65, Albania N93, Bosnia N115, Serbia N55, Turkey, N328, full sample) c Percentages calculated as a proportion of all responses of yes-external complaint mechanism in existence for each country (N65, Albania N93, Bosnia N115, Serbia N55, Turkey, N328, full sample)

27
2 Referrals of Cases of VAC and Service
Trajectories
  • What seem to be the main reasons for strong/weak
    referring of cases of
  • violence against children within the services
    assessed?
  • 43 believe counselling is the most important
    issue when working with families who mistreat
    their children
  • 30 education
  • 2 say punishment
  • 13 say removal of child from family

28
Referral of Cases, Sufficiency of
Services and Follow-up
  • We dont have much contact with our colleagues
    in other institutions.
  • Lack of guidelines for professionals
  • no guidelines available for professionals as it
    relates to referral of and follow-up with cases
    of VAC.
  • Scarce services
  • The lack of rehabilitation services and
    residential care facilities with adequate
    infrastructure for child victims of VAC can be
    seen as one of the challenges within the system.
  • Poor service coordination
  • There is a lack of an effective mechanism to
    ensure multi-disciplinary and inter-agency
    coordination in planning, decision making,
    implementation and monitoring

29
3 Systemic Mechanisms for Action and
Change
  • Monitoring, Evaluation and Best Practices
  • Are monitoring and supervision mechanisms of
    service providers available at national and
    regional levels and how do these influence the
    performance of service providers in
    identification, reporting and referral of cases
    of violence against children?
  • Does there seem to be any significant difference
    among urban/rural area-based services and
    public/private service providers in any of the
    areas of inquiry?
  • In ongoing reforms of child protection systems,
    what are the main opportunities to further
    influence an improvement in the way the system
    identifies and intervenes in cases of violence
    against children?

30
Staff Training and Supervision, Monitoring and
Complaint Mechanisms
  • Lack of staff specialization
  • The lack of courses on VAC in the undergraduate
    education curricula and institutionalized,
    systematic and regular pre- and in-service
    trainings for professionals working with children
    is the major barrier for staff specialization.
  • Lack of a results-based performance monitoring
    and evaluation system
  • Ineffective internal and external monitoring
    mechanisms
  • institutions lack a self-assessment of their
    performance, strengths and weaknesses. The
    absence of an independent external monitoring
    mechanism and lack of monitoring standards and
    criteria
  • Reactive policy changes without strategic
    planning

31
Rural vs Urban Issues
  • respondents in rural settings were more likely to
    indicate they were required to report cases of
    physical abuse in the home (77) compared to
    their urban counterparts (62)
  • more likely to indicate that they would report
    such a case (80) compared to professionals in
    urban settings (70).
  • Data suggest the same response pattern for
    physical abuse in the school, with rural
    respondents more likely to indicate both a
    requirement to report and the likelihood that
    they would report compared to urban respondents.
  • Rural more likely to say they would report the
    depicted case of emotional maltreatment (96)
    compared to their counterparts serving both urban
    and rural settings (86).
  • Significance cannot be determined due to
    non-random sample.

32
Urban vs Rural Issues
  • Violence against children is more reported in
    urban areas, whilst in villages there cannot be
    too many reported cases due to the general
    mentality. There is no denouncement from rural
    areas. (Albania)
  • In rural areas it is generally perceived that
    violence is harder to identify and there are
    fewer mechanisms for follow up, while in a cities
    some things are more accessible (posters,
    information, institutions). (BiH)
  • NOTE No significant differences in how
    participants responded to case scenarios
    regarding their assessment of needed services and
    available services for the children and families
    depicted.

33
Rural vs Urban Issues
34
Policy Changes, Promising Practices and Reform
Areas
  • We know that there is a new law on family
    protection, but no further information has been
    provided to service providers at the local level.
    Even if someone goes and participates to a
    training, there is no practice of sharing the
    info with the others in the institution.
    (Turkey)
  • The mechanisms for childrens protection exist
    but the issue is how accessible it is and that
    depends from the information the family have and
    self-awareness to use it. (Albania)
  • what we have is a jumble of laws, changes are
    sometimes made, relevant for our work, but we
    have no information on them. (Serbia

35
Reform Areas
  • If we want to talk about a reform, it should be
    planned and sustainable, not a temporary solution
    to an urgent problem.

36
ChallengesIdentification, Reporting, and
Recording of Cases of Violence Against Children
  • Social acceptance
  • Vague terms of reference
  • Lack of guidelines for professionals
  • Complicated reporting mechanisms
  • Lack of an effective recording system
  • Non-regulated information sharing

37
ChallengesReferral of Cases, Sufficiency of
Services and Follow-up
  • Lack of guidelines for professionals
  • Lack of services
  • Lack of prevention initiatives that would target
    family support and public education as well as
    perpetrator accountability and rehabilitation.
  • Poor service coordination
  • Lack of local capacities to expand social
    protection services throughout each country
    resulting in poor service coordination and
    availability, especially within rural
    communities.

38
ChallengesStaff Training and Supervision,
Monitoring and Complaint Mechanisms
  • Lack of Resources
  • Lack of sustainable resources to support
    implementation of legislation and best practices
    around service delivery.
  • Lack of staff specialization
  • Ineffective internal and external monitoring
    mechanisms
  • Underdeveloped mechanisms for monitoring and
    evaluation of staff working with vulnerable
    children (institutionalized/criminalized
    children).

39
Strengths of the Current CP System
  • There is a general consensus among service
    providers that VAC should be defined broadly in a
    way to cover not only physical and sexual
    violence but also emotional abuse and neglect.
  • There is a relatively new and comprehensive
    legislative basis for responding to cases of VAC
    within each country.
  • Despite many problems noted about staff policies
    during the interviews, it was observed that there
    is a group of professionals within each country
    and across sectors who are motivated to find
    creative ways to overcome the challenges of the
    system. These practices can bring about
    significant improvements to the system if they
    are monitored, assessed, and appreciated.

40
Challenges of the Current CP System
  • All four countries have recently developed
    legislation and policies to address violence
    against children, yet the system of child
    protection across the region continues to face
    multiple challenges such as
  • An underdeveloped multi-sectoral referral system
    amongst support services designed to address
    issues of VAC (such as medical institutions,
    NGOs, counseling, social and legal services and
    police)
  • Lack of awareness of the legislation pertaining
    to the identification, recording and reporting of
    VAC cases among employees of service provision
    institutions at the local practice level.

41
Promising practices
  • Initiatives designed to define all the procedures
    of intervention for a child at risk within
    sectors as well as the necessary
    sectoral/institutional cooperation for referring
    and managing the cases of violence.
  • Initiatives designed to improve the education and
    training (both pre-service and inservice) of
    professionals working with violence against
    children cases
  • Initiatives that support a particular institution
    (such as child protection units or centres for
    social work) as key stakeholders in the
    streamlining of VAC cases, including monitoring
    and evaluation within effective case management
    processes.

42
Promising Practices Continued
  • Initiatives that promote cooperation and service
    coordination between sectors in the best
    interests of children (such as cross-sectoral
    training and coordination protocols)
  • Initiatives that encourage prevention such as
    programs within schools, community working
    groups, and public education programming and
    materials.
  • Initiatives that focus on developing software to
    streamline data collection for aggregation and
    analysis to inform service and policy decisions.
  • Initiatives involving the Ombudsman/HR Presidency
    office within each country which address current
    issues around VAC cases.
  • Initiatives that involve building on current
    programs within schools (like the health
    visiting).

43
Conclusions
  • Overall, while exploratory only, results suggest
    a family support orientation of service providers
    towards intervening in cases of violence against
    children rather than a more punitive approach,
    evidenced by the strong importance attached to
    education and counselling versus punishment.
  • Many of the recommendations require working from
    the ground up to bring to the attention of
    decision makers. However, in order to influence
    change, these decision makers at high levels
    within each sector need to form avenues for
    cross-sectoral collaboration towards improving
    the system of child protection within each
    country. This is where UNICEF has been pivotal
    within this project. When powerful groups come
    together and agree on steps for change, it is
    most likely to happen.

44
Recommendations
  • Develop pathways for accountability
  • Improve referral mechanisms and inter-sectoral
  • communication/collaboration
  • Build public/community awareness of the issues of
  • VAC
  • Improve service availability and capacity for
    child
  • victims and families
  • 5) Evaluation and Expansion of promising
    practices

45
1. Develop Pathways for Accountability
  • Administration and enforcement of policy continue
    to be the main issue the central governmental
    body in charge of implementation of all policy
    directions dealing with VAC should be clearly
    identified, and made independent, influential and
    with clear roles and responsibilities as well as
    funding available to administer measures and
    changes foreseen for all national and local
    stakeholders.
  • Budget planning at the organizational/institutiona
    l level should take into consideration legal
    provisions related to the implementation of
    measures for identification, reporting and
    response to violence.
  • There is a need to establish a consistent
    mechanism for data recording and collection along
    with an information sharing system.

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2. Improve referral mechanisms and
inter-sectoral communication/collaboration
  • Referral mechanisms require clear instructions on
    the roles and responsibilities and capacities
    needed within and between institutions.
  • Collaboration between sectors remains a challenge
    - regulation of the exchange of data on
    individual cases and obligatory cross-sectoral
    cooperation and provision of feedback between
    police, social protection, health care and other
    stakeholders are necessary for continuous
    improvements in service delivery and resource
    optimization.

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3. Build public/community awareness of the
issues of VAC
  • Education and training to change public
    (especially media) and professional perceptions
    of violence against children and responses to it
    are missing to support systemic change and
    promote early intervention and prevention
    efforts.
  • Campaigns aimed at changing societal attitudes
    towards the use of physical punishment in the
    home and school settings may be required.

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4. Improve service availability and capacity
for child victims and families
  • Available services are a major concern, with
    specialized programs and sustainable funding at
    the heart of the issue. Therefore, specialized
    (sometimes sector specific, such as for judges)
    training programmes for professionals are needed.
  • The current capacity within institutions
    responsible for social and child protection (such
    as Centres for Social Work, where they exist
    within countries) is not sufficient to deliver
    all the services that are under the Centres
    responsibilities. The Centres lack personnel,
    particularly psychologists and social workers,
    and in many cases the status of is considered
    socially low and limits their effective impact.
    Further work needs to be done in informing
    professionals about all legal documents and
    instruments for the protection of children from
    violence.

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5. Expansion of promising practices
  • The number of prevention initiatives within all
    of the countries has been noted as promising.

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Where do we go from here?From Recommendations to
Reality
  • Developing Pathways for Accountability
  • Determine single entity for Accountability (e.g.
    in Canada Governmental Body determines standards
    of child protection and a system of monitoring
    those standards)
  • Building and Strengthening Public Community
    Awareness on Violence Against Children
  • Long term process of attitudinal change through
    social advocacy and legislative progress (e.g.
    Corporal Punishment Laws coupled with Social
    Education Campaigns in Sweden)

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Where do we go from here?From Recommendations to
Reality
  • 3. Improving Referral Mechanisms and
    Inter-Sectoral Communication/Collaboration
  • Develop protocols for professional bodies (e.g.
    UK, roles and competencies for Health Care Staff)
  • 4. Improving Service Quality, Availability and
    Capacity for Child Victims and Their Families
  • Secure adequate funding, use of evaluation, make
    use of available data (e.g. Campbell
    Collaboration), improve education and training
    systems (e.g. implementing Schools of Social
    Work)

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How Policy Impacts Practice A Canadian Example
  • The Policy Change
  • Domestic Violence and Child Protection
  • amendments to the child welfare legislation
    (Ontario Child and Family Services Act) in 2000
    which included exposure to domestic violence as a
    potential risk factor for child maltreatment
    resulted in a significant increase in reporting
    of children who are exposed to woman abuse to
    child welfare authorities.

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The Result
  • Data from both the 1993 and 1998 Ontario
    incidence studies of reported child abuse and
    neglect found an astounding 370 increase in
    substantiated emotional maltreatment reports
    largely as a result of exposure to domestic
    violence (Trocmé et al., 2002).
  • Exposure to domestic violence is the most
    frequently substantiated form of child
    maltreatment in Ontario and of the cases reported
    over two thirds (about 70) of these cases were
    substantiated (Trocmé et al., 2003).
  • The Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child
    Abuse and Neglect (CIS-2003) indicates that the
    rate of exposure to domestic violence increased
    by 28 over the last five years.

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Impact of the LegislationPositive Impacts
  • I dont think there is a debate today about the
    harm that is caused to children that are living
    in these situations. I think the totality of the
    changes to the legislation plus the understanding
    that we have today of how serious this is, in
    terms of its impact on children have enabled a
    better protection response, at least in terms of
    reporting and hopefully in terms of being part of
    a coordinated response to the problem then we had
    before.
  • Child
    Welfare Worker

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Impact of the LegislationNegative Impacts
  • I think sometimes we may intervene in ways
    that may also be harmful, like taking a kid out
    of a home is harmful. If you apprehend a child
    because you think the situation needs that and
    then you go to court and.the judge doesnt agree
    sometimes and the kid gets sent homewhat
    messages has that family had, is that child any
    safer and dad is in the home.
  • Child Welfare Participant

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Impact of the LegislationSuggested Improvements
  • I think the Act needs to be clarified and there
    needs to be less ambiguity about reporting in the
    case of intimate partner violence or violence in
    the home. I would like to see communication
    strategy with resources being put into
    communications for both the provider and for the
    client or potential client.
  • Health
    Care Provider

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Systemic Service IssuesSectoral Isolation
  • Isolation between sectors occurs due to
  • Differing interpretations of CFSA
  • Conflicting mandates of service provision
  • Competition for scarce resources
  • Unfamiliarity with other sector roles and
    responsibilities
  • Lack of communication
  • Perceived power imbalances between systems
  • Lack of training

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Systemic Service IssuesCoordinated,
Integrated and Culturally Based Services
  • Delivery of Services seems to occur more smoothly
    when
  • Internal policies specific to domestic violence
    (DV) are in place
  • Agreed upon protocols have been established and
    implemented
  • Professionals are trained in DV and woman abuse
    specifically
  • Meetings are held between sectors to identify and
    find solutions for dilemmas
  • Specialists are available (DV teams, Liaison
    Workers etc.)
  • Services and interventions are culturally
    based/informed

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A Word About Implementing New Models
  • Often reactive responses to issues e.g. DV/child
    welfare policy a result of a rash of domestic
    homicides in which children were present
  • The Ontario Risk Assessment Model was the first
    attempt to standardize risk assessment
  • Moved to an Actuarial Risk Assessment Model
  • Differential Response
  • Differential Response assumes that each case is
    different and does not require the same level of
    response from child welfare
  • adopted from models tested in the US but not yet
    evaluated within the Ontario context

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Thank You
  • Questions?
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