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Australian Variant


Australian Variant Of English Socio-historical linguistic context convicts sent there: Cockneys, Irish, non-English speaking Welsh and Scots. Cockney the dominant ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Australian Variant

Australian Variant
  • Of English

Socio-historical linguistic context
  • convicts sent there Cockneys, Irish, non-English
    speaking Welsh and Scots.
  • Cockney the dominant dialect
  • Americanization gold rushes (1850s), American
    military personnel in World War II

Influence of Aboriginal languages
  • Almost 440 words
  • names for places, flora and fauna (for example
    dingo, coala, wallaby, billabong )
  • Cooee (/k??.i/) - high-pitched call, for
    attracting attention also a notional distance
    if he's within cooee, we'll spot him.

  • Hard yakka (hard work) is derived from yakka,
    from the Yagara language spoken in the Brisbane
  • Bung - broken or pretending to be hurt.
  • Although didgeridoo, a wooden musical instrument,
    thought to be an Aboriginal word, is now believed
    to be an onomatopoeic word invented by English
    speakers. It may also have an Irish derivation
    because the word dúdaire means "pipe player" in
    Irish Gaelic, and dúdaire dubh dud?r?? du
    means 'black pipe player'

British vs. American
  • TV vs. telly
  • SMS vs. text
  • freeway vs. motorway
  • regional, social and ethnic variation within
    Australia typically defines word usage.

The Influence from Irish English
  • word 'Ta' for Thank You
  • the name of the letter "H" as "haitch" /hæ?t?/
  • bum backside (Irish bun), tucker - food,
    provisions (Irish tacar)
  • paddock field, cf. Irish páirc Australian

Variation of Australian English
Broad Australian English
  • Its used to identify Australian characters in
    non-Australian films and television programs
  • Terms Ocker (a speaker), Strine, (the dialect)
  • Examples are television/film personalities Steve
    Irwin and Paul Hogan.

General Australian accent
  • predominates among modern Australian films and
    television programs
  • is used by the Wiggles, Dannii Minogue, Kylie
    Minogue, Nicole Kidman, Cate Blanchett.

Cultivated Australian English
  • has many similarities to RP, and is often
    mistaken for it
  • spoken by some within Australian society, for
    example Judy Davis and Geoffrey Rush.

Regional differences
  • In Tasmania, words such as "dance" and "grant"
    are usually heard with the older pronunciation of
    these words, using /æ/, whereas in South
    Australia, /a/ is more common
  • fritz in South Australia devon in New South
    Wales Belgium sausage in Tasmania Empire
    sausage in Newcastle polony in West Australia
    Windsor sausage in Queensland German sausage or
    Strasburg in Victoria

  • Kindergarten in New South Wales prep class in
    Victoria and Tasmania reception class in South

Australian Vowels
  • The short vowels, (only monophthongs) mostly
    correspond to the lax vowels used in analyses of
  • The long vowels (both monophthongs and
    diphthongs) mostly correspond to its tense vowels
    and centring diphthongs.
  • a phonemic length distinction certain vowels
    differ only by length.

  • /ai/ instead of /ei/ mate /mait/
  • /a/ in closed syllable /?//b?t/, /fl?t/
    instead of /bæt/, /flæt/ (common with New Zeland

Australian Consonants
  • are similar to those of other non-rhotic
    varieties of English
  • a flapped variant of /t/ and /d/ in similar
    environments, as in American English
  • /dj/, /sj/ and /tj/ into /d?/, /?/ and /t?/, such
    as /t???n/ for tune

  • The Bush (either a native forest or a country
    area in general). Dutch origin 'Bosch'
  • creek - a stream or small river, (in the UK - a
    small watercourse flowing into the sea)
  • Australian English and several British English
    dialects (for example, Cockney, Scouse,
    Glaswegian and Geordie) use the word mate

  • Dinkum (or "fair dinkum") can mean "true", "is
    that true?" or "this is the truth!
  • derived from the Cantonese (or Hokkien) ding kam,
    meaning, "top gold?
  • originated from the extinct East Midlands dialect
    in England, where dinkum (or dincum) meant "hard
    work" or "fair work?
  • The derivative dinky-di means 'true' or devoted
    a 'dinky-di Aussie' is a 'true Australian'.

  • is usually the same as British spelling, with
    only a few exceptions.
  • program is more common than programme
  • jail is prevalent, gaol is generally still used
    in official contexts
  • -our/ or controversies elder or modern spelling
    of words such as labour, flavour etc.

  • Diminutives arvo (afternoon), barbie (barbecue),
    footy (Australian rules football, rugby union
    football or rugby league football), doco
    (documentation), smoko (smoke break).
  • Litotes, such as "you're not wrong"
  • idiomatic phrases and words (have almost
    disappeared from everyday use)cobber, strewth,
    you beaut and crikey. Prawn is used rather than

Regionalisms of XVIII and XIX from
  • sheila (Irish origin) a woman,
  • Bloke a man
  • Seppo an American (Yanks -gt Septic tanks -gt
  • pommy, pommie or pom a British (pommergranate)
  • dust-up a fight, tootsy (? foot)
  • billy (? bally) (Scottish)
  • Larrikin hooligan (Yorksire)
  • to stonker (? to stonk) (Central countries of
  • clobber (? clubbered up ?????????) (Kent)
  • Cockney rhymed slang
  • china plate -gt good mate
  • have a captain Cook -gthave a look
  • Noah's ark -gt Shark

  • past the black stump - being the last outpost
    of civilization
  • shark biscuits - beginners at surfing
  • Wouldn't shout if a shark bit her - a scrooge
    person (shout also means to treat sb to the
  • boomerang - sth that should be returned
  • bush telegraph (moccasin radio/telegraph in
    Canada) ?????????? ?????
  • station  AustrE ????????????????,
    ????????????? ?????
  • to tie up  AustrE ??????????? ???????? ?

Recent borrowings
  • hoon hooligan
  • spunky sexy
  • a dag ?????????????, ???????? ??????? ?????????
    ?????? ???????
  • a rort, to rort ?????? ????????? ??????????,
  • shonky ??????????, ?????, ??????????
  • the Pacific peso

Pseudo-phonetic spelling
  • "owyergoinmateorright? ("How are you going,
    mate? All right?")
  • "yair" for "yes, "noth-think" for "nothing".
  • The book "Let Stalk Strine" by Afferbeck Lauder
    where "Strine" is "Australian" and "Afferbeck
    Lauder" is "alphabetical order
  • Knife a samich? Can I have a sandwich?
  • - Ill gechawun inn a sec Ill get you one in a
  • - Emma chisit? How much is it?
  •  - Attlebee aitninee Thatll be eight ninety.