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(r. 1924-1953)

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(r. 1924-1953) Ideas are far more powerful than guns. We don't allow our enemies to have guns, why should we allow them to have ideas? - STALIN 20+ Million ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: (r. 1924-1953)


1
JOSEPH STALIN
  • (r. 1924-1953)

2
BIOGRAPHY
  • 1878 1953
  • Joseph Dzhugashvili
  • Gori, Georgia
  • Peasant Father Boot maker
  • Pocky (Age 7)
  • 1899 expelled from Seminary School
  • 1902 imprisoned exiled to Siberia
  • 1904 Escaped Siberia
  • 1905 met Lenin
  • 1911 editor of Pravda
  • 1917 Commissar of Nationalities

3
RISE TO POWER
  • 1878 1953
  • Man of Steel
  • Socialism in One Country
  • General Secretary of the Communist Party (1922)
  • Power command of bureaucratic and
    administrative control
  • Admission to the party and promotion within it
  • 10,000 appointments regional, district, city ,
    and town party secretaries

4
WE ARE FIFTY OR ONE HUNDRED YEARS BEHIND THE
ADVANCE COUNTRIES. WE MUST MAKE GOOD THIS
DISTANCE IN TEN YEARS - Stalin
5
TROTSKY vs. STALIN
  • Lev Davidovich Bronshtein
  • Trotsky (1879 1940)
  • Commissar for War
  • Leader of the Red Army
  • Permanent Revolution
  • World Revolution
  • Left wing Bolsheviks
  • 1927 expelled from the Communist party
  • 1929 exiled from Russia

6
MARISM-LENINISM-STALINISM
  • Revokes the NEP
  • Five-Year Plans Rapid Industrialization
  • Collectivization - Agricultural
  • Revolution from above
  • Cultural Revolution
  • Worker/Police State
  • Totalitarian Dictatorship
  • Cult of Personality

7
FIVE-YEAR PLANS
  • 5 YEAR PLANS (1928) first of many
  • Economic, social, and political revolution
  • Rapid Industrialization
  • Revoked the NEP (too capitalistic)
  • Iron, Steel, machines, electric, transportation
  • Economic Growth Heavy Industry
  • 111 coal, 200 iron, 335 electric production
  • Increased output higher wages, better housing
  • 2nd only to the U.S

8
FIVE-YEAR PLANS
  • 25 million migrated to cities
  • Production 1928-1937 4xs
  • Hired Foreign Engineers
  • Unemployment unknown
  • Women worked in factories
  • Personal Advancement incentives, pensions,
    education, medical services

9
FIVE-YEAR PLANS
  • 1928-1937
  • Steel production 4 million to 18 million tons
  • Coal output 36 to 128 million tons
  • Production of capital goods and armaments
  • Quadrupled production of heavy machinery
  • Doubled oil production
  • Weapons increase tenfold or more
  • Real wages declined 43 b/w 1928-1940
  • Housing and consumer goods declined
  • Human cost?

10
JOSEPH STALIN
  • WORKER STATE right to employment, leisure
    time, annual paid vacations, social security,
    old-age, accident, sickness insurance, medical
    and hospital care
  • Labor Conditions? lateness, absence, fined sent
    to Labor Camps
  • GULAG

11
GULAG
  • Glavnoe Upravlenie ispravitelno-trudovykh
    LAGerei
  • Main administration of Corrective Labor Camps
  • Soviet system of forced labor camps
  • Origins 1917 Revolution
  • Height during the reign of Stalin
  • White Sea-Baltic Sea Canal (1931-33) 141 mile
    canal
  • 100,000 prisoners pickaxes, shovels, wheel
    barrels created in just 20 months SUCCESS?
  • Kolyma - harshest of all the camps means death
  • Arctic region harsh temperatures, insufficient
    rations, sleep, and clothing 12-16 hour work
    day

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GULAG
  • More people passed through the GULAG than the
    Nazi concentration camps yet, the GULAG is still
    not nearly as well know. WHY?
  • Nazi camps used to exterminate
  • GULAG weapon of ongoing political control over
    one country
  • trials 5 minutes sentences 8-10 years
  • Article 58 (1928) anti-Soviet activity
  • 25 political prisoners
  • Mining, rail construction, arms chemical
    factories, electricity plants, fish canning,
    airport, apartment, and sewage construction

16
COLLECTIVIZATION
  • Collective Farms or Collectivization (1929)
  • Agricultural output
  • 25 Million Farmers
  • Forced farmers to pool their land, livestock,
    equipment
  • Lenins NEP produced Kulaks well-to-do peasants
    peasant capitalists - or anyone who resisted
    collectivization
  • refused 1932 entire class eliminated forced
    labor camps, or killed
  • liquidation of the entire class
  • Artificial famine 10 million died

17
COLLECTIVIZATION
  • Peasants cursed problem
  • War against peasants
  • New socialist state
  • 1929 forced consolidation peasant farms state
    controlled
  • Kulaks refused 5 million liquidated
  • Output 1928-38 identical to 1913

18
COLLECTIVIZATION
  • Wide spread famine
  • Ukraine 1932-33 approximately 6 million died
  • Millions migrated to cities
  • Overcrowding, sewage, housing
  • OUTCOME Production of food did not increase

19
Annihilate the Kulaks as a class! c. 1929
20
TERROR
  • Secret Police (NKDV), Purge Trials (1936-1939)
    accused of disloyalty enemies
  • 1937-1938 Great Terror
  • Shot 1500 people a day
  • Eliminate opposition - - high Soviet leaders,
    civilian party members, major party leaders, army
    officers, diplomats, intellectuals, Old Bolsheviks

21
PURGE TRIALS
  • Mid 1930s
  • Officials, workers, peasants, intellectuals,
    military
  • Sergei Kirov (1888-1934)- 2 man assassinated
  • Millions killed, exiled, sent to labor camps
  • OUTCOME consolidation of power new Communists
    loyal to Stalin

22
STALIN TODAY
  • What role did Stalin play in the history of our
    country?
  • POSITIVE 53
  • NEGATIVE 33
  • Had difficulty answering the question 14
  • 2003 50th anniversary of Stalins death
  • BBC World News Service

23
JOSEPH STALIN
  • 1878 1953
  • Preserved some revolutionary goals
  • No hereditary Czar, no privileged class, improved
    standard of living
  • New upper class professionals, factory managers

24
CULT OF PERSONALITY
  • Single leader
  • Revolutionary transformation
  • Treated as a benevolent "guide" for the nation
  • Transformation to a better future cannot occur
    without him
  • Superman
  • Propaganda
  • Hero Worship Uncle Joe

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A single death is a tragedy, a million is a
statistic - STALIN
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Ideas are far more powerful than guns. We don't
allow our enemies to have guns, why should we
allow them to have ideas? - STALIN
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20 Million Deaths Starvation, Forced Labor
Camps, Purges
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