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What are the basic building blocks of matter?

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What are the basic building blocks of matter? Empedocles Earth, Air, Water, Fire Democritus Nothing exists except atoms and space; everything else is ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What are the basic building blocks of matter?


1
What are the basic building blocks of matter?
  • Empedocles Earth, Air, Water, Fire
  • Democritus Nothing exists except atoms and
    space everything else is opinion
  • Everything existing in the universe is the fruit
    of chance and necessity.
  • Atoms

2
Leave it to the Chemists
  • Antoine Lavoisier Changed fanciful names to
    meaningful names, eg. Flowers of Zinc ? Zinc
    Oxide
  • Different Gasses in air
  • Phases of matter
  • Water Hydrogen Oxygen (18)

3
Dalton and Mendeleev
  • John Dalton Atoms of different sizes are
    multiples of Hydrogen
  • Mendeleev Group elements by their chemical
    properties and weights
  • Periodic Table (1870) had gaps

4
Michael Faraday and Charge to mass ratios (q/m)
  • Separated Hydrogen and Chlorine
    Ions (Electrolysis)
  • Particles of electricity in cathode rays
  • Other Faraday things . . .
  • electric motors
  • electromagnetic induction
  • fields

5
What keeps the elements together?
  • Gravity
  • Electricity
  • Magnetism
  • Optics
  • Unification Electricity Magnetism Optics
    Electromagnetism

6
More on Unification
  • Electricity can produce magnetism
  • Magnetism can (sort of) produce electricity
  • Electricity produces magnetism in more than one
    way
  • Waves of Electricity and Magnetism. Speed of
    these waves 3 108 m/s!!

7
How do these Forces Work?
  • Newton Action at a distance
  • Inverse Square Law
  • Faraday Fields

8
Back to the Particles . . .
  • What does the atom look like?
  • J.J. Thomson Plum Pudding model
  • Ernest Rutherford Nuclear Atom
  • Scattering experiments with alphas on Gold

9
An aside on Radioactivity
  • Three types of Radioactivity
  • Alphas Positively charged Helium nuclei can
    be stopped by paper
  • Betas Negatively charged electrons stopped by
    light metals
  • Gammas Uncharged electromagnetic radiation
    stopped by thick sheets of lead

10
Back to the nuclear atom . .
  • Positively charged center with electrons
    (Particles of electricity) revolving around
  • What, if anything, is between electrons and
    nucleus?
  • Empty space Democritus vacuum
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