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Unit One TEXT I Hit the Nail on the Head ????;????)

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Title: Unit One TEXT I Hit the Nail on the Head ????;????)


1
Unit One TEXT I Hit the Nail on the
Head ????????)
  • Time allotment ( 9 periods) (the first 3
    periods)
  • Teaching aims
  • Students shall have a general idea of the text,
    background knowledge.
  • Main and difficult teaching points
  • The main idea
  • Background knowledge
  • Organization of the Text
  • I. Pre-reading Questions
  • 1. Suggested Answer (SA) It means exactly right
    in words or action.
  • 2. SA The author advises that the English
    students should try to get the words, phrases and
    sentences completely right for their purposes in
    their writing.

2
I       Pre-reading Brainstorming
  • 1)     What does the proverb Hit the nail on the
    head mean?

3
It means exactly right in words or action
4
2)     Why does the author encourage people to
Hit the nail on the head mean?
  • l Note Hit the (right) nail on the head be
    exactly right in words   or action
    (?/???????,????,??)
  • E.g. Your analysis really hit the nail on the
    head.

5
The author advises that the English students
should try to get the words, phrases and
sentences completely right for their purposes in
their writing
6
  • III. Library Work
  • 1. 1) Gustave Flaubert (1821 1880), French
    novelist, was associated with, though not
    representative of, the movement of naturalism and
    known as one of the greatest realists of
    19th-century France. He devoted his life to long
    hours spent in heavy toil over his work. His
    writing is marked by exactness and accuracy of
    observation, extreme impersonality and
    objectivity of treatment, and precision and
    expressiveness in style, or the principle of the
    mot juste.

7
  • 1. 2) Mrs. Malaprop is a famous character in
    Sheridans comedy The Rivals (1775). She is noted
    for her blunders in the use of words. As
    headstrong(?????) as an allegory(????)
    (alligator) on the banks of the Nile is one of
    her grotesque(???)misapplications. She also
    requests that no delusions(????)(allusions) to
    the past be made. She has given us the word
    malapropism(????,???????????????)as a name for
    such mistakes.

8
  • 2. Hindi(???)is a literary and official language
    of northern India. Swahili(?????)is a Bantu(??)
    language that is a trade and governmental
    language over much of East Africa and in the
    Congo region. Bantus are people belonging to a
    group of tribes found in equatorial and southern
    Africa.
  • IV. Organization of the Text
  • 1. An analogy between the unskilled use of the
    hammer and the improper choice of words
    (Paragraph 1)

9
  • 2. The significance of finding the right words
    (Paragraphs 2 --- 3)
  • 3. Semantic differences between words having the
    same root (Paragraphs 4 --- 7)
  • (1). Example 1 (human vs. humane)
    (Paragraph 4)
  • (2). Example 2 (anxiety vs. eagerness) (Paragraph
    5)
  • (3). Example 3 (singularity vs. singleness)
    (Paragraphs 6 7)

10
  • 4. Wrong choice of words caused by failure to
    recognize their connotations (Paragraph 8)
  • Examples imprison, contain, sum up, epitomize
    and distill
  • 5. Stylistic differences between synonyms
    (Paragraph 9)
  • Examples in my childhood vs. when I was a child
    love to watch vs. love watching die vs. expire
    poor vs. in indigent circum-stances

11
  • 6. The abundance of specific words in English for
    general notions (Paragraph 10)
  • 7. Conclusion (Paragraph 11) the importance of a
    good control and command over known words (A good
    writer is not measured by the extent of his
    vocabulary, but by his skill in finding the word
    that will hit the nail cleanly on the head. )

12
Functions of analogy
  • 1.to explain
  • 2.to bring descriptions into life.
  • 3.to make a special kind of comparison and to
    explain things in a more concrete way.
  • 4.to show similarities between two things of
    different classes.
  • 5.to be meaningful.

13
  • V. Key Points of the Text
  • Paragraph 1
  • knock over hit to fall ??
  • drive something home force (the nail) into the
    right place make something unmistakably clear
    ?(???)???????
  • E.g. (1). He slammed the door and drove the bolt
    home. ??????,??????
  • (2). drive ones point home ????????
  • (3). a voice that drives home each word ????????

14
  • (4). To drive home his policy, the president
    wrote his second letter. ????????,??????????
  • (5). You must drive it home to John that we dont
    have enough money. ????????????????
  • deft effortlessly skillful ???
  • hit it squarely on the head hitting it directly
    on the head. Also hit the (right) nail on the
    head (informal) be exactly right in words or
    action ?????????,???

15
  • E.g. (1). Your criticism really hit the nail on
    the head. ???????????
  • (2). In so saying, you hit the right nail on the
    head. ???????????
  • squarely meaning directly, may be used both
    literally and figuratively.
  • E.g. (1). The boxer hit his opponent squarely
    on the jaw.
  • (2). We must face the difficulty squarely.

16
Paragraph 1
  • clean English English that is exact (precise)
    and clear
  • a word that is more or less right a word that is
    almost right, but not completely right ????????
  • Question 1 Which phrase in this paragraph marks
    a contrast between a clumsy man and a skillful
    carpenter?
  • SA On the other hand.

17
Paragraph 1
  • Question 1 Which sentence in Paragraph 1
    establishes the link between the driving of a
    nail and the choice of a word?
  • SA So with language the good craftsman will
    choose words that drive home his point firmly and
    exactly.

18
SA So with language the good craftsman will
choose words that drive home his point firmly
and exactly.
19
  • Paragraph 2
  • Question What does the word this in Sentence
    1 refer to?
  • SA Getting the word that is completely right for
    the writers purpose.
  • scrupulous writers writers who are thorough,
    exact, and who pay careful attention to details
    ???????

20
  • scrupulous correct even in the smallest detail
    exact painstaking meticulous ?????, ???
  • unscrupulous ?????, ?????, the opposite of
    scrupulous, seems to be more often used to
    describe people who do not care about honesty and
    fairness in getting what they want, or who are
    completely without principles. Also by hook or
    (by) crook to win by hook or crook

21
Paragraph 2
  • Question Do you agree with the author that
    there is a great deal of truth in the seemingly
    stupid question How can I know what I think till
    I see what I say? Why or why not?

22
Paragraph 2
  • SA Yes, I do. It sounds irrational that a person
    does not know what he himself thinks before he
    sees what he says, but, as a matter of fact, it
    is quite true that unless we have found the exact
    words to verbalize our own thoughts we can never
    be very sure of what our thoughts are, without
    words, our thoughts cannot be defined or stated
    in a clear and precise manner.

23
  • Paragraph 3
  • that constitutes his limitation that makes or
    forms his shortcoming or inability in certain
    respects
  • concept vs. conception
  • A concept is an idea of a category or kind that
    has been generalized from particular instances.
    Thus, the concept of cat arises form the many
    cats we see. Concept also refers to a widely held
    idea of what something is or should be The
    concept of

24
  • government of many small nations has been
    influenced by the legislative and judicial
    institutions of Britain.
  • The meaning of conception is much like this
    second sense of concept, but differs in that the
    idea of what a thing is or should be is here held
    by an individual or small group and is often
    colored by imagination and feeling A childs
    conception of the universe is formed by his
    limited experience and his own fancies.

25
  • your conception of the man is clearer and
    sharper your idea of the man is clearer and more
    distinct
  • sharp a word that has a variety of meanings
  • E.g. a sharp (thrill) voice ?????
  • sharp (harsh) words
  • a sharp (severe) pain

26
Paragraph 3
  • Question 3 What is the significance of finding
    the right words?

27
Words are many and various they are subtle and
delicate in their different shades of meaning.
The exact use of language gives us mastery over
the material we are dealing with.
28
Paragraph 4
  • human vs. humane
  • human relating to or characteristic of humankind
    or people
  • E.g. human action action taken by man ????
  • To err is human to forgive, divine.
    ?????????????
  • human killer a person or a machine that kills
    humans ????????

29
  • humane having or showing compassion or
    benevolence characterized by kindness, mercy,
    sympathy
  • E.g. humane action merciful action ?????
  • humane killer that which kills but causes little
    pain instrument for painless slaughter of
    animals ???????,???????
  • Paragraph 5
  • far afield far away from home to or at a great
    distance very far away ???, ??

30
  • Paragraph 6
  • cowardice lack of courage ??, ??
  • rife widespread, common(???,???). Rife is an
    adjective used with something negative.
  • E.g. (1). Crime and violence were rife in this
    city before liberation.
  • (2). Typhoid fever (Poultry flu) is rife.
    ????(???)???
  • (3). Corruption (Unemployment) is still rife in
    that country. ??????????(????)?

31
  • (4). The whole city is rife with rumors. ???????
  • (5). This article is rife with error. ?????????
  • (6). The country was rife with disease and
    violence. ??????????????
  • (7). Diseases used to be rife in that country.
  • singularity vs. singleness
  • singularity strangeness, oddity, peculiarity ??,
    ??, ??
  • E.g. singularity of mind ????????

32
  • singleness complete devotion to holding
    steadfastly to
  • E.g. singleness of mind ????, ????
  • Paragraph 7
  • malapropism an often amusing misuse of a word,
    such that the word incorrectly used sounds
    similar to the intended word but means something
    quite different ????(???????????????)

33
  • hold to (cause to) follow exactly, keep to
    (something such as a promise) adhere to??,??,??
  • E.g. (1). Whatever your argument, I shall hold
    to my decision.
  • (2). The priest held to his beliefs in spite of
    cruel treatment.
  • (3). He holds to a simple life. ???????????

34
  • (4). He held to his own counsel. ???????????
  • (5). I hold to my promise. ??????
  • draw aside (cause to) move to one side
  • E.g. (1). Drawing the curtain aside, he looked
    down into the street.
  • (2). The crowd drew aside to let the prisoner
    pass.
  • Paragraph 8
  • Question Explain why the word imprison in the
    example given in this paragraph, though not a
    malapropism, is still not the right word for the
    writers purpose.

35
  • SA Malapropism means the unintentional misuse
    of a word by confusing it with one that resembles
    it, such as human for humane, singularity for
    singleness. But the misuse of imprison is a
    different case. It is wrongly chosen because the
    user has failed to recognize its connotation(??).
  • imprison put into prison or keep in a place or
    state which one is not free to leave ??, ?? ??,
    ??

36
  • coercion pressure, compulsion government by
    force ??,??????
  • E.g. the coercion of public opinion?????
  • coerce v.t. ??????
  • E.g. coerce somebody into doing something
    ???????
  • coerce uniformity ????
  • coercive adj. coercionary adj. serving or
    intended to coerce
  • E.g. coercive methods (measures) ?????(??)

37
  • coercible adj.
  • epitomize be typical of serve as the typical
    example of ??,??,??,? ???,? ???
  • E.g. (1). He was the man who epitomized black
    resistance to the colonial government.
    ????????????????
  • (2). His political creed was epitomized in this
    report. ????????????????

38
  • epitome n. ? a thing or person that shows, to a
    very great degree, a quality or set of qualities
    (especially in the phrase the epitome of)
    ??,????
  • ? a short account of a book or speech ????,??
  • E.g. (1). She is the epitome of arrogance.
    ????????
  • (2). My cat is the epitome of laziness ( My cat
    is very lazy.).

39
  • hit on strike on find by lucky chance or have a
    good idea about(?????)???? ????
  • E.g. (1). I hit on this interesting book in a
    small bookstore. ????????????????????
  • (2). The plan we hit upon was not logical,
    perhaps, but it worked. ????????????????,???????
  • (3). How did you hit on the right answer so
    quickly?

40
  • (4). At last someone hit upon taking the other
    road through the mountains.
  • distill take and separate the most important
    parts of (a book, a subject, etc.) ??
  • E.g. distill the essence of ?????
  • alive sensitive alert
  • Paragraph 9
  • disprove vs. disapprove

41
  • disprove prove to be contrary refute ??,????
  • E.g. (1). find a charge hard to disprove
    ???????????
  • (2). He could not disprove the major contention
    of his opponents. ????????????
  • Compare disapprove have a bad opinion for moral
    reasons (of) ?????????????????(of)

42
  • E.g. (1). She disapproved the arrangements for
    the wedding.
  • (2). The court disapproved the verdict.
    ????????????
  • (3). Jims father disapproved of his marriage to
    Mary. Jim????????Mary????
  • (4). He disapproved of her. ?????

43
  • expire die pass away come to an end ????
  • indigent poor lacking money and goods
    poverty-stricken penniless ???,???
  • Paragraph 10
  • march walk with firm regular steps like a
    soldier ????, ??

44
  • pace walk with slow, steady steps, especially
    backwards and forwards ???
  • patrol go at regular times round (an area,
    building, etc.) to see that there is no trouble,
    that no one is trying to get in or out illegally,
    etc. ??,??
  • stride walk with long steps or cross with one
    long step ?????,?

45
  • stalk walk stiffly, proudly, or with long steps
    ??????
  • strut walk proudly or stiffly, especially with
    the chest pushed forward and trying to look
    important ??????,??????
  • tread step on ?, ??
  • tramp walk (through or over) with firm heavy
    steps ????????

46
Paragraph 10
  • step out (AmE) go outside or go somewhere (??)
    ????
  • prance move quickly, happily or proudly with a
    springing or dancing step ????

47
  • prowl (of an animal looking for food, or of a
    thief) move about (an area) quietly, trying not
    to be seen or heard ??,????
  • E.g. beasts prowling after their prey ???????

48
Paragraph 10
  • sidle (up) walk as if ready to turn and go the
    other way, especially secretively or
    nervously(???????????)????
  • E.g. He sidled up to the stranger in the street
    and tried to sell him the stolen ring.
    ???,?????????????????????????

49
Paragraph 10
  • creep move slowly and quietly with the body
    close to the ground ????,?? ??????
  • E.g. The cat crept silently towards the mouse.
    ???????????
  • The policeman crept up on the criminal and
    seized him from behind. ????????,??????????

50
Paragraph 10
  • plod (especially along, on) walk slowly,
    especially with difficulty and great effort
    trudge ??????,????
  • E.g. The old man plods along, hardly able to
    lift each foot. ??????????,??????????

51
Paragraph 10
  • trudge walk with heavy steps, slowly and with
    effort (plod) ??????, ??
  • E.g. He had to trudge (for) 20 miles to get
    home. ????20???????
  • shuffle walk by dragging ones feet slowly
    along ????,?????

52
  • stagger walk or move unsteadily and with great
    difficulty, almost falling ??,??,??
  • E.g. He was staggering along as if drunk.
    ?????????,?????????
  • toddle walk with short unsteady steps, as a
    small child does ????,??????

53
Paragraph 10
  • stroll walk a short distance slowly or lazily,
    especially for pleasure ??????
  • ramble (about, through, among) go on a long
    walk with no particular plan ????

54
Paragraph 10
  • E.g. They rambled through the woods. ?????????
  • We rambled about for hours in the old city.
    ?????????????
  • roam (through, around, about) wander without a
    very clear purpose ??????
  • E.g. At this height hyenas roamed about.
    ????,????????

55
  • saunter walk in an unhurried way, and especially
    in a confident manner (lounge) ????
  • E.g. I sauntered along the street with nothing
    to do. ??????,?????
  • meander (of people) wander in a slow easy way
    ??, ?? (of rivers and streams) flow slowly,
    turning here and there(???)???????????

56
  • lounge (especially about, around) move in a
    lazy, relaxed way, move in leisurely, indolent
    manner (saunter) ??
  • E.g. He lounged about the house, doing nothing
    but getting in our way while we were working.
    ?????,??????,??????,??????
  • loiter move on or move about, stopping often
    ????????
  • E.g. The policemen saw someone loitering near
    the shop. ?????????????.

57
  • Paragraph 11
  • Question 1 What conclusion is drawn by the
    author in this paragraph?
  • SA A good writer is not measured by the extent
    of his vocabulary, but by his skill in finding
    the mot juste, the word that will hit the nail
    cleanly on the head.

58
  • Question The writer begins his article with an
    analogy between the unskilled use of the hammer
    and the improper choice of words. Identify the
    places where the analogy is referred to in the
    rest of the article.
  • SA We dont have to look far afield to find
    evidence of bad carpentry in language.
    (Paragraph 5)

59
  • It is perhaps easier to be a good craftsman with
    wood and nails than a good craftsman with words.
    (Paragraph 9)
  • A good carpenter is not distinguished by the
    number of his tools, but by the craftsmanship
    with which he uses them. So a good writer is not
    measured by the extent of his vocabulary, but by
    his skill in finding the mot juste, the word
    that will hit the nail cleanly on the head.
    (Paragraph 11)

60
  • take courage feel hopeful and confident about
    something
  • E.g. It is a challenging job but take courage
    and work hard at it, and youll be rewarded.

61
VI. SA to Ex. I, P. 1, Workbook
  • 1. So with language the good craftsman will
    choose words that drive home his point firmly and
    exactly.
  • 2. Getting the word that is completely right for
    the writers purpose.

62
VI. SA to Ex. I, P. 1, Workbook
  • 3. Yes, I do. It sounds irrational that a person
    does not know what he himself thinks before he
    sees what he says, but, as a matter of fact, it
    is quite true that unless we have found the exact
    words to verbalize our own thoughts we can never
    be very sure of what our thoughts are, without
    words, our thoughts cannot be defined or stated
    in a clear and precise manner.

63
VI. SA to Ex. I, P. 1, Workbook
  • 4. Malapropism means the unintentional misuse
    of a word by confusing it with one that resembles
    it, such as human for humane, singularity for
    singleness. But the misuse of imprison is a
    different case. It is wrongly chosen because the
    user has failed to recognize its connotation.

64
VI. SA to Ex. I, P. 1, Workbook
  • 5. human characterizing of, or relating to man
  • humane characterized by kindness, mercy,
    sympathy thus
  • human action action taken by man
  • humane action merciful action
  • human killer person that kills humans
  • humane killer that which kills but causes
    little pain

65
VI. SA to Ex. I, P. 1, Workbook
  • 6. Sensitive alert
  • 7. We dont have to look far afield to find
    evidence of bad carpentry in language.
    (Paragraph 5)
  • It is perhaps easier to be a good craftsman with
    wood and nails than a good craftsman with words.
    (Paragraph 9)

66
VI. SA to Ex. I, P. 1, Workbook
  • A good carpenter is not distinguished by the
    number of his tools, but by the craftsmanship
    with which he uses them. So a good writer is not
    measured by the extent of his vocabulary, but by
    his skill in finding the mot juste, the word
    that will hit the nail cleanly on the head.
    (Paragraph 11)

67
VII. SA to Ex. II, P. 2, Workbook
  • 1. A writer who is particular about the exactness
    of an expression in English will never feel happy
    with a word which fails to express an idea
    accurately.

68
VII. SA to Ex. II, P. 2, Workbook
  • 2. To a certain extent, the process of finding
    the right words to use is a process of perfection
    where you try to search for words that may most
    accurately express your thoughts and feelings,
    and words that may most effectively make your
    listeners and readers understand your thoughts
    and feelings.

69
VII. SA to Ex. II, P. 2, Workbook
  • 3. Finding the most suitable word to use is in no
    sense easy. But there is nothing like the delight
    we shall experience when such a word is located.
  • 4. Once we are able to use language accurately,
    we are in a position to fully understand our
    subject matter.

70
VIII. SA to Ex. III, P. 3, Workbook
  • 1. After citing many facts and giving a number of
    statistical figures, he finally drove home his
    point..
  • 2. It took us half a year more or less to carry
    through the research project.
  • 3. What he said was so subtle that we could
    hardly make out his true intention.
  • 4. His new book looks squarely at the
    contemporary social problems.

71
VIII. SA to Ex. III, P. 3, Workbook
  • 5. The younger generation today are very much
    alive to the latest information found on the
    Internet.
  • 6. It is a matter of opinion whether a foreign
    language is more easily learned in ones
    childhood or otherwise.
  • 7. Never loose heart in the face of a setback
    take courage and deal with it squarely.
  • 8. Rice, meat, vegetables, and fruit constitute a
    balanced diet.
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